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Materials and Processes for Next Generation Lithography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081003541, 9780081003589

Materials and Processes for Next Generation Lithography, Volume 11

1st Edition

Series Volume Editors: Alex Robinson Richard Lawson
eBook ISBN: 9780081003589
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081003541
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 8th November 2016
Page Count: 634
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Table of Contents

  • Frontiers of Nanoscience
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • List of abbreviations
  • Chapter 1. Overview of materials and processes for lithography
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Overview of Lithography Process
    • 1.3. Lithographic Exposure Sources and Processes
    • 1.4. Characterization and Figures of Merit for Resists
    • 1.5. Resist Materials and Chemistry
    • 1.6. Challenges in Modern Resist Design
    • 1.7. Conclusions
  • Chapter 2. Molecular excitation and relaxation of extreme ultraviolet lithography photoresists
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Extreme Ultraviolet Molecular Excitation
    • 2.3. Extreme Ultraviolet Molecular Relaxation
    • 2.4. Extreme Ultraviolet Processes in Condensed Films
    • 2.5. Outlook and Conclusions
  • Chapter 3. Theory: Electron-induced chemistry
    • 3.1. Introduction
    • 3.2. Mechanisms for Electron-Induced Reactions
    • 3.3. Potential Role in Lithography
    • 3.4. Conclusions
  • Chapter 4. EUV lithography process challenges
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. EUV-IL as a Characterization and Nanopatterning Tool
    • 4.3. Resist Material Challenges
    • 4.4. Conclusions
  • Chapter 5. EUV lithography patterning challenges
    • 5.1. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography: Pushing Optical Lithography to the Extreme
    • 5.2. Extreme Ultraviolet Resist Stochastics
    • 5.3. Extreme Ultraviolet Resist Progress, a Historical Perspective
  • Chapter 6. The chemistry and application of nonchemically amplified (non-CA) chain-scission resists
    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. The Ceiling Temperature
    • 6.3. The Chemistry of Specific Polymer Resist Systems
    • 6.4. Summary
  • Chapter 7. Chemically amplified resists and acid amplifiers
    • 7.1. Extreme Ultraviolet Resists
    • 7.2. EUV CAR Resists
    • 7.3. Conclusion
  • Chapter 8. Negative-tone organic molecular resists
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Fullerene Resists
    • 8.3. Triphenylene Resists
    • 8.4. Calixarene Resists
    • 8.5. Noria Resists
    • 8.6. Polyphenol Resists
    • 8.7. Cationic Polymerization and Cross-linking
    • 8.8. Other Resists
    • 8.9. Summary
  • Chapter 9. Positive molecular resists
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. General Characteristics
    • 9.3. Molecular Resist Families
    • 9.4. Current Status, New Concepts, and Challenges
    • 9.5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 10. Mainstreaming inorganic metal-oxide resists for high-resolution lithography
    • 10.1. Metal-Oxide Resists
    • 10.2. Hydrogen Silsesquioxane
    • 10.3. High-Z Nanocluster Patterning
    • 10.4. Metal-Oxide Nanocluster Patterning Materials—Present and Future
  • Chapter 11. Molecular organometallic resists for EUV (MORE)
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Survey of Simple Metal Complexes
    • 11.3. Bismuth Compounds
    • 11.4. Palladium and Platinum Compounds
    • 11.5. Tin Compounds
    • 11.6. Metal Oxalate Complexes
    • 11.7. Conclusions
  • Chapter 12. SML electron beam resist: Ultra-high aspect ratio nanolithography
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Photomask Production
    • 12.3. Electron Beam Resist Optical Properties
    • 12.4. SML2000 Electron Beam Performance
    • 12.5. Pushing the Resolution Limits
    • 12.6. Summary
  • Chapter 13. Alternative resist approaches
    • 13.1. Introduction
    • 13.2. Novel Approaches for EUV
    • 13.3. Conclusions
  • Chapter 14. Next generation lithography—the rise of unconventional methods?
    • 14.1. The Ultimate Driving Force: Moore's Law
    • 14.2. Beyond Optical: State-of-the-art in NGL
    • 14.3. Beyond Scaling—Post Si-MOSFET/CMOS Technology
  • Chapter 15. Tip-based nanolithography methods and materials
    • 15.1. Scanning Probe Lithography
    • 15.2. Scanning Probe Lithography Classification
    • 15.3. Increasing the Efficiency and Throughput of Scanning Probe Lithography
    • 15.4. Conclusion
  • Chapter 16. Thermal scanning probe lithography
    • 16.1. History
    • 16.2. Advantages of Thermal Scanning Probe Lithography
    • 16.3. Patterning With Thermal Scanning Probe Lithography
    • 16.4. Pattern Transfer Processes From PPA
    • 16.5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 17. Scanning helium ion beam lithography
    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. Helium Ion Beam System and Ion Solid Interactions
    • 17.3. Exposure of Resists in Helium Ion Beam Lithography
    • 17.4. Conclusions and Outlook
  • Index


As the requirements of the semiconductor industry have become more demanding in terms of resolution and speed it has been necessary to push photoresist materials far beyond the capabilities previously envisioned. Currently there is significant worldwide research effort in to so called Next Generation Lithography techniques such as EUV lithography and multibeam electron beam lithography.

These developments in both the industrial and the academic lithography arenas have led to the proliferation of numerous novel approaches to resist chemistry and ingenious extensions of traditional photopolymers. Currently most texts in this area focus on either lithography with perhaps one or two chapters on resists, or on traditional resist materials with relatively little consideration of new approaches.

This book therefore aims to bring together the worlds foremost resist development scientists from the various community to produce in one place a definitive description of the many approaches to lithography fabrication.

Key Features

  • Assembles up-to-date information from the world’s premier resist chemists and technique development lithographers on the properties and capabilities of the wide range of resist materials currently under investigation
  • Includes information on processing and metrology techniques
  • Brings together multiple approaches to litho pattern recording from academia and industry in one place


Lithographers, chemists and device fabricators from the Semiconductor industry, microelectromechanical systems industry, and from device and micro/nanotechnology research in academia


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2016
8th November 2016
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Series Volume Editors

Alex Robinson

Dr Robinson obtained his PhD in 1999 for work on the development of materials for electron beam lithography performed at the Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory of the University of Birmingham, and the Joint Research Center for Atom Technology in Japan. Following his PhD he investigated the modification of oxide surfaces using self-assembled monolayer, before returning to the Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory to continue his research in lithography and microfabrication. He has recently taken up a Senior Research Fellowship in the Science City Research Alliance, based in the School of Chemical Engineering and the School of Chemistry at the Universities of Birmingham and Warwick respectively. He is currently investigating the application of advanced materials within the field of microfabrication, and the integration of functional materials with patterned substrates.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Lecturer, School of Chemical Engineering, Edgbaston, Birmingham, Senior Research Fellow of the Science City Research Alliance, University of Warwick, University of Birmingham, UK

Richard Lawson

Dr Lawson received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering at Tennessee Technological University in 2005. He received a Ph.D. in Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering in 2011 at the Georgia Institute of Technology where he also completed a Postdoctoral Fellowship. Since 2015, he has been at Milliken & Company where he is a Research Engineer working in the area of chemical technologies. He is an author of over 22 publications, 41 conference proceedings, and a U.S. Patent in the area of patterning materials including photoresist and block copolymer design, synthesis, and characterization along with simulation of resist processing and BCP self-assembly.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Engineer, Milliken & Company, Spartanburg, SC, USA