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Marine Concrete Structures - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081000816, 9780081000847

Marine Concrete Structures

1st Edition

Design, Durability and Performance

Editor: Mark Alexander
eBook ISBN: 9780081000847
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081009055
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 24th June 2016
Page Count: 504
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Marine Concrete Structures: Design, Durability and Performance comprehensively examines structures located in, under, or in close proximity to the sea. A major emphasis of the book is on the long-term performance of marine concrete structures that not only represent major infrastructure investment and provision, but are also required to operate with minimal maintenance.

Chapters review the design, specification, construction, and operation of marine concrete structures, and examine their performance and durability in the marine environment. A number of case studies of significant marine concrete structures from around the world are included which help to reinforce the principles outlined in earlier chapters and provide useful background to these types of structures. The result is a thorough and up-to-date reference source that engineers, researchers, and postgraduate students in this field will find invaluable.

Key Features

  • Covers, in detail, the design, specification, construction, and operation of marine concrete structures
  • Examines the properties and performance of concrete in the marine environment
  • Provides case studies on significant marine concrete structures and durability-based design from around the world


Design and construction engineers working in marine concrete structures; owners and managers of marine concrete structures; and researchers and postgraduate students

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Importance of marine concrete structures and durability design

  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Definition and characteristics of the marine environment
  • 1.3. Fundamental requirements for marine concrete structures
  • 1.4. Standards and guidelines for design and construction of marine concrete structures
  • 1.5. Book outline

Part One. Design, specification and construction of marineconcrete structures

2. Types of marine concrete structures

  • 2.1. Port structures
  • 2.2. Coastal structures
  • 2.3. Sea water–retaining structures
  • 2.4. Summary
  • Sources of further information

3. Design and specification of marine concrete structures

  • 3.1. Introduction to marine concrete structure design
  • 3.2. Prescriptive versus performance-based specifications
  • 3.3. Codes of practice for design and specification of marine concrete structures
  • 3.4. Materials
  • 3.5. Design of plain (unreinforced) concrete marine structures
  • 3.6. Design of reinforced concrete marine structures
  • 3.7. Particular considerations for the design and specification of structural components
  • 3.8. Summary
  • Sources of further information

4. Construction methodologies and challenges for marine concrete structures

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Marine construction methodologies: general issues
  • 4.3. Particular construction challenges for different marine concrete structures
  • 4.4. Particular aspects of underwater concrete construction
  • 4.5. Marine construction specifications
  • 4.6. Future challenges and opportunities
  • Sources of further information and advice

Part Two. The performance and properties of concretein the marine environment

5. Deterioration of concrete in the marine environment

  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. The marine environment
  • 5.3. Chemical mechanisms of concrete deterioration
  • 5.4. Physical mechanisms of deterioration
  • 5.5. Steel corrosion in the marine environment
  • 5.6. Future challenges

6. The durability of concrete for marine construction: Materials and properties

  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Desirable properties for marine concrete
  • 6.3. Appropriate binders and cements
  • 6.4. Aggregates and admixtures
  • 6.5. Alternative reinforcement
  • 6.6. Mix design and proportioning
  • 6.7. Testing of marine concretes
  • 6.8. Future trends
  • Sources of further information and advice

7. Marine exposure environments and marine exposure sites

  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Variability of marine exposure environments in terms of severity
  • 7.3. Categorisation of marine exposure environments
  • 7.4. Holistic approach to quantification of severity of marine exposure environments
  • 7.5. Examples of marine sites around the world: field testing of marine concrete
  • 7.6. Lessons learnt from past experience and studies
  • 7.7. Future trends
  • Sources of further information and advice

Part Three. Case studies on marine concrete and durability–based design

8. The Confederation Bridge

  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Financial considerations
  • 8.3. Design considerations
  • 8.4. Bridge design
  • 8.5. Concrete mix design
  • 8.6. Ice shields
  • 8.7. Field performance of the Confederation Bridge concretes
  • 8.8. Conclusions

9. Marinas in the Arabian Gulf region

  • 9.1. The development of marine concrete structures in the Arabian Gulf
  • 9.2. Case study: construction and quality control of a reinforced concrete marina seawall (Heath and Alexander, 2012)
  • 9.3. Conclusions

10. Notable Southern African marine structures

  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Victoria and Alfred Waterfront development
  • 10.3. New Port of Ngqura Harbour, Eastern Cape, South Africa
  • 10.4. Durban Harbour entrance, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
  • 10.5. Durban Maydon Wharf 12, Kwazulu-Natal
  • 10.6. Rupert's Bay Wharf, St Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean
  • 10.7. Other notable marine structures
  • Sources of further information

11. Danish strait crossings: Lillebælt, Storebælt, Øresund and Femern Bælt

  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. Concrete durability issues
  • 11.3. The Lillebælt Bridges
  • 11.4. The Storebælt Link 1997 (rail), 1998 (road)
  • 11.5. The Øresund Link
  • 11.6. The Femern Bælt Tunnel
  • 11.7. Ownership and financing
  • 11.8. Asset management
  • 11.9. Conclusions

12. Coastal protection structures in the Netherlands

  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. Historical background to the Delta Project
  • 12.3. Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier
  • 12.4. Conclusions

13. Hong Kong—Zhuhai—Macau sea link project, China

  • 13.1. Introduction to HZM project
  • 13.2. Durability design: philosophy and procedure
  • 13.3. Quality control in construction
  • 13.4. Durability assessment
  • 13.5. Life-cycle management
  • 13.6. Conclusions

14. Concrete durability in small harbours: The Southern African experience

  • 14.1. Background to small harbours
  • 14.2. The seashore
  • 14.3. Case studies of selected small harbour structures, or constructions of limited size
  • 14.4. Ancillary durability issues
  • 14.5. Conclusions

15. Concrete durability of the new Panama Canal: Background and aspects of testing

  • 15.1. Introduction: background, brief details, locality
  • 15.2. Details of the structures: structural form, layout, extent and complexity
  • 15.3. Environment (salinity) of the marine concrete structures
  • 15.4. Concrete design philosophy and basis
  • 15.5. Particular aspects considered relating to durability
  • 15.6. Construction aspects
  • 15.7. Experimental program developed between GUPC and IETcc
  • 15.8. LIFEPRED model for calculating service life (Andrade and Tavares, 2012)
  • 15.9. Resistivity-based model (Andrade, 2004; Andrade et al., 2014, 2011)
  • 15.10. Results
  • 15.11. Analysis of results
  • 15.12. Conclusions

16. Durability design of new concrete infrastructure for future development of Singapore City

  • 16.1. Introduction
  • 16.2. Durability design
  • 16.3. Experimental work
  • 16.4. Probability of corrosion
  • 16.5. Discussion of results
  • 16.6. Conclusions


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2016
24th June 2016
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editor

Mark Alexander

Mark Alexander is Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Cape Town (UCT) and Director of the Concrete Materials and Structural Integrity Research Unit at UCT. He is a Fellow of the University of Cape Town and a registered Professional Engineer in South Africa. He teaches and researches in cement and concrete materials engineering relating to design and construction, with interests in concrete durability, service life prediction, concrete sustainability, and repair and rehabilitation of deteriorated concrete structures. He publishes regularly in local and international journals, and is President of RILEM, an international organisation linking experts and promoting research in civil engineering across 70 countries.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, South Africa


"This book will be a useful volume for practitioners undertaking the design, construction and maintenance of marine concrete structures as it provides a concise logical analysis of the challenges faced, together with solutions that can be employed in ensuring the durability of marine concrete structures.

The book comprises three parts, providing a seamless transition from design and specifications, to performance and properties of concrete, to practical case studies on marine concrete and durable marine concrete design. It covers the fundamental requirements and theory, material and concrete requirements, and practical methods required to effect durable concrete marine structures.

The book provides an excellent collation of thought-provoking facts and insights into the durability of marine concrete structures. It adds significantly to one’s overall understanding of marine concrete durability, the potential pitfalls and solutions that can be employed to ensure the durability of marine concrete structures. It further provides useful and germane cross references which can assist in deepening one’s understanding in particular areas.

This book will be an indispensable reference book for clients, engineers, designers, contractors and concrete technologists involved in designing and constructing any type of marine concrete structure." --Dr H K J Macdonald, C. Eng, Pr. Eng, Ing. P. Eur, FSAICE, FSAAE, FICE, FAArb, MCSSA, MSPE., January 2017

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