Introduction to Marine Systems: Biodiversity, Ecology, and Value to Humans. Threats to Oceans and Coastal Areas. General Measures to Address Threats to Marine Ecosystems. An Introduction to Marine Protected Areas (MPAS) and Management Goals. Marine Protected Area Typologies. Closed Area Designations and Harvest Refugia: One End of the Type Spectrum. Coastal Biosphere Reserves: The Other End of the Type Spectrum. Marine Protected Area Case Studies. Marine Protected Area Site Selection. Guidelines for Marine Protected Area Design and Management Planning. International Instruments and Frameworks Facilitating Marine Protected Area Designation. Conclusions. Appendix: Principles for the Conservation of Living Resources. Literature Cited. Index.