Materials for Ultra-Supercritical and Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Power Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081005521, 9780081005583

Materials for Ultra-Supercritical and Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Power Plants

1st Edition

Editors: Augusto Di Gianfrancesco
eBook ISBN: 9780081005583
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081005521
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 8th September 2016
Page Count: 900
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Description

Materials for Ultra-Supercritical and Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Power Plants provides researchers in academia and industry with an essential overview of the stronger high-temperature materials required for key process components, such as membrane wall tubes, high-pressure steam piping and headers, superheater tubes, forged rotors, cast components, and bolting and blading for steam turbines in USC power plants. Advanced materials for future advanced ultra-supercritical power plants, such as superalloys, new martensitic and austenitic steels, are also addressed. Chapters on international research directions complete the volume.

The transition from conventional subcritical to supercritical thermal power plants greatly increased power generation efficiency. Now the introductions of the ultra-supercritical (USC) and, in the near future, advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) designs are further efforts to reduce fossil fuel consumption in power plants and the associated carbon dioxide emissions. The higher operating temperatures and pressures found in these new plant types, however, necessitate the use of advanced materials.

Key Features

  • Provides researchers in academia and industry with an authoritative and systematic overview of the stronger high-temperature materials required for both ultra-supercritical and advanced ultra-supercritical power plants
  • Covers materials for critical components in ultra-supercritical power plants, such as boilers, rotors, and turbine blades
  • Addresses advanced materials for future advanced ultra-supercritical power plants, such as superalloys, new martensitic and austenitic steels
  • Includes chapters on technologies for welding technologies

Readership

Professional engineers working on high-temperature materials for USC and A-USC power plants as well as researchers in academia at postgraduate level onwards with an interest in materials for USC and A-USC power plants.

Table of Contents

  • Related titles
  • List of contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  • Preface
  • 1. The fossil fuel power plants technology
    • 1.1. Types of thermal power station
    • 1.2. The coal-fired power generation plants
    • 1.3. The power generation trend: realizing decarbonization through efficiency gains
    • 1.4. Fossil fuels classification
    • 1.5. Power plant overview and main components
  • Part One. Ultra-supercritical power plant materials
    • 2. Low-alloyed steel grades for boilers in ultra-supercritical power plants
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Historical development of low-alloyed steels
      • 2.3. Properties and metallurgy
      • 2.4. Welding and forming
      • 2.5. Service degradation
      • 2.6. Conclusions
    • 3. High-alloyed martensitic steel grades for boilers in ultra-supercritical power plants
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. History of the high-alloyed martensitic steels
      • 3.3. Basic properties and fabrication
      • 3.4. Service experiences
      • 3.5. Basic metallurgy and long-term microstructure stability
      • 3.6. Microstructure instability: Z-phase
      • 3.7. Future perspectives
    • 4. Austenitic steel grades for boilers in ultra-supercritical power plants
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Overview of austenitic steels
      • 4.3. Thermal fatigue
      • 4.4. Sensitization
      • 4.5. Strain-induced precipitation hardening
      • 4.6. Sigma-phase precipitation
      • 4.7. Stress corrosion cracking
      • 4.8. Stress relief cracking
      • 4.9. Secondary hardening
      • 4.10. Dissimilar metal welds
      • 4.11. Conclusions
    • 5. Martensitic steels for cast components in ultra-supercritical power plants
      • 5.1. Material requirements for ultra-supercritical application
      • 5.2. Why cast components are utilized for steam turbine applications
      • 5.3. Casting materials for ultra-supercritical applications
      • 5.4. Manufacturing challenges associated with production of heavy-wall martensitic 9%Cr steel castings
      • 5.5. Bigger, hotter, higher pressure
      • 5.6. Latest alloy developments and state-of-the-art technology
      • 5.7. What is next after ultra-supercritical? Cast materials for advanced ultra-supercritical applications?
      • 5.8. Summary
    • 6. Martensitic steels for rotors in ultra-supercritical power plants
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Common rotor material requirements
      • 6.3. Development of martensitic 9–12%Cr rotor steels for USC application
      • 6.4. Common materials for steam turbine rotors in Europe: fabrication and basic properties
      • 6.5. Present material development for application temperatures above 620°C
      • 6.6. Summary and conclusions
    • 7. Steels and alloys for turbine blades in ultra-supercritical power plants
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Commercial alloys
      • 7.3. Trends in USC steam turbine blading
      • 7.4. Coatings
      • 7.5. Conclusions
    • 8. Technologies for chemical analyses, microstructural and inspection investigations
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Modeling tools
      • 8.3. Nondestructive testing
    • 9. Welding technologies for ultra-supercritical power plant materials
      • 9.1. Introduction: welded fabrication of USC components
      • 9.2. Welding metallurgy of USC materials
      • 9.3. Weldments design, codes and standards, approvals
      • 9.4. Arc welding technology and consumables for USC materials
      • 9.5. Welding procedures, NDT, quality assurance, weldments testing
      • 9.6. Future trends
      • List of acronyms
      • References
  • Part Two. Advanced ultra-supercritical power plant materials
    • 10. New martensitic steels
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Development history and utilization of 9 to 12Cr martensitic steels in coal power plants
      • 10.3. Basic methods of strengthening martensitic 9 to 12Cr steels in creep at elevated temperature
      • 10.4. Degradation in creep strength at long times
      • 10.5. Fundamental aspects of tempered martensitic microstructure and creep deformation
      • 10.6. New martensitic 9Cr steel
      • 10.7. Summary
    • 11. New austenitic steels for the advanced USC power plants
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Future trends
      • 11.3. Sigma phase strengthened concept (Power Austenite)
      • 11.4. Summary
    • 12. Sanicro 25: An advanced high-strength, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steel
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Development of new high-strength austenitic material for high-efficiency coal-fired power plant
      • 12.3. Microstructure
      • 12.4. Creep and rupture behaviors
      • 12.5. Low-cycle fatigue properties
      • 12.6. High-temperature corrosion and steam oxidation behavior
      • 12.7. Weldability
      • 12.8. Fabricability
      • 12.9. Field experiences: testing in boilers
      • 12.10. Future trends
      • 12.11. Conclusions
    • 13. New Japanese materials for A-USC power plants
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Development of boiler tubes and pipes for advanced USC power plants: HR6W, HR35
      • 13.3. Superalloys development in MHPS
      • 13.4. TOS1X
    • 14. INCONEL alloy 740H
      • 14.1. Background/introduction
      • 14.2. Composition
      • 14.3. Microstructure and phase stability
      • 14.4. Mechanical properties
      • 14.5. Corrosion properties
      • 14.6. Manufacturing of mill product forms
      • 14.7. Fabrication of components
      • 14.8. Casting
      • 14.9. Welding
      • 14.10. Summary
    • 15. HAYNES 282 alloy
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. Conclusions
      • 15.3. Future trends
    • 16. Alloy 617 and derivatives
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Metallurgy of Alloy 617
      • 16.3. Properties of Alloy 617 and derivatives
      • 16.4. Fabrication, heat treatment, and welding of Alloy 617 and derivatives
      • 16.5. Experiences from field testing
      • 16.6. Conclusions/outlook
    • 17. Alloy 263
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Physical metallurgy
      • 17.3. Physical properties
      • 17.4. Hot working
      • 17.5. Heat treatment
      • 17.6. Mechanical properties
      • 17.7. Microstructural analyses
      • 17.8. Weldability
      • 17.9. Examples of trial components manufacturing
      • 17.10. Long-term properties
      • 17.11. Chemistry optimization
      • 17.12. Corrosion and oxidation
    • 18. Welding technologies for advanced ultra-supercritical power plants materials
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Experience accumulated in other industrial fields
      • 18.3. Weldability and welding metallurgy (ferritic, austenitic steels and nickel alloys)
      • 18.4. Arc welding consumables development, specific aspects of the welding procedures
      • 18.5. Dissimilar metal welding, repair welding
      • 18.6. Welding of A-USC valves, casings and cast components
      • 18.7. Welding of rotors; ​technologies, fabrication issues, non destructive testing
      • 18.8. Welding of boiler systems
      • List of acronyms
      • References
  • Part Three. Materials’ development programs worldwide
    • 19. Worldwide overview and trend for clean and efficient use of coal
      • 19.1. Introduction
      • 19.2. The role of coal in future global energy needs
      • 19.3. Advantages and disadvantages of coal-fired for power plant boilers
      • 19.4. Carbon capture, use, and storage
      • 19.5. Why CCS
      • 19.6. Tackling climate change
      • 19.7. Industry experience
      • 19.8. Economic importance
      • 19.9. Affordability
      • 19.10. CCS project proposals
      • 19.11. Things about CCS
      • 19.12. Carbon dioxide reuse
      • 19.13. Key points of COP21: long-term goal
      • 19.14. Will coal be on the dole after COP21?
      • 19.15. Future energy: the electricity system now and decarbonized
    • 20. The US DOE/OCDO A-USC materials technology R&D program
      • 20.1. Introduction
      • 20.2. US A-USC materials consortium
      • 20.3. Materials selection
      • 20.4. Boiler materials
      • 20.5. Turbine materials
      • 20.6. The future
      • 20.7. Conclusions
    • 21. The Chinese 700°C A-USC development program
      • 21.1. Introduction
      • 21.2. The foundation of China’s 700°C A-USC coal-fired power generation technology innovation consortium
      • 21.3. The fundamental consideration of China’s 700°C A-USC coal-fired demo plant
      • 21.4. Boiler materials for China’s 700°C A-USC coal-fired demo plant
      • 21.5. Steam turbine materials for China’s 700°C A-USC coal-fired demo plant
      • 21.6. Pilot testing rig for China’s 700°C A-USC coal-fired demo plant
      • 21.7. Structure stability of Inconel 740/740H
      • 21.8. Conclusions
    • 22. Advanced USC technology development in Japan
      • 22.1. Introduction
      • 22.2. Technology development of A-USC in Japan
      • 22.3. Summary and conclusion
    • 23. A-USC R&D programs in other countries
      • 23.1. Introduction
      • 23.2. Indian A-USC program
      • 23.3. Other countries
    • 24. A-USC programs in the European Union
      • 24.1. History of R&D programs on materials for USC and A-USC power plants
      • 24.2. EU steel development research programs for ultra-supercritical plants
      • 24.3. EU superalloys development research programs for advanced ultra-supercritical power plants
      • 24.4. New materials for steam generators with efficiencies above 50% (MARCKO DE 2) 1999–2004
      • 24.5. Electron beam welding (EBW)
      • 24.6. KOMET 650
      • 24.7. HWT I
      • 24.8. Post AD700
      • 24.9. COMTES+
      • 24.10. NextGenPower
      • 24.11. MACPLUS
      • 24.12. POEMA: production of coatings for new efficient and clean coal power plant materials
      • 24.13. “Partner steam power plant” for the regenerative power generation
      • 24.14. The European Creep Collaborative Committee (ECCC)
      • 24.15. Horizon 2020
      • 24.16. European future
      • 24.17. Conclusions about the EU R&D activities
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
900
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780081005583
Hardcover ISBN:
9780081005521

About the Editor

Augusto Di Gianfrancesco

Dr Augusto Di Gianfrancesco is a Materials & Technologies Consultant, Italy. He was based at Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), Rome, Italy 1983 until 2014. He held Senior Metallurgist and Project Leader positions on “High Temperature Materials”. He was responsible for R&D activities on steels and superalloys for high temperature applications in power generation plants. He was also member of Management Committee of EU Program COST 522-536, co-founder of the European Creep Collaborative Committee and co-founder of the Italian Working Group on Creep Resistant Materials. In addition he has been member of the International Board of the 5th, 6th & 7th EPRI International Conferences on Advances in Materials Technology for Fossil Power Plants, METAL2013/4/5, the 6th International Conference on Creep, Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Interaction, and vice chairman of the 3rd ECCC Conference held 2014 in Rome. He is author and/or co-author of more than 280 technical reports and more than 100 papers presented in national and international conferences or magazines.

Affiliations and Expertise

Materials & Technologies Consultant, Italy