Marine Propellers and Propulsion - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780080971230, 9780080971247

Marine Propellers and Propulsion

3rd Edition

Authors: John Carlton
eBook ISBN: 9780080971247
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080971230
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 20th September 2012
Page Count: 544
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Propulsion technology is a complex, multidisciplinary topic with design, construction, operational and research implications. Bringing together a wealth of disparate information from the field, Marine Propellers and Propulsion provides comprehensive and cutting edge coverage to equip marine engineers, naval architects and anyone involved in propulsion and hydrodynamics with the knowledge needed to do the job.

Drawing on experience from a long and varied career in consultancy, research, design and technical investigation, author John Carlton breaks the subject into three main sections - hydrodynamic theory, materials and mechanical considerations, and design, operation and performance. Connecting essential theory to practical problems in design, analysis and operational efficiency, Marine Propellers and Propulsion is an invaluable resource, packed with hard-won insights, detailed specifications and data.

Key Features

  • The most complete book available on marine propellers, fully updated and revised, with new chapters on propulsion in ice and high speed propellers
  • Gathers together otherwise disparate material on the theory and practice of propulsion technology from the past 40 years’ development, including the latest developments in improving efficiency
  • Written by a leading expert on propeller technology, essential for students, marine engineers and naval architects involved in propulsion and hydrodynamics


Practising marine engineers and naval architects; Marine engineering students on propulsion & hydrodynamics courses; Academic/corporate libraries

Table of Contents


Preface to the Third Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

General Nomenclature

Chapter 1. The Early Development of the Screw Propeller


Further Reading

Chapter 2. Propulsion Systems

2.1 Fixed Pitch Propellers

2.2 Ducted Propellers

2.3 Podded and Azimuthing Propulsors

2.4 Contra-Rotating Propellers

2.5 Overlapping Propellers

2.6 Tandem Propellers

2.7 Controllable Pitch Propellers

2.8 Surface Piercing Propellers

2.9 Waterjet Propulsion

2.10 Cycloidal Propellers

2.11 Paddle Wheels

2.12 Magnetohydrodynamic Propulsion

2.13 Whale-Tail Propulsion

References and Further Reading

Chapter 3. Propeller Geometry

3.1 Frames of Reference

3.2 Propeller Reference Lines

3.3 Pitch

3.4 Rake and Skew

3.5 Propeller Outlines and Area

3.6 Propeller Drawing Methods

3.7 Section Geometry and Definition

3.8 Blade Thickness Distribution and Thickness Fraction

3.9 Blade Interference Limits for Controllable Pitch Propellers

3.10 Controllable Pitch Propeller Off-Design Section Geometry

3.11 Miscellaneous Conventional Propeller Geometry Terminology

References and Further Reading

Chapter 4. The Propeller Environment

4.1 Density of Water

4.2 Salinity

4.3 Water Temperature

4.4 Viscosity

4.5 Vapor Pressure

4.6 Dissolved Gases in Sea Water

4.7 Surface Tension

4.8 Weather

4.9 Silt and Marine Organisms

References and Further Reading

Chapter 5. The Ship Wake Field

5.1 General Wake Field Characteristics

5.2 Wake Field Definition

5.3 The Nominal Wake Field

5.4 Estimation of Wake Field Parameters

5.5 Effective Wake Field

5.6 Wake Field Scaling

5.7 Wake Quality Assessment

5.8 Wake Field Measurement

References and Further reading

Chapter 6. Propeller Performance Characteristics

6.1 General Open Water Characteristics

6.2 The Effect of Cavitation on Open Water Characteristics

6.3 Propeller Scale Effects

6.4 Specific Propeller Open Water Characteristics

6.5 Standard Series Data

6.6 Multi-Quadrant Series Data

6.7 Slipstream Contraction and Flow Velocities in the Wake

6.8 Behind-Hull Propeller Characteristics

6.9 Propeller Ventilation

References and Further Reading

Chapter 7. Theoretical Methods – Basic Concepts

7.1 Basic Aerofoil Section Characteristics

7.2 Vortex Filaments and Sheets

7.3 Field Point Velocities

7.4 The Kutta Condition

7.5 The Starting Vortex

7.6 Thin Aerofoil Theory

7.7 Pressure Distribution Calculations

7.8 Boundary Layer Growth Over an Aerofoil

7.9 The Finite Wing

7.10 Models of Propeller Action

7.11 Source and Vortex Panel Methods

7.12 Euler, Lagrangian and Navier–Stokes Methods

References and Further Reading

Chapter 8. Theoretical and Analytical Methods Relating to Propeller Action

8.1 Momentum Theory – Rankine (1865); R.E. Froude (1887)

8.2 Blade Element Theory – W. Froude (1878)

8.3 Propeller Theoretical Development (1900–1930)

8.4 Burrill’s Analysis Procedure (1944)

8.5 Lerbs Analysis Method (1952)

8.6 Eckhardt and Morgan’s Design Method (1955)

8.7 Lifting Surface Correction Factors – Morgan et al.

8.8 Lifting Surface Models

8.9 Lifting Line–Lifting Surface Hybrid Models

8.10 Vortex Lattice Methods

8.11 Boundary Element Methods

8.12 Methods for Specialist Propulsors

8.13 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis

References and Further Reading

Chapter 9. Cavitation

9.1 The Basic Physics of Cavitation

9.2 Types of Cavitation Experienced by Propellers

9.3 Cavitation Considerations in Design

9.4 Cavitation Inception

9.5 Cavitation-Induced Damage

9.6 Cavitation Testing of Propellers

9.7 Analysis of Measured Pressure Data from a Cavitating Propeller

9.8 The CFD Prediction of Cavitation

References and Further Reading

Chapter 10. Propeller Noise

10.1 Physics of Underwater Sound

10.2 Nature of Propeller Noise

10.3 Noise Scaling Relationships

10.4 Noise Prediction and Control

10.5 Transverse Propulsion Unit Noise

10.6 Measurement of Radiated Noise

10.7 Noise in Relation to Marine Mammals

References and Further Reading

Chapter 11. Propeller, Ship and Rudder Interaction

11.1 Bearing Forces and Moments

11.2 Hydrodynamic Interaction

11.3 Propeller–Rudder Interaction

References and Further Reading

Chapter 12. Ship Resistance and Propulsion

12.1 Froude’s Analysis Procedure

12.2 Components of Calm Water Resistance

12.3 Methods of Resistance Evaluation

12.4 Propulsive Coefficients

12.5 The Influence of Rough Water

12.6 Restricted Water Effects

12.7 High-Speed Hull form Resistance

12.8 Air Resistance

References and Further Reading

Chapter 13. Thrust Augmentation Devices

13.1 Devices Before the Propeller

13.2 Devices at the Propeller

13.3 Devices Behind the Propeller

13.4 Combinations of Systems

References and Further Reading

Chapter 14. Transverse Thrusters

14.1 Transverse Thrusters

14.2 Steerable Internal Duct Thrusters

References and Further Reading

Chapter 15. Azimuthing and Podded Propulsors

15.1 Azimuthing Thrusters

15.2 Podded Propulsors

References and Further Reading

Chapter 16. Waterjet Propulsion

16.1 Basic Principle of Waterjet Propulsion

16.2 Impeller Types

16.3 Maneuvering Aspects of Waterjets

16.4 Waterjet Component Design

References and Further Reading

Chapter 17. Full-Scale Trials

17.1 Power Absorption Measurements and Trials

17.2 Bollard Pull Trials

17.3 Propeller-Induced Hull Surface Pressure Measurements

17.4 Cavitation Observations

References and Further Reading

Chapter 18. Propeller Materials

18.1 General Properties of Propeller Materials

18.2 Specific Properties of Propeller Materials

18.3 Mechanical Properties

18.4 Test Procedures

References and Further Reading

Chapter 19. Propeller Blade Strength

19.1 Cantilever Beam Method

19.2 Numerical Blade Stress Computational Methods

19.3 Detailed Strength Design Considerations

19.4 Propeller Backing Stresses

19.5 Blade Root Fillet Design

19.6 Residual Blade Stresses

19.7 Allowable Design Stresses

19.8 Full-Scale Blade Strain Measurement

References and Further Reading

Chapter 20. Propeller Manufacture

20.1 Traditional Manufacturing Method

20.2 Changes to the Traditional Technique of Manufacture

References and Further Reading

Chapter 21. Propeller Blade Vibration

21.1 Flat-Plate Blade Vibration in Air

21.2 Vibration of Propeller Blades in Air

21.3 The Effect of Immersion in Water

21.4 Simple Estimation Methods

21.5 Finite Element Analysis

21.6 Propeller Blade Damping

21.7 Propeller Singing

References and Further Reading

Chapter 22. Propeller Design

22.1 The Design and Analysis Loop

22.2 Design Constraints

22.3 The Energy Efficiency Design Index

22.4 The Choice of Propeller Type

22.5 The Propeller Design Basis

22.6 The Use of Standard Series Data in Design

22.7 Design Considerations

22.8 The Design Process

References and Further Reading

Chapter 23. Operational Problems

23.1 Performance Related Problems

23.2 Propeller Integrity Related Problems

23.3 Impact or Grounding

References and Further Reading

Chapter 24. Service Performance and Analysis

24.1 Effects of Weather

24.2 Hull Roughness and Fouling

24.3 Hull Drag Reduction

24.4 Propeller Roughness and Fouling

24.5 Generalized Equations for the Roughness-Induced Power Penalties in Ship Operation

24.6 Monitoring of Ship Performance

References and Further Reading

Chapter 25. Propeller Tolerances and Inspection

25.1 Propeller Tolerances

25.2 Propeller Inspection

References and Further Reading

Chapter 26. Propeller Maintenance and Repair

26.1 Causes of Propeller Damage

26.2 Propeller Repair

26.3 Welding and the Extent of Weld Repairs

26.4 Stress Relief

References and Further Reading




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About the Author

John Carlton

John Carlton is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and Professor of Marine Engineering at City University, London. He recently served as the 109th President of the IMarEST and was formerly Global Head of Marine Technology and Investigations at Lloyd’s Register. Over a long and distinguished career he has authored more than a hundred technical papers and articles on marine technology, received numerous awards, chaired international committees and contributed to various government and naval initiatives on maritime matters.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Marine Engineering at City University, London and 109th President of the IMarEST


"The third edition of this text/reference for marine engineers, naval architects, and students studying propulsion and hydrodynamics is updated to cover the latest theory, best practices, legislation, and industry standards since 2007. There is new material on the physics of cavitation development and collapse, erosive effects on propeller materials, and the effects of shipping activity on the behavior of marine mammals." --Reference and Research Book News, December 2013