Marine Policy & Economics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080964812, 9780123785589

Marine Policy & Economics

1st Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: John Steele Steve Thorpe Karl Turekian
eBook ISBN: 9780123785589
Paperback ISBN: 9780080964812
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st September 2010
Page Count: 647
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Elements of Physical Oceanography is a derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2nd Edition and serves as an important reference on current physical oceanography knowledge and expertise in one convenient and accessible source. Its selection of articles—all written by experts in their field—focuses on ocean physics, air-sea transfers, waves, mixing, ice, and the processes of transfer of properties such as heat, salinity, momentum and dissolved gases, within and into the ocean. Elements of Physical Oceanography serves as an ideal reference for topical research.

Key Features

  • References related articles in physical oceanography to facilitate further research
  • Richly illustrated with figures and tables that aid in understanding key concepts
  • Includes an introductory overview and then explores each topic in detail, making it useful to experts and graduate-level researchers
  • Topical arrangement makes it the perfect desk reference


professionals, researchers, and graduate students in the marine sciences

Table of Contents

  • Surface Waves, Tides, and Sea Level
    • Elements of Physical Oceanography: Introduction
      • Editorial Advisory Board Members who helped in the production of this volume
    • Surface Gravity and Capillary Waves
      • Introduction
      • Basic Formulations
      • Linear Waves
      • The Group Velocity
      • Second Order Quantities
      • Waves on Currents: Action Conservation
      • Nonlinear Effects
      • Resonant Interactions
      • Parasitic Capillary Waves
      • Wave Breaking
      • See also
    • Wave Generation by Wind
      • Introduction
      • Theories of Wave Growth
      • Experiments and Observations
      • Numerical Modeling of the Wind Input
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Rogue Waves
      • Introduction
      • Surface Gravity Waves
      • Physical Mechanisms
      • Statistics of Large Waves
      • Experiments and Observations
      • Numerical Simulations
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Waves on Beaches
      • Introduction
      • The Dynamics of Incident Waves
      • Radiation Stress: the Forcing of Mean Flows and Set-up
      • Nonlinear Incident Waves
      • Vertically Dependent Processes
      • 2HD Flows - Circulation
      • Infragravity Waves and Edge Waves
      • Shear Waves
      • Conclusions
      • Nomenclature
      • See also
    • Wave Energy
      • Introduction
      • Wave Power: Resource and Exploitation
      • Economics of Wave Power Conversion
      • Concluding remarks
      • See also
    • Whitecaps and Foam
      • Introduction
      • Spilling Wave Crests: Stage A Whitecaps
      • Decaying Foam Patches: Stage B Whitecaps
      • Wind-Dependence of Oceanic Whitecap Coverage
      • Stabilized Sea Foam
      • Global Implications
      • See also
    • Breaking Waves and Near-Surface Turbulence
      • Introduction
      • Breaking Waves
      • Turbulence beneath Breaking Waves
      • Conclusion
      • Nomenclature
      • See also
    • Seiches
      • Introduction
      • History
      • Dynamics
      • Generating Mechanisms and Observations
      • See also
    • Tsunami
      • TSUNAMI
      • Historical and Recent Tsunamis
      • Tsunami Generation Mechanisms
      • Modeling of Tsunami Generation, Propagation, and Coastal Inundation
      • Tsunami Generation and Propagation in an Open Ocean
      • Coastal Effects – Inundation and Tsunami Forces
      • Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
      • Tsunami Early Warning System
      • Coastal Inundation Map
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
    • Storm Surges
      • Introduction and Definitions
      • Storm Surge Equations
      • Generation and Dynamics of Storm Surges
      • Areas Affected by Storm Surges
      • Storm Surge Prediction
      • Interactions with Wind Waves
      • Data Assimilation
      • Related Issues
      • See also
    • Coastal Trapped Waves
      • Introduction
      • Formulation
      • Straight Unstratified Shelf
      • Other Geometry
      • Stratification
      • Friction
      • Mean Flows
      • Non-linear Effects
      • Alongshore Variations
      • Generation and Role of Coastal-trapped Waves
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Tides
      • Introduction
      • Tidal Patterns
      • Gravitational Potential
      • The Equilibrium Tide
      • Tidal Analysis
      • Tidal Dynamics
      • Ocean Tides
      • Energy Fluxes and Budgets
      • See also
    • Tidal Energy
      • Introduction
      • Energy of Tides
      • Extracting Tidal Energy: Traditional Approach
      • Extracting Tidal Energy: Non-traditional Approach
      • Utilizing Electric Energy from Tidal Power Plants
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Sea Level Change
      • Introduction
      • Sea-Level Changes Since the Last Glacial Maximum
      • Observed Recent Sea-Level Change
      • Tide-gauge Observations
      • Altimeter Observations
      • Processes Determining Present Rates of Sea-Level Change
      • Regional Sea-Level Change
      • Longer-term Changes
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Sea Level Variations Over Geological Time
      • Introduction
      • Sea Level Change due to Volume of Water in the Ocean Basin
      • Sea Level Change due to Changing Volume of the Ocean Basin
      • Sea Level Change Estimated from Observations on the Continents
      • Summary
  • The Air-Sea Interface
    • Heat and Momentum Fluxes at the Sea Surface
      • Introduction
      • Measuring the Fluxes
      • Sources of Flux Data
      • Regional and Seasonal Variation of the Momentum Flux
      • Regional and Seasonal Variation of the Heat Fluxes
      • Accuracy of Flux Estimates
      • See also
    • Sea Surface Exchanges of Momentum, Heat, and Fresh Water Determined by Satellite
      • Introduction
      • Flux Estimation Using Satellite Observations
      • Summary and Applications
      • Nomenclature
      • See also
    • Evaporation and Humidity
      • Introduction
      • History/Definitions and Nomenclature
      • Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
      • Tropical Conditions of Humidity
      • Latitudinal and Regional Variations
      • Vertical Structure of Humidity
      • Sublimation–Deposition
      • Sources of Data
      • Estimation of Evaporation by Satellite Data
      • Future Directions and Conclusions
    • Freshwater Transport and Climate
      • Introduction
      • Methods of Fresh Water Flux and Transport Estimation
      • Basin Balances
      • Interbasin Exchange
      • Global Budgets
      • Future Directions
      • See also
    • Air–Sea Gas Exchange
      • Introduction
      • Theory
      • Experimental Techniques and Results
      • Outlook
      • Nomenclature
      • See also
    • Air–Sea Transfer: Dimethyl Sulfide, COS, CS2, NH4, Non-Methane Hydrocarbons, Organo-Halogens
      • Dimethylsulfide
      • Carbonyl Sulfide
      • Carbon Disulfide
      • Nonmethane Hydrocarbons
      • Ammonia
      • Organohalogens
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Air–Sea Transfer: N2O, NO, CH4, CO
      • Introduction
      • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
      • Nitric Oxide (NO)
      • Methane (CH4)
      • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
      • Air–Sea Exchange of Trace Gases
      • See also
    • Gas Exchange in Estuaries
      • Introduction
      • Gas Solubility
      • Gas Exchange (Flux) Across the Air/Water Interface
      • Models of Gas Exchange
      • Direct Gas Exchange Measurements
      • Individual Gases
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Penetrating Shortwave Radiation
      • Introduction
      • Albedo
      • Spectrum of Downward Irradiance
      • Modeled Irradiance
      • Parameterized Irradiance versus Depth
      • See also
    • Radiative Transfer in the Ocean
      • Introduction
      • Terminology
      • Radiometric Quantities
      • Inherent Optical Properties
      • The Radiative Transfer Equation
      • Apparent Optical Properties
      • Optical Constituents of Seawater
      • Examples of Underwater Light Fields
    • Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Particulate Material to the Oceans
      • Introduction
      • Aerosol Sources, Composition, and Concentrations
      • Aerosol Removal Mechanisms
      • Deposition of Aerosols to the Oceans
      • Conclusions
    • Surface Films
      • Introduction
      • Orgin of Surface Films
      • Modifications of Air–Sea Interaction by Surface Films
      • See also
    • Bubbles
      • Introduction
      • Sources of Bubbles
      • Dispersion and Development
      • Surfacing and Bursting
      • Acoustical and Optical Properties
      • Summary of Bubble Distribution
      • See also
  • Boundary Layers: The Upper Ocean Boundary Layer
    • Upper Ocean Vertical Structure
      • Introduction
      • Major Features of the Upper Ocean Vertical Structure
      • Definitions
      • Variability in Upper Ocean Vertical Structure
      • Other Properties That Define the Upper Ocean Vertical Structure
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Wind- and Buoyancy-Forced Upper Ocean
      • Introduction
      • Air–Sea Interaction
      • The Seasonal Cycle
      • Conclusion
      • Nomenclature
      • See also
    • Upper Ocean Space and Time Variability
      • Introduction
      • Turbulence and Mixing
      • Langmuir Circulation and Convection
      • Internal Waves
      • Fronts and Eddies
      • Wind-Forced Currents
      • Seasonal Cycles
      • Climatic Signals
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Upper Ocean Mean Horizontal Structure
      • Introduction
      • Horizontal Property Fields
      • The Mixed Layer and Seasonal Thermocline
      • The Barrier Layer
      • The Subtropical Gyres and the Permanent Thermocline
      • The Equatorial Region
      • The Polar Regions
      • See also
    • Upper Ocean Structure: Responses to Strong Atmospheric Forcing Events
      • Introduction
      • Atmospheric Forcing
      • Air–Sea Parameters
      • Gulf of Mexico Basin
      • Oceanic Response
      • Summary
      • Acknowledgments
      • See also
      • Relevant Website
    • Upper Ocean Mixing Processes
      • Introduction
      • Convection
      • Wind Forcing
      • Effects of Precipitation
      • Ice on the Upper Ocean
      • Parameterizations of Upper Ocean Mixing
      • See also
    • Langmuir Circulation and Instability
      • Introduction
      • Description of Langmuir Circulation
      • Theory
      • Field Observations
      • See also
    • Upper Ocean Heat and Freshwater Budgets
      • Introduction
      • Governing Processes
      • Measurements
      • Distributions
      • Severe Storms
      • Reactions to Climate Change
      • Future Developments
      • See also
      • Relevant Website
  • Boundary Layers: The Benthic Boundary Layer
    • Turbulence in the Benthic Boundary Layer
      • Introduction
      • The Ekman Layer
      • Viscous Sublayer
      • The Wall Layer
      • observations
      • Discussion
    • Benthic Boundary Layer Effects
      • Introduction
      • Organisms of the Benthic Boundary Layer
      • BBL Flow Adaptations
      • Life History Adaptations
      • Suspension-feeding Adaptations
      • Adaptations to Resist Shear Stress
      • Aggregation as an Adaptation
      • Conclusions
      • See also
  • Boundary Layers: Under-Ice Boundary Layer
    • Under-Ice Boundary Layer
      • Introduction
      • History and Basic Concepts
      • Turbulence in the Under-ice Boundary Layer
      • Outstanding Problems
      • Nomenclature
      • See also
    • Ice–Ocean Interaction
      • Introduction
      • Drag and Characteristic Regions of the Under-ice Boundary Layer
      • Heat and Mass Balance at the Ice-Ocean Interface: Wintertime Convection
      • Effects of Horizontal Inhomogeneity: Wintertime Buoyancy Flux
      • Effects of Horizontal Inhomogeneity: Summertime Buoyancy Flux
      • Internal Waves and Their Interaction with the Ice Cover
      • Outstanding Issues
      • See also
  • Internal Waves
    • Internal Waves
      • Introduction
      • Interfacial Waves
      • Internal Waves
      • Other Aspects
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Internal Tides
      • Introduction
      • Modes and Beams
      • Observations
      • Implications for Energetics and Mixing
      • See also
  • Processes of Diapycnal Mixing
    • Three-Dimensional (3d) Turbulence
      • Introduction
      • The Mechanics of Turbulence
      • Stationary, Homogeneous, Isotropic Turbulence
      • Turbulence in Geophysical Flows
      • Length Scales of Ocean Turbulence
      • See also
    • Laboratory Studies of Turbulent Mixing
      • Introduction
      • Experiments
      • Continuous Stratification
      • Summary
    • Internal Tidal Mixing
      • Introduction
      • Stirring and Mixing
      • The Battle for Spatial Resolution
      • Maintaining the Stratification
      • Tidal Dissipation: The Astronomic Evidence
      • Boundary Layer Dissipation Versus Scatter
      • Satellite Altimetry to The Rescue
      • Discussion
      • See also
    • Estimates of Mixing
      • Introduction
      • Approaches to Quantifying Mixing
      • Large-Scale Estimates
      • Purposeful Tracer Releases
      • Tracer Budgets (Inverse Methods)
      • Fine- and Microscale Estimates
      • Direct Eddy Correlation
      • Microscalars (Osborn-Cox method)
      • Estimates from Energy Considerations (Osborn Method)
      • Summary
      • Nomenclature
      • See also
    • Energetics of Ocean Mixing
      • Introduction
      • The Global Ocean’s Energy Budget
      • The Traditional Paradigm of Ocean Mixing: The Abyssal Ocean
      • An Alternative Paradigm of Ocean Mixing: The Permanent Pycnocline
      • Conclusion
      • Nomenclature
      • See also
    • Fossil Turbulence
      • Introduction
      • History of Fossil Turbulence
      • Intermittency of Oceanic Turbulence and Mixing
      • Turbulence and Fossil Turbulence Definitions
      • Formation and Detection of Stratified Fossil Turbulence
      • Quantitative Methods
      • See also
    • Open Ocean Convection
      • Introduction
      • Phenomenology
      • Penetrative Convection
      • Relative Contributions of Convection and Shear Stress to Turbulence
      • Convection and Molecular Sublayers
      • Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles of Convection
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Deep Convection
      • Introduction
      • Plumes - the Mixing Agent
      • Temperature and Salinity Variability
      • Restratification
      • Discussion
    • Double-Diffusive Convection
      • Introduction
      • Salt Fingers
      • Diffusive Convection
      • Intrusions
      • Global Importance
      • See also
    • Differential Diffusion
      • Introduction
      • What Is Differential Diffusion?
      • Laboratory Evidence for Differential Diffusion
      • Numerical Simulation of Differential Diffusion
      • Oceanic Values of Diffusivity Ratio
      • Other Observational Evidence for Differential Diffusion?
      • Does Differential Diffusion Matter?
      • See also
    • Dispersion and Diffusion in the Deep Ocean
      • Introduction
      • The Thermohaline Circulation
      • Deep-sea Observations of Mixing
      • Summary
      • See also
  • Horizontal Dispersion, Transport, and Ocean Properties
    • Vortical Modes
      • Introduction
      • Potential Vorticity
      • Basin Scales
      • Mesoscale
      • Fine-scale
      • Generation Mechanisms
      • Observational Challenge
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Intrusions
      • Introduction
      • Observational Studies
      • Theoretical Studies
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Dispersion in Shallow Seas
      • Introduction
      • Fundamentals - The Fluid Mechanics of Dispersion
      • Dispersion Phenomena
      • See also
    • Dispersion from Hydrothermal Vents
      • Introduction
      • The Rising Plume
      • Mesoscale Flow and Vortices
      • Large-scale flow
      • Discussion
      • Nomenclature
      • See also
    • Nepheloid Layers
      • Introduction
      • Optics of Nephelometers: What They ‘See’
      • Nepheloid Layer Features
      • Separated Mixed-Layer Model
      • Decay of Concentration: Aging of Particulate Populations
      • Chemical Scavenging by Particles in Nepheloid Layers
      • The Turbidity Minimum
      • Concentration and Spreading in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
      • Boundary Mixing, INLs, and Inversions
      • Trenches and Channels
      • See also
    • Heat Transport and Climate
      • Introduction: The Global Heat Budget
      • Air–Sea Heat Exchange
      • Distribution of Ocean Heat Transport
      • Eddy Heat Transport
      • Future Developments
      • See also
    • El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
      • Introduction
      • The Tropical Pacific Ocean–Atmosphere System
      • Mechanisms of ENSO
      • Interannual Variations in Climate
      • Impacts
      • ENSO and Seasonal Predictions
      • See also
    • North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)
      • Introduction
      • What is the NAO?
      • Impacts of the NAO
      • What are the Mechanisms that Govern NAO Variability?
      • Glossary
      • See also
    • Water Types and Water Masses
      • Introduction
      • What is a Water Mass?
      • Descriptive Tools: The TS Curve
      • Global Water Mass Distribution
      • Summary TS Relationships
      • Discussion and Conclusion
    • Neutral Surfaces and the Equation of State
      • Introduction
      • Requirements for a Neutral Surface to Exist
      • The Helical Nature of Neutral Trajectories
      • Neutral Density Surfaces Compared with Potential Density Surfaces
      • Equation of State
      • Summary
      • See also
  • ICE
    • Sea Ice: Overview
      • Introduction
      • Extent
      • Geophysical Importance
      • Properties
      • Drift and Deformation
      • Trends
      • See also
    • Sea Ice Dynamics
      • Introduction
      • Drift Ice Medium
      • Equation of Motion
      • Numerical Modeling
      • Concluding Words
      • See also
    • Sea Ice
      • Introduction
      • Sea Ice Extent
      • Sea Ice Thickness
      • See also
    • Polynyas
      • Introduction
      • Physical Processes within the Two Polynya Types
      • Remote Sensing Observations
      • Physical Importance
      • Biological Importance
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
      • See also
  • Processes in Coastal and Shelf Seas
    • Beaches, Physical Processes Affecting
      • Introduction
      • Beaches
      • Wave-dominated Beaches
      • Reflective Beaches
      • Intermediate Beaches
      • Dissipative Beaches
      • Bar Number
      • Modes of Beach Change and Erosion
      • Tide-modified Beaches
      • Reflective Plus Low Tide Terrace
      • Reflective Plus Low Tide Bar and Rips
      • Ultradissipative
      • Tide-dominated Beach
      • Beach Modification
      • See also
    • Shelf Sea and Slope Sea Fronts
      • Introduction
      • Freshwater Fronts in Shelf Seas
      • Tidal Mixing Fronts in Shelf Seas
      • Shelf Slope Fronts
      • Summary
  • Appendix 1. SI Units and Some Equivalences
  • Appendix 6. The Beaufort Wind Scale and Seastate
  • Index


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About the Editor-in-Chief

John Steele

Affiliations and Expertise

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Steve Thorpe

Affiliations and Expertise

National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, and Bangor University, U.K.

Karl Turekian


Karl Turekian was a man of remarkable scientific breadth, with innumerable important contributions to marine geochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, cosmochemistry, and global geochemical cycles. He was mentor to a long list of students, postdocs, and faculty (at Yale and elsewhere), a leader in geochemistry, a prolific author and editor, and had a profound influence in shaping his department at Yale University.

In 1949 Karl joined a graduate program in the new field of geochemistry at Columbia University under Larry Kulp with students Dick Holland and his fellow Wheaton alums Wally Broecker and Paul Gast. This was a propitious time as Columbia’s Lamont Geological Observatory had only been established a few years beforehand. It was during these years that Karl began to acquire the skills that led to his rapid emergence as a leader in geochemistry.

After a brief postdoc at Columbia, Karl accepted a position as Assistant Professor of Geology at Yale University in 1956, where he set out to create a program in geochemistry from scratch. Karl spent the rest of his life on the Yale faculty and was immersed in geochemistry to the end. He was deeply involved in editing this edition of the massive Treatise on Geochemistry, which has grown to 15 volumes, until only a month before his passing away on 15 March 2013.

Karl turned to the study of deep-sea cores and especially the analysis of trace elements to study the wide variety of geochemical processes that are recorded there. His work with Hans Wedepohl in writing and tabulating the Handbook of Geochemistry (Turekian, 1969) was a major accomplishment and this work was utilized by many generations of geochemists. Teaming up with his graduate students and in association with Paul Gast, he developed a mass spectrometry lab at Yale and began to thoroughly investigate the Rb–Sr isotopic systematics of deep-sea clays, not only as repositories but also as sites for exchange to occur and serve as a control of the geochemistry of ocean water.

Karl was a major player in a revolutionary marine geochemistry campaign known as the Geochemical Ocean Section Study (GEOSECS). GEOSECS was part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration in the 1970s, and it took aim at measuring and understanding the distribution of geochemical tracers for circulation and biogeochemistry in the world’s oceans.. It was also within this same time period that another large-scale ‘geochemical’ sampling program known as Apollo 11 came along. Here Karl utilized his INAA techniques to examine some of the first returned lunar samples for their trace elements. Karl was particularly proud of being the holder of the Silliman Chair and being curator of the Yale meteorite collection. In a continuation of Karl’s foray into cosmochemistry, Andy Davis came to Yale to study with Karl and Sydney Clark.

Equally important to the legacy of what Karl did for science in his research contributions on and across the planet was his influence on scientists. His legendary daily coffee hours were a training ground for many generations of students, postdocs, and visitors, as well as a proving ground for Karl’s own ideas. He had a great love for vigorous scientific debate. Karl loved to question and be questioned. Nothing was sacred and, in the act of questioning as in exploring, new science arises. He was extraordinarily supportive of people, always had time to discuss and listen, and helped everyone from students to his fellow faculty at Yale. Karl was twice department chair and even when not chair, a steadying influence in times of departmental difficulty.

Andrew M. Davis, Lawrence Grossman and Albert S. Colman

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

Mark H. Thiemens

University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA

This Obituary was first published in PNAS, Vol. 110, No. 41, 16290–16291, 10th October 2013 © 2013

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States and is reproduced with permission.

Affiliations and Expertise

Yale University, Connecticut, USA