Materials - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781856178938, 9780080961552


2nd Edition

engineering, science, processing and design

Authors: Michael Ashby Hugh Shercliff David Cebon
eBook ISBN: 9780080961552
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 12th October 2009
Page Count: 672
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Materials: Engineering, Science, Processing and Design, Second Edition, was developed to guide material selection and understanding for a wide spectrum of engineering courses. The approach is systematic, leading from design requirements to a prescription for optimized material choice. This book presents the properties of materials, their origins, and the way they enter engineering design. The book begins by introducing some of the design-limiting properties: physical properties, mechanical properties, and functional properties. It then turns to the materials themselves, covering the families, the classes, and the members. It identifies six broad families of materials for design: metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, elastomers, and hybrids that combine the properties of two or more of the others.

The book presents a design-led strategy for selecting materials and processes. It explains material properties such as yield and plasticity, and presents elastic solutions for common modes of loading. The remaining chapters cover topics such as the causes and prevention of material failure; cyclic loading; fail-safe design; and the processing of materials.

Key Features

* Design-led approach motivates and engages students in the study of materials science and engineering through real-life case studies and illustrative applications

* Highly visual full color graphics facilitate understanding of materials concepts and properties

* Chapters on materials selection and design are integrated with chapters on materials fundamentals, enabling students to see how specific fundamentals can be important to the design process

* Links with the Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES EduPack), the powerful materials selection software. See for information


  • "Guided Learning" sections on crystallography, phase diagrams and phase transformations enhance students’ learning of these key foundation topics
  • Revised and expanded chapters on durability, and processing for materials properties
  • More than 50 new worked examples placed throughout the text


Undergraduate materials, mechanical, chemical, civil & aeronautical engineering students taking courses in materials science & engineering, materials processing and engineering design.

Table of Contents



Resources that accompany this book

Chapter 1 Introduction: materials—history and character

1.1 Materials, processes and choice

1.2 Material properties

1.3 Design-limiting properties

1.4 Summary and conclusions

1.5 Further reading

1.6 Exercises

Chapter 2 Family trees: organising materials and processes

2.1 Introduction and synopsis

2.2 Getting materials organised: the materials tree

2.3 Organising processes: the process tree

2.4 Process–property interaction

2.5 Material property charts

2.6 Computer-aided information management for materials and processes

2.7 Summary and conclusions

2.8 Further reading

2.9 Exercises

2.10 Exploring design using CES

2.11 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 3 Strategic thinking: matching material to design

3.1 Introduction and synopsis

3.2 The design process

3.3 Material and process information for design

3.4 The strategy: translation, screening, ranking and documentation

3.5 Examples of translation

3.6 Summary and conclusions

3.7 Further reading

3.8 Exercises

3.9 Exploring design using CES

Chapter 4 Stiffness and weight: density and elastic moduli

4.1 Introduction and synopsis

4.2 Density, stress, strain and moduli

4.3 The big picture: material property charts

4.4 The science: what determines density and stiffness?

4.5 Manipulating the modulus and density

4.6 Summary and conclusions

4.7 Further reading

4.8 Exercises

4.9 Exploring design with CES

4.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Guided Learning Unit 1: simple ideas of crystallography

Part 1: Introduction and synopsis

Part 2: Crystal structures

Part 3: Interstitial space

Part 4: Describing planes

Part 5: Describing directions

Part 6: Ceramic crystals

Part 7: Polymer crystals

Chapter 5 Flex, sag and wobble: stiffness-limited design

5.1 Introduction and synopsis

5.2 Standard solutions to elastic problems

5.3 Material indices for elastic design

5.4 Plotting limits and indices on charts

5.5 Case studies

5.6 Summary and conclusions

5.7 Further reading

5.8 Exercises

5.9 Exploring design with CES

5.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 6 Beyond elasticity: plasticity, yielding and ductility

6.1 Introduction and synopsis

6.2 Strength, plastic work and ductility: definition and measurement

6.3 The big picture: charts for yield strength

6.4 Drilling down: strength and ductility

6.5 Manipulating strength

6.6 Summary and conclusions

6.7 Further reading

6.8 Exercises

6.9 Exploring design with CES

6.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 7 Bend and crush: strength-limited design

7.1 Introduction and synopsis

7.2 Standard solutions to plastic problems

7.3 Material indices for yield-limited design

7.4 Case studies

7.5 Summary and conclusions

7.6 Further reading

7.7 Exercises

7.8 Exploring design with CES

Chapter 8 Fracture and fracture toughness

8.1 Introduction and synopsis

8.2 Strength and toughness

8.3 The mechanics of fracture

8.4 Material property charts for toughness

8.5 Drilling down: the origins of toughness

8.6 Manipulating properties: the strength–toughness trade-off

8.7 Summary and conclusions

8.8 Further reading

8.9 Exercises

8.10 Exploring design with CES

8.11 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 9 Shake, rattle and roll: cyclic loading, damage and failure

9.1 Introduction and synopsis

9.2 Vibration and resonance: the damping coefficient

9.3 Fatigue

9.4 Charts for endurance limit

9.5 Drilling down: the origins of damping and fatigue

9.6 Manipulating resistance to fatigue

9.7 Summary and conclusions

9.8 Further reading

9.9 Exercises

9.10 Exploring design with CES

Chapter 10 Keeping it all together: fracture-limited design

10.1 Introduction and synopsis

10.2 Standard solutions to fracture problems

10.3 Material indices for fracture-safe design

10.4 Case studies

10.5 Summary and conclusions

10.6 Further reading

10.7 Exercises

10.8 Exploring design with CES

Chapter 11 Rub, slither and seize: friction and wear

11.1 Introduction and synopsis

11.2 Tribological properties

11.3 Charting friction and wear

11.4 The physics of friction and wear

11.5 Design and selection: materials to manage friction and wear

11.6 Summary and conclusions

11.7 Further reading

11.8 Exercises

11.9 Exploring design with CES

Chapter 12 Agitated atoms: materials and heat

12.1 Introduction and synopsis

12.2 Thermal properties: definition and measurement

12.3 The big picture: thermal property charts

12.4 Drilling down: the physics of thermal properties

12.5 Manipulating thermal properties

12.6 Design to exploit thermal properties

12.7 Summary and conclusions

12.8 Further reading

12.9 Exercises

12.10 Exploring design with CES

12.11 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 13 Running hot: using materials at high temperatures

13.1 Introduction and synopsis

13.2 The temperature dependence of material properties

13.3 Charts for creep behaviour

13.4 The science: diffusion and creep

13.5 Materials to resist creep

13.6 Design to cope with creep

13.7 Summary and conclusions

13.8 Further reading

13.9 Exercises

13.10 Exploring design with CES

13.11 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 14 Conductors, insulators and dielectrics

14.1 Introduction and synopsis

14.2 Conductors, insulators and dielectrics

14.3 Charts for electrical properties

14.4 Drilling down: the origins and manipulation of electrical properties

14.5 Design: using the electrical properties of materials

14.6 Summary and conclusions

14.7 Further reading

14.8 Exercises

14.9 Exploring design with CES

14.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 15 Magnetic materials

15.1 Introduction and synopsis

15.2 Magnetic properties: definition and measurement

15.3 Charts for magnetic properties

15.4 Drilling down: the physics and manipulation of magnetic properties

15.5 Materials selection for magnetic design

15.6 Summary and conclusions

15.7 Further reading

15.8 Exercises

15.9 Exploring design with CES

15.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 16 Materials for optical devices

16.1 Introduction and synopsis

16.2 The interaction of materials and radiation

16.3 Charts for optical properties

16.4 Drilling down: the physics and manipulation of optical properties

16.5 Optical design

16.6 Summary and conclusions

16.7 Further reading

16.8 Exercises

16.9 Exploring design with CES

16.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 17 Durability: oxidation, corrosion, degradation

17.1 Introduction and synopsis

17.2 Oxidation, flammability and photo-degradation

17.3 Oxidation mechanisms

17.4 Resistance to oxidation, burning and photo-degradation

17.5 Corrosion: acids, alkalis, water and organic solvents

17.6 Drilling down: mechanisms of corrosion

17.7 Fighting corrosion

17.8 Summary and conclusions

17.9 Further reading and software

17.10 Exercises

17.11 Exploring design with CES

17.12 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 18 Heat, beat, stick and polish: manufacturing processes

18.1 Introduction and synopsis

18.2 Process selection in design

18.3 Process attributes: material compatibility

18.4 Shaping processes: attributes and origins

18.5 Joining processes: attributes and origins

18.6 Surface treatment (finishing) processes: attributes and origins

18.7 Estimating cost for shaping processes

18.8 Computer-aided process selection

18.9 Case studies

18.10 Summary and conclusions

18.11 Further reading

18.12 Exercises

18.13 Exploring design with CES

18.14 Exploring the science with CES Elements

Chapter 19 Follow the recipe: processing and properties

19.1 Introduction and synopsis

19.2 Processing for properties

19.3 Microstructure of materials

19.4 Microstructure evolution in processing

19.5 Metals processing

19.6 Non-metals processing

19.7 Making hybrid materials

19.8 Summary and conclusions

19.9 Further reading

19.10 Exercises

19.11 Exploring design with CES

Guided Learning Unit 2: Phase diagrams and phase transformations

Introduction and synopsis

Part 1: Key terminology

Part 2: Simple phase diagrams, and how to read them

Part 3: The iron-carbon diagram

Part 4: Interpreting more complex phase diagrams

Part 5: Phase transformations and microstructural evolution

Part 6: Equilibrium solidification

Part 7: Equilibrium solid-state phase changes

Part 8: Non-equilibrium solid-state phase changes

Chapter 20 Materials, processes and the environment

20.1 Introduction and synopsis

20.2 Material consumption and its growth

20.3 The material life cycle and criteria for assessment

20.4 Definitions and measurement: embodied energy, process energy and end of life potential

20.5 Charts for embodied energy

20.6 Design: selecting materials for eco-design

20.7 Summary and conclusions

20.8 Appendix: some useful quantities

20.9 Further reading

20.10 Exercises

20.11 Exploring design with CES

Appendix: Data for engineering materials



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About the Author

Michael Ashby

Royal Society Research Professor Emeritus at Cambridge University and Former Visiting Professor of Design at the Royal College of Art, London, UK

Mike Ashby is sole or lead author of several of Elsevier’s top selling engineering textbooks, including Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, Materials and the Environment, and Materials: Engineering, Science, Processing and Design. He is also coauthor of the books Engineering Materials 1&2, and Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK

Hugh Shercliff

University Senior Lecturer, Engineering Department, Cambridge University, UK

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Lecturer in Materials, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK

David Cebon

Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge University, UK

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, England


Professor Mike Ashby is well known for producing readily understandable materials education texts, and for the innovative use of graphical representation for material properties. This book, now in its second edition, is no exception and explains materials engineering from a design-led approach, as opposed to the more traditional science-led approach.

Useful for reinforcing student learning is the inclusion of over 50 new worked examples, distributed throughout the book. Completely new are the self-contained Guided Learning Units or sections at the end of the book on crystallography, and phase diagrams and phase transformations, including exercises (and unlike the rest of the book with answers). There are also useful links to interactive ‘online’ tutorials and assessment, reinforcing the strong selfteaching aspects of the book.

[T]he book is aimed primarily at students and teachers of materials science and engineering, although engineering practitioners involved with materials and their selection will also find the extensive use of applications both useful and relevant.

-Engineering Designer, (Reviewed by Professor Kevin Edwards)