Mast Cells and Basophils

Mast Cells and Basophils

1st Edition - May 25, 2000

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  • Editors: Gianni Marone, Lawrence Lichtenstein, Stephen Galli
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080535852
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124733350

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Description

Mast Cells and Basophils will be essential reading for immunologists, biochemists and medical researchers. Detailed chapters cover all aspects of mast cell and basophil research, from cell development, proteases, histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes, physiology and pathology to the role of these cells in health and disease. Chapters also discuss the clinical implications of histamine receptor antagonists.

Readership

Medical and academic researchers working in immunology, cell biology,pharmacology, biochemistry, endocrinology, and medicine with particular attention towards allergic response.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Section One Development of Mast Cells and Basophils

    Chapter 1 Regulation of Mast Cell and Basophil Development by Stem Cell Factor and Interleukin-3

    Introduction

    SCF, a Ligand for the c-kit Receptor

    Multiple Effects of SCF in Mast Cell Biology

    SCF can Regulate Mast Cell Function In Vitro and In Vivo

    Interleukin-3

    Using IL-3-/- Mice to Assess the Role of IL-3 in Mast Cell and Basophil Development

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 2 Gain-of-function Mutations of c-kit in Human Diseases

    Introduction

    Loss-of-function Mutation of c-kit

    Stomach Lesions of W/Wv and SI/SId Mice

    Gain-of-function Mutation of c-kit in Mast Cell Neoplasms

    Sporadic Gastrointestinal Stromal Turnouts

    Familial GIST

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 3 Modulation of Mast Cell Development from Embryonic Haematopoietic Progenitors by Eotaxin

    Chemokines and Their Receptors Play Diverse Roles as Mediators of Inflammation

    Chemokines Participate in Multiple Mast Cell and Basophil Functions

    Chemokine Secretion by Mast Cells

    Eotaxin

    Results

    Discussion

    References

    Chapter 4 Regulation and Dysregulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis

    Introduction

    Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Growth Factors

    Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Death Receptors

    Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Perforin, Nitric Oxide and Bacterial Toxins

    Regulation of Mast Cell Survival and Apoptosis by Irradiation and Chemical Agents

    Perspective: Apoptosis and Mast Cell Disease

    References

    Section Two Phenotypic and Ultrastructural Features of Mast Cells and Basophils

    Chapter 5 Ultrastructural Features of Human Basophil and Mast Cell Secretory Function

    Introduction

    Mechanism(s) of Histamine and CLC-P Secretion from Human Basophils, of Histamine Secretion from Human Mast Cells In Vitro and of TNF-α and Chymase Secretion from Rat Peritoneal Cells

    Histamine Secretion from Human Mast Cells In Vivo

    Heparin Secretion from Human Mast Cells In Vitro

    The Vesiculovacuolar Organelle, a New Endothelial Permeability Structure

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 6 Human Dendritic Mast Cells

    Introduction

    The Morphology of Human Dendritic Mast Cells

    Functional Aspects and Future Lines of Research

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 7 The Phenotypic Similarities and Differences between Human Basophils and Mast Cells

    Introduction

    Morphology

    Membrane Receptors

    Cytoplasmic Contents

    Mast Cell Phenotypes in Tissues

    The Involvement of Mast Cells and Basophils in Asthma and Drug Reactions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 8 Interactions between Nerves and Mast Cells in Amphibians

    Introduction

    Morphology of Frog Mast Cells

    Frog Mast Cells and Peripheral Nervous System

    Occurrence of Mast Cells in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of Mammals

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Section Three Signal Transduction in Mast Cells and Basophils

    Chapter 9 Sequential Protein Kinase Activation and the Regulation of Mast Cell Cytokine Production

    Introduction

    Signaling Through Mast Cell Surface Receptors

    MAPK Family Members

    Transcriptional Regulation of TNF-α Production

    Stem Cell Factor Receptor (c-kit)

    Differentiation Signaling and Function of Mast Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Embryonic Stem Cells

    Identification of a Critical Role for MEKK2 in JNK Activation and Cytokine Production

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 10 FcεRI-mediated Induction of TNF-α Gene Expression in Mast Cell Lines

    Introduction

    Chromosomal Location and Gene Structure of TNF-α

    Regulation of TNF-α Gene Expression in Non-mast Cell Lines

    FcεRI-dependent Regulation of TNF-α Production

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 11 Regulation of Mast Cell Degranulation by SHIP

    Introduction

    Structure and Binding Partners of SHIP

    Biological Properties of SHIP

    Properties of the SHIP Knockout Mouse

    The Role of SHIP in FcεRI-induced Degranulation of Mast Cells

    The Role of SHIP in Steel Factor-induced Signaling in Mast Cells

    The Role of SHIP in Thapsigargin-induced Signaling in Mast Cells

    A Model of IgE-induced Degranulation

    Major Questions Remaining

    Summary and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section Four Regulation of Mast Cell and Basophil Signaling and Secretion

    Chapter 12 Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Inhibition Motif-dependent Negative Regulation of Mast Cell Activation and Proliferation

    Introduction

    SIRP-α can Negatively Regulate FcεRI-dependent Mast Cell Activation

    FcγRIIB can Negatively Regulate c-kit-dependent Mast Call Proliferation

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 13 Perspectives on the Regulation of Secretion from Human Basophils and Mast Cells

    Introduction

    Regulation of FcεRI Expression

    Desensitization

    Modification of Basophil Function by IL-3

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 14 Interactions between Secretory IgA and Human Basophils

    Introduction

    Structure and Metabolism of sIgA

    Pathophysiology of sIgA

    sIgA-mediated Basophil Activation

    Receptors for sIgA

    Clinical Relevance of sIgA-mediated Basophil Activation

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 15 Regulation of Mast Cell Secretion by Interferon-γ and Nitric Oxide

    Introduction

    Interferon and Mast Cells

    Do Mast Cells Produce Interferon-γ?

    Nitric Oxide and Nitric Oxide Synthases

    Nitric Oxide Effects on Mast Cells

    Do Mast Cells Produce Nitric Oxide?

    How does Nitric Oxide Regulate Mast Cells?

    Nitric Oxide and Mast Cells In Vivo - Clinical Implications

    Conclusion: Mast Cells, Interferon-γ and Nitric Oxide in Cell Interactions and Disease

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section Five Structure and Function of Mast Cell Proteases

    Chapter 16 Human and Mouse Mast Cell Tryptases

    Introduction

    Identification and Cloning of Human Tryptase Genes

    Identification and Cloning of Mouse Tryptase Genes

    Biochemical Features of Human and Mouse Tryptases

    Expression of Mouse and Human Tryptases in Cells and Tissues

    Function of Human and Mouse Tryptases

    Tryptase Metabolism

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 17 Expression, Function and Regulation of Mast Cell Granule Chymases during Mucosal Allergic Responses

    Introduction

    Investigating the Response of mMCP-1-/- Mice to Gastrointestinal Nematodes

    Regulation of the Expression of mMCP-1 in mBMMC

    Discussion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 18 Structure and Function of Human Chymase

    Introduction

    General Properties

    X-ray Crystal Structure of rHC

    The Extended Substrate-binding Site of Human Chymase

    Modeling of the Human Chymase-angiotensin I Interaction

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 19 Structure and Function of Human Mast Cell Tryptase

    Introduction

    Distribution and Secretion in Disease

    Structure and Physicochemical Properties

    Non-human Tryptases

    Regulation of Tryptase Activity

    Peptide Substrates

    Protein Substrates

    Actions on Cells and Tissues

    Cellular Receptors for Tryptase

    Tryptase as a Therapeutic Target

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section Six Nerve-Mast Cell Interactions: Physiology and Pathology

    Chapter 20 Mast Cell-Nerve Interactions: Possible Significance of Nerve Growth Factor

    Evidence for Mast Cell-Nerve Interactions

    Possible Role of NGF

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 21 Nerve Growth Factor, Mast Cells and Allergic Inflammation

    Nerve Growth Factor: Early Discovery and Emerging Data

    NGF and the Nervous System

    NGF and the Endocrine System

    NGF and the Immune System

    NGF and Mast Cells

    NGF and Inflammation

    NGF and Allergic Responses

    Behavioral Influence on NGF Levels and Allergic Responses

    Possible Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 22 Interactions between Neurotrophins and Mast Cells

    Definition and Basic Aspects of Neurotrophins

    Mast Cells as a Source of Neurotrophic Factors

    Effects of Neurotrophins on Mast Cells

    Evidence that NGF is also a Human Mast Cell Growth Factor

    Neurotrophin Receptors on Mast Cells

    Clinical Findings Suggesting Mast Cell and Neurotrophin Activity

    Mast Cells and Neurotrophins: Open Issues

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 23 Modulation of Peripheral Neurotransmission Associated with Mast Cell Activation

    Sensory (Afferent) Nervous System

    Enteric Nervous System

    Sympathetic Nervous System

    Parasympathetic Nervous System

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 24 Regulation of Gastrointestinal Mucin Production by Nerve-Mast Cell Interactions

    Introduction

    Neuronal Mediation of Mucin Secretion

    Effects of Stress on Colonic Mucin and Prostaglandin Release

    Role of Corticotropin-releasing Factor in Stress-induced Colonic Mucin Secretion

    Neurotensin is an Important Mediator of Colonic Stress Responses

    Mast Cells as a Major Link of Stress-mediated Mucin Secretion

    CRF and NT as Mediators of Intestinal Mast Cell Activation During Stress

    Clinical Implications

    References

    Section Seven Mast Cells and Basophils in Homeostasis and Host Defense

    Chapter 25 Mast Cell-Enterobacteria Interactions during Infection

    Introduction

    Protective Role of Mast Cells Against Bacterial Infection

    Mast Cell Phagocytosis of Bacteria

    Molecular Basis for Mast Cell-Enterobacteria Recognition

    Mast Cell Activation Via CD48

    Interactions of Human Mast Cells with Enterobacteria

    Final Thoughts

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 26 Human Mast Cells and Basophils in Immune Responses to Infectious Agents

    Introduction

    Mast Cells in Host Defense Against Bacterial Infections

    Mast Cells and Basophils in Helicobacterpylori Infection

    Leukotrienes in the Defence against Bacterial and Viral Infections

    Activation of Human Basophils and Mast Cells by Protein A

    Activation of Human Basophils and Mast Cells by Protein L

    Activation of Human Basophils by Pepstatin A

    Endogenous Superallergen Protein Fv in Viral Hepatitis

    Activation of Human Basophils and Mast Cells by HIV- 1 Glycoprotein gp120

    The 'Three Faces' of Mast Cells and Basophils in the Immune Response to Infectious Agents

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 27 Differential Regulation of Mast Cell Mediator Secretion by Bacterial Products

    Introduction

    Receptors for Bacteria on Mast Cells

    Selective Mast Cell Responses to Specific Bacterial Products

    Combined Signals Alter and Enhance Mast Cell Responses

    Bacteria- and Bacterial Product-mediated Signaling Events in Mast Cells

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 28 The Role of Mast Cells, Basophils and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in Immune Responses to Parasites: Studies with Mast Cell- and IL-3-Deficient Mice

    Studies of Parasite Infection in Genetically Mast Cell-deficient Mice

    Assessing the Role of IL-3 in Host Responses to Nematodes using IL-3-/-Mice

    KitW/KitW-v, IL-3-/-Mice Exhibit a Profound Impairment of Basophilia, Mucosal Mast Cell Development and Immunity During Infection with Strongyloides venezuelensis

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section Eight Mast Cells in Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Diseases

    Chapter 29 Human Heart Mast Cells: Immunological Characterization In Situ and In Vitro

    Introduction

    Isolation of HHMC and Their Characterization In Situ

    Histamine, Proteolytic Enzymes and Proteoglycans Synthesized by HHMC

    Prostaglandins and Cysteinyl Leukotrienes Synthesized De Novo by HMMC

    Immunological and Non-immunological Stimuli that Activate HHMC In Vitro

    Mast Cells and Regulation of Coagulation and Fibrinogenolysis

    HHMC in Systemic and Cardiac Anaphylaxis and in Anaphylactoid Reactions

    HHMC and Atherosclerosis

    HHMC in Patients with Myocarditis and Hyper-eosinophilia

    HHMC and Angiogenesis in the Heart

    HHMC and Myocardial Ischaemia

    HHMC in Idiopathic and Ischaemic Cardiomyopathy

    Perspective and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 30 Mast Cells in Atherosclerotic Human Coronary Arteries: Implications for Coronary Fatty Streak Formation, Plaque Ulceration and Control of Local Haemostatic Balance

    Introduction

    Atherosclerosis is a Disorder of Lipid Metabolism in the Arterial Intima with a Strong Inflammatory Component

    Circulating Mast Cell Progenitors also find Their way in to the Arterial Intima

    Immunohistochemical Observations on Mast Cells in the Human Coronary

    Arterial Intima

    Potential Mechanisms by Which Mast Cells may Play a Role in Atherogenesis

    Conclusion and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 31 Role of Mast Cells in Endogenous Fibrinolysis and Related (Patho)physiological Processes

    Introduction

    Contribution of Mast Cells to Fibrinogen Extravasation and Fibrin Formation

    Mast Cell-dependent Fibrinolysis: Role of Tryptase and Chymase

    The Mast Cell as Site of tPA Expression

    Human Mast Cells Express the Urokinase Receptor (uPAR, CD87)

    Functional Significance of MC-tPA: Mast Cells are 'Pro-fibrinolytic' Cells

    Molecular Basis of Mast Cell Dependent Fibrinolysis: Role of Inhibitors (PAIs)

    Fibrin-independent Plasminogen Activation

    Clinical Significance

    Mast Cells Accumulate at the Site of Thrombosis

    SCF Regulates Expression and Release of tPA in Mast Cells

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 32 Mast Cells in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion

    Introduction

    Mast Cells in Normal Hearts

    The Mast Cell as a Source of Cytokines

    Mast Cell Degranulation Following Myocardial Ischaemia

    Mast Cells in Healing Myocardial Infarcts

    Mast Cell Precursors Infiltrate the Healing Heart

    SCF Induction Following Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion

    Macrophages are the Main Source of SCF Following Myocardial Ischaemia

    Potential Role of Mast Cells in Healing

    The Mast Cell in Myocardial Ischaemia/Reperfusion: Friend or Foe?

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Section Nine Leukotrienes, Cytokines and Chemokines in Allergic Disorders

    Chapter 33 Lipid Mediators from Mast Cells and Basophils in Allergic Diseases

    Introduction

    Arachidonic Acid Pools in Human Mast Cells and Basophils

    Phospholipase A 2 in Human Mast Cells and Basophils

    Extracellular Effects of Mast Cell-derived Secretory PLA 2

    PAF and Related Phospholipids

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 34 Regulation and Function of Human Intestinal Mast Cells

    Introduction

    Effector Functions of Human Intestinal Mast Cells

    Regulation of Human Intestinal Mast Cell Functions

    Clinical Implications

    Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 35 Differential Regulation of Basophil Functions by Chemokines

    Basophil Phenotype and Functions

    Chemokines

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 36 Chemokine Receptors on Human Mast Cells

    Chemokines

    Mast Cells

    Chemokine Receptors on MC

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 37 Release and Cleavage of Stem Cell Factor by Human Mast Cells

    Introduction

    Stem Cell Factor Expression in Human Mast Cells

    Stem Cell Factor-Protease Interactions

    Biological Effects of SCF1-166 and SCF1-159 Oil HLMC and HSMC

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 38 SCF-Induced Chemokine Production, Allergic Airway Inflammation and Airway Hyper-reactivity

    Introduction

    SCF-Induced Mast Cell Activation, Inflammation and Airway Hyper-reactivity

    Regulation of SCF Production

    Initiation of Cytokine/Chemokine Production by SCF in Mast Cells and Eosinophils

    Structural Cell-derived SCF Contributes to Disease Progression: Differential Activation of Mast Cells by Soluble versus Membrane SCF

    Summary

    References

    Section Ten Clinical Implications of Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonists

    Chapter 39 Pharmacological Profile of Mizolastine, a Novel Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist

    Histamine and Its Receptor Subtypes

    Specificity and Selectivity of Mizolastine for H1 Histamine Receptor Subtypes

    Antihistaminergic Effects of Mizolastine

    Allergic Reaction

    Anti-anaphylactic Properties of Mizolastine

    Immune System-mediated Inflammatory Reaction in Allergy

    Anti-allergic Effects of Mizolastine

    Other Pharmacological Effects of Mizolastine

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 40 Adenosine-Induced Enhancement of Mast Cell Mediator Release in Asthma and COPD

    Introduction

    The Bronchoconstrictor Effect of Adenosine in Asthma

    The Airway Response to Adenosine in COPD

    Adenosine Receptors on Mast Cells

    Concluding Comments

    References

    Chapter 41 Neural Activation and Inflammation in Allergic Rhinitis

    Introduction

    Neurogenic Inflammation

    Neural Hyper-responsiveness

    Nerve Growth Factor

    Summary and Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 42 Antihistaminic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Mizolastine

    Introduction

    Pharmacokinetics of Mizolastine

    Clinical Efficacy of Mizolastine

    Anti-inflammatory effects of Mizolastine

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 43 Electrophysiological and Molecular Basis for the Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Histamine H, Receptor Antagonists

    Introduction

    Cardiotoxicity of Second-generation Antihistamines

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 707
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2000
  • Published: May 25, 2000
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080535852
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124733350

About the Editors

Gianni Marone

Affiliations and Expertise

Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy

Lawrence Lichtenstein

Affiliations and Expertise

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

Stephen Galli

Affiliations and Expertise

Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, California, U.S.A.

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