Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780702062841, 9780702062872

Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts

1st Edition

Practical and Advanced Information

Authors: Michel Biron
eBook ISBN: 9780702062872
Hardcover ISBN: 9780702062841
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 21st September 2015
Page Count: 710
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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Disclaimer
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 1. Thermoplastic Material Selection: Some Ways of Thinking for a Systematic Approach
    • 1.1. Specific Plastics Design Issues: Some Ins and Outs among Others
    • 1.2. Checklist Proposal
  • 2. Thermoplastic Specific Properties
    • 2.1. Do not Confuse Raw Polymer and Plastic Grade (or Compound)
    • 2.2. Raw TPs Are Organic Macromolecules
    • 2.3. Supramolecular Structure
    • 2.4. Viscoelasticity, Time, and Temperature Dependency
    • 2.5. From Raw Polymers to Actual Grades: Upgrading and Customization
    • 2.6. Isotropy and Anisotropy
    • 2.7. Dimensional Stability
    • 2.8. Market Appeal: Sensory Properties Are of the Prime Importance
  • 3. Thermoplastics: Economic Overview
    • 3.1. Overview of the Global Plastics Industry Today and Tomorrow
    • 3.2. Market Shares of the Various Thermoplastic Families
    • 3.3. Market Shares of Composites
    • 3.4. Market Shares for the Main Application Sectors
    • 3.5. Importance of the Various Processing Modes
    • 3.6. Consumption Trends
    • 3.7. The North American Market
    • 3.8. The Western European Market
    • 3.9. The Asian Market
    • 3.10. Structure of the Plastics Processing Industry
    • 3.11. Plastic Costs
    • 3.12. The Future: Two Important Issues Linked to Crude Oil: Costs and Drying Up
    • 3.13. Price Index Hypotheses for 279 Plastics
    • 3.14. Useful Source Examples for Initiation of In-depth Studies
  • 4. Elements for Analogical Selections: Survey of the 10 Top Markets
    • 4.1. Packaging
    • 4.2. Building and Civil Engineering
    • 4.3. Automotive and Transportation
    • 4.4. Electrical and Electronics Market
    • 4.5. Household, Entertainment, and Office Appliances
    • 4.6. Mechanical Engineering
    • 4.7. Sports and Leisure
    • 4.8. Medical Market
    • 4.9. Furniture and Bedding
    • 4.10. Agriculture
  • 5. Avoid Some Pitfalls
    • 5.1. Balance Well-Estimated Part Requirements and Properties of the Used Compound: Objectively Fill Out Your Checklist
    • 5.2. Mechanical Properties: At Break, at Elastic Limit, at Yield, after Creep
    • 5.3. Do not Confuse Local and Bulk Properties: Take into Account the Statistical Distribution of Properties
    • 5.4. Chemical Behavior: Nature of Chemicals, Time, Temperature, Environmental Stress Cracking
    • 5.5. Ambient Humidity Can Plasticize Polymers and Change Their Properties Including Electrical Properties
    • 5.6. Often Properties Evolve Abruptly: Glass Transition, Yield, Knees, Frequency- Dependent Properties
    • 5.7. Modeling and Predictions of Lifetimes: Very Useful if Carefully Used; Very Hazardous in Other Cases
    • 5.8. Helpful, Hazardous, and False Comparisons
  • 6. Density, Actual Weight Savings, Cost, and Property per Volume Advantages
    • 6.1. Density of 280 Thermoplastics, Statistical Analysis, and Modeling
    • 6.2. Specific Yield Strength and Specific Modulus
    • 6.3. Cost per Volume Examples
    • 6.4. Actual Weight Savings
    • 6.5. Density Reduction Using Structural Foam Techniques and Hollow Parts
  • 7. Mechanical Properties
    • 7.1. Plastics are not Ideal Materials Obeying to Simple Physical Laws
    • 7.2. First of All, Fully Understand Information and Make Your Requirements Understandable
    • 7.3. Tensile Properties
    • 7.4. Flexural Properties
    • 7.5. Compressive Properties
    • 7.6. Shear Properties
    • 7.7. Comparison of Tensile, Flexural, Compressive, and Shear Properties
    • 7.8. Impact Strength
    • 7.9. Hardness
  • 8. Thermal Properties
    • 8.1. Overview
    • 8.2. Glass Transition Temperature (See Also Section 2.3.3)
    • 8.3. Thermal Behavior above Room Temperature (See Also Section 1.1.3)
    • 8.4. Low-Temperature Behavior (See Also Section 1.1.4)
  • 9. Dimensional Stability
    • 9.1. Coefficients of Thermal Expansion—CTE or CTLE
    • 9.2. Shrinkage after Molding
    • 9.3. Warpage
    • 9.4. Water Uptake
    • 9.5. Releasing of Organic Additives: Choose High-Molecular Weight or Reactive Additives
    • 9.6. Some Other Causes of Dimensional Variations
  • 10. Advanced Mechanical Properties
    • 10.1. Thermal Dependency of Mechanical Properties
    • 10.2. Time-Dependent Mechanical Properties
    • 10.3. Poisson’s Ratios
    • 10.4. Friction and Wear; Tribological Thermoplastics
  • 11. Fire Behavior
    • 11.1. Preliminary Remarks: Define the Problem Correctly
    • 11.2. Predisposition to Burn: More or Less Easily, All Thermoplastics Burn
    • 11.3. Inherently FR polymers
    • 11.4. FR Solutions
    • 11.5. The Top Solutions: HFFR and FST grades
    • 11.6. Examples of Effect of FR Modifications on Properties
  • 12. Electrical Properties
    • 12.1. Volume Resistivity
    • 12.2. Relative Permittivity or Dielectric Constant
    • 12.3. Alternating Current Loss Tangent or Loss Factor
    • 12.4. Dielectric Strength
    • 12.5. Surface Resistivity
    • 12.6. Arc Resistance
    • 12.7. Frequency, Temperature, Moisture, Physical, and Dynamic Aging Effects
    • 12.8. Electrically Conductive Thermoplastics
  • 13. Sensory Issues: Optical Properties, Aesthetics, Odor, Taste, Touch
    • 13.1. Refractive Index
    • 13.2. Transparent Thermoplastics
    • 13.3. Aesthetics
    • 13.4. Odor and Taste Transfer
    • 13.5. Touch
    • 13.6. Acoustics, NVH
    • 13.7. Sensory Testing Needs the Complementarity of Instrumental Measurements and Sensory Panel Evaluations
  • 14. Resistance to Chemicals, Light, and UV
    • 14.1. Chemical Resistance of Unstressed Materials
    • 14.2. Environmental Stress Cracking
    • 14.3. Photooxidation: Weathering, Light, and UV Behavior
  • 15. EcoDesign
    • 15.1. Well-Established Routes
    • 15.2. Replacement of Fossil Materials by Renewable Materials
    • 15.3. Take Advantage of Thermoplastics Versatility for a More Sustainable Use Phase
    • 15.4. Overview of Some Environmental Indicators and Benchmarks Relating to LCA
  • Conclusion
  • Glossary
  • Index

Description

As new applications are developed and plastics replace traditional materials in a widening spectrum of existing applications, the potential personal injury, property damage, financial and legal consequences of failure can be high. However, nearly half of plastics failure can be traced back to the original specification and selection of the material.

This book gives engineers the data they need to make an informed decision about the materials they use in their products, imparting a thorough knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of the various materials to choose from. The data also suggests other candidate materials which the reader may not have originally considered. More than 30,000 thermoplastics grades are grouped into circa. 300 subfamilies, within which over 20 properties are assessed.

The abundance or scarcity of a material and its cost are also often important deciding factors. In this book, an economical overview of the plastics industry helps clarify the actual consumption and costs of thermoplastics including bioplastic, and the relationship of cost vs. performance is also examined for each thermoplastic subfamily. Immediate and long-term common properties are reviewed, including mechanical behavior, impact, thermal properties, and many more. Environmental considerations are also covered, including ease of recycling and sustainability.

Key Features

  • Helps engineers to implement a systematic approach to material selection in their work
  • Includes more than 300 subfamilies of thermoplastic, and a wide range of properties including chemical resistance, thermal degradation, creep and UV resistance
  • Evaluates cost/performance relations and environmental considerations

Readership

Engineers involved in specification, selection and processing of materials for thermoplastic parts. R&D engineers in various industries – e.g., automotive and transport, aero, packaging (medical + food in particular), consumer


Details

No. of pages:
710
Language:
English
Copyright:
© William Andrew 2016
Published:
Imprint:
William Andrew
eBook ISBN:
9780702062872
Hardcover ISBN:
9780702062841

Reviews

"...provides an easy-to-understand and easy-to-use guide for a systematic approach for choosing plastic materials...It will certainly be a very useful reference for anyone who designs, specifies, or uses plastic components in any application." --IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Material Selection for Thermoplastic Parts


About the Authors

Michel Biron Author

Michel Biron is a plastics consultant based in Les Ulis, France, and is a Graduate Chemist Engineer from the Institut National Supérieur de Chimie Industrielle

de Rouen and Polymer Specialist from the Institut Français du Caoutchouc. He has authored numerous technical papers and books on plastics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Plastics Consultant, Les Ulis, France