Maritime Security

Maritime Security

An Introduction

2nd Edition - March 19, 2016

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  • Author: Michael McNicholas
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128036723
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128036730

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Maritime Security: An Introduction, Second Edition, provides practical, experience-based, and proven knowledge - and a "how-to-guide" - on maritime security. McNicholas explains in clear language how commercial seaports and vessels function; what threats currently exist; what security policies, procedures, systems, and measures must be implemented to mitigate these threats; and how to conduct ship and port security assessments and plans. Whether the problem is weapons of mass destruction or cargo theft, Maritime Security provides invaluable guidance for the professionals who protect our shipping and ports. New chapters focus on whole government maritime security, UN legal conventions and frameworks, transnational crime, and migration. Updates throughout will provide the latest information in increasingly important field.

Key Features

  • Provides an excellent introduction to issues facing this critical transportation channel
  • Three all-new chapters, and updated throughout to reflect changes in maritime security
  • Increased coverage of migration issues and transnational crime
  • New contributors bring legal security and cybersecurity issues to the fore


Professionals in the fields of Homeland Security, Transportation Management, Logistics Management, Supply Chain Management, and Business Management. Trade Schools, Professional Associations (Association of Industrial Security [ASIS], International Cargo Security Council, BIMCO, AAPA, etc.) and State and Federal Government Agencies. Upper-level undergraduate and graduate, students in security, maritime, or supply chain courses

Table of Contents

  • 1. Commercial Seaports and Strategic Maritime Passages in Transformation

    • Introduction
    • Commercial Seaports
    • Stakeholders at Seaports
    • Intermodalism
    • Strategic Maritime Passages in Transformation
    • Summary

    2. Modes of Maritime Transport

    • Introduction
    • Summary

    3. Documentation, Financial Transactions, and Business Entities in Commercial Maritime Transportation

    • Introduction
    • Purchase of Goods
    • Filling the Order
    • Container Stuffing
    • Making a Booking
    • Documents Used to Export and Import Cargo
    • The Next Step for the Ocean Carrier
    • Documents Specific to Import Cargo Only
    • Business Entities in Commercial Maritime Transportation
    • Summary

    4. International and U.S. Maritime Security Regulations and Programs

    • Introduction
    • The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code1
    • Amendments to Safety of Life at Sea
    • WCO’s Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade2
    • U.S. Laws and Programs
    • C-TPAT and Foreign Customs Mutual Recognition Agreements
    • C-TPAT Benefits
    • 24-Hour Advance Manifest Rule, Container Security Initiative, and the Importer Security Filing
    • Secure Freight Initiative
    • Summary
    • Suggested Additional Regulations for Review by U.S. FSOs

    5. Vulnerabilities in the Cargo Supply Chain

    • Introduction
    • Vulnerabilities and Their Potential Impact
    • Lessons Learned From the Drug War
    • Recommended Security Practices at the Production/Loading Phase
    • Recommended Security Practices at the Export Phase
    • Recommended Security Practices at the Importation/Distribution Phase
    • Special Vulnerabilities in the Maritime Environment
    • Internal Conspiracies and Techniques Used to Circumvent Security
    • Container Seals
    • “Red Flags” of Possible Criminal/Terrorist Surveillance
    • Summary

    6. Perils of the Seas: Piracy, Stowaways, and Irregular Migration

    • Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships
    • Current Piracy and Armed Robbery Incidents and Their Impact
    • Tactics and Techniques in Piracy
    • The Linkages Between Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terror Groups
    • Stowaways
    • Summary

    7. Drug Smuggling via Maritime Cargo, Containers, and Vessels

    • Illegal Drug Origins and Production
    • Maritime Smuggling Routes and Trends
    • Drug Smuggling Methods and Techniques
    • Summary

    8. Targeting and Usage of Commercial Ships and Port by Terrorists and Transnational Criminal Organizations

    • Terrorist Targeting of Ships and Ports
    • Usage of Ships and Containers by Terrorists to Transport Personnel and Materials
    • The Nexus Between Terror Groups and TCOs
    • Transnational Criminal Organizations and the Commercial Maritime Sector
    • Primary TCO Criminal Activities in the Commercial Maritime Environment
    • Summary

    9. Cyber and Information Threats to Seaports and Ships

    • Introduction
    • Why the Maritime Sector Is Particularly Vulnerable
    • Understanding Who are the Bad Guys
    • Dealing with the Threats
    • Identifying Your Organization’s Priorities
    • Implementation
    • Summary
    • Suggested Background Reading and Resources

    10. A Strategic Blueprint for World-Class Seaport Security

    • External Security Ring
    • Perimeter Security Ring
    • Inner Security Ring
    • Site and Asset-Specific Security Rings
    • Vessel Security Ring
    • Security Personnel Employment and Training
    • Port Security Director
    • Port Facility Security Plan
    • Summary

    11. Threat Mitigation Strategies

    • Mitigating Pirate Attacks
    • Ship Antipiracy Security Measures for High-Risk Areas
    • Hostage Survival and Rescue
    • Cargo Container Inspection Techniques
    • Security Equipment, Systems, and Devices Used to Detect Contraband and Unauthorized Persons in a Container
    • Summary

    12. Security Management and Leadership in Seaports

    • The Port Security Director
    • The Systems Approach, ISO Certifications, Strategic Planning, and Metric Management
    • A Multiorganizational Approach Toward Port Security
    • The Importance of Comprehensive Job Descriptions
    • Planning and Conducting Security-Related Training
    • Intelligence and Its Role in Maritime Security
    • Risk Management and Port Security
    • Contingency Planning: A Critical Part of Port Security Management
    • Getting the Maritime Community Excited About Contingency Planning: A Brief Look at an Introduction to a Contingency Planning Training Session
    • Looking for Well-Respected Sources and Standards on Contingency Planning
    • Crisis Leadership: Improving Emergency Management and Contingency Planning at Port Facilities
    • Testing Training and Planning Through Exercises and Drills
    • Port Security Training Exercise Program25
    • Summary

    13. A Networked Response to Maritime Threats: Interagency Coordination

    • Terminology Challenge?
    • National-Level Maritime Threat Response Frameworks
    • National-Level Whole-of-Government Maritime Threat/Event Response Frameworks Considerations
    • The U.S. Process
    • Conclusion
    • Summary

    14. Legal Authorities for Maritime Law Enforcement, Safety, and Environmental Protection

    • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
    • The 1988 United Nations Convention Against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (the 1988 Vienna Convention)
    • U.S. Coast Guard—Law Enforcement 14 U.S.C. § 89(a)
    • Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (MDLEA) 46 U.S.C. §§ 70501-7-507
    • The Drug Trafficking Vessel Interdiction Act of 2008 (DTVIA) 18 U.S.C. § 2285
    • Joint Interagency Operations
    • MARPOL 73/78
    • National-Level Authorities to Protect the Maritime Environment, Punish Those Who Exploit It, and Prevent Illicit Activity
    • Living Marine Resources Enforcement
    • The Magnuson–Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson–Stevens), 16 U.S.C. §§ 1801-1883
    • The Lacey Act of 1900, 16 U.S.C. §§ 3371-3378
    • 1991 UN Moratorium on High Seas Drift Net Fishing (UN General Assembly Resolution 46/215)
    • The Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (United Nations Fish Stock Agreement or UNFSA)
    • The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972—16 U.S.C. § 1377
    • The Endangered Species Act of 1973—16 U.S.C. §§ 1531-1544
    • Illegal Immigration67
    • Immigration and Nationality Act
    • Improper Entry by Alien 8 U.S.C. § 1325 (2010)
    • Bringing in and Harboring Certain Aliens 8 U.S.C. § 1324
    • Reentry of Removed Aliens 8 U.S.C. § 1326
    • Aiding or Assisting Certain Aliens to Enter 8 U.S.C. § 1327
    • Criminal Sanctions for Failure to Heave to, Obstruction of Boarding, or Providing False Information 18 U.S.C. § 2237
    • Summary

Product details

  • No. of pages: 514
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2016
  • Published: March 19, 2016
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128036723
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128036730

About the Author

Michael McNicholas

Michael McNicholas is the Managing Director of Phoenix Management Services Group in the USA, Panama, and Costa Rica, Operations Support Services (Panama), and Pathfinder Consulting, LLC in the USA. Michael has over fourteen years of distinguished and progressive Law Enforcement, Military, and Intelligence experience and, most recently, twenty years as Founder/Co-Founder of several successful professional security services corporations in Latin America and the USA. A former Non-Commissioned and Commissioned Officer (Direct Presidential Appointment) in the US Army, Mr. McNicholas served for nine years in Airborne Infantry, Military Police, and Military Intelligence units. Mr. McNicholas held a TOP SECRET security clearance in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), where he specialized in counter-narcotics trafficking and international terrorism and served on the Vice President’s Narcotics Interdiction Task Force and as the CIA Liaison to US Coast Guard Intelligence. Michael designed, implemented, and managed the internationally-acclaimed seaport security program at Manzanillo International Terminal – Panama, the largest container port in Latin America. In 2003, he spearheaded the successful efforts to have Phoenix Management Services Group designated as the first “Recognized Security Organization” (RSO) by the Republic of Panama and the Dominican Republic. On behalf of the government of Panama, Phoenix evaluated and approved/rejected Ship Security Plans for over 2,500 ships in the Panama Registry. In the Dominican Republic, Phoenix conducted Port Facility Security Assessments and wrote the Port Facility Security Plans for two of the primary ports in the country. Mr. McNicholas is credited with co-pioneering the Maritime Security Team (Anti-piracy/stowaway/drug trafficking/terrorist) concept in commercial cargo shipping and has Maritime Security Teams deployed onboard container and cargo ships in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean.

Affiliations and Expertise

Managing Director, Phoenix Management Services Group in the USA, Panama, and Costa Rica, Operations Support Services (Panama), and Pathfinder Consulting, LLC in the USA

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