Marine and Offshore Corrosion - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780408011754, 9781483192253

Marine and Offshore Corrosion

1st Edition

Marine Engineering Series

Authors: Kenneth A Chandler
eBook ISBN: 9781483192253
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 19th December 1984
Page Count: 428
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Description

Marine and Offshore Corrosion describes the principles of effective corrosion control treatments in marine environments, with emphasis on economic solutions to corrosion. The book explains chemical or electrochemical reaction of an alloy with its environment leading to corrosion, and mechanical loss of the metal by erosion, abrasion, or wear resulting also in corrosion. A main consideration of erosion control that the engineer should look into is the economic side. Other considerations that he should investigate are the strength of a structure, time for construction, availability of materials, and costs. The book also discusses the marine environment consisting of sea water, temperature fluctuations, dissolved gases, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity, fouling. The text describes the selection of materials to be used in marine environments, surface preparation of steel before painting, the type of paint, and metallic coatings. Some of the factors in selecting coating systems are: cost and estimated life before the first scheduled maintenance, adhesion properties, moisture tolerance, elasticity, chemical resistance, impact resistance, bacterial resistance. The factors affecting maintenance include environmental conditions, quality of initial protection applied, type of structure, as well as the design and purpose of the structure. The book has been prepared for engineers and designers who are not corrosion specialists but have to deal with marine corrosion problems as part of their day-to-day professional activities. The text will also turn out to be useful for engineers with general interest in structure, building, or machinery maintenance specially those located near coastal areas.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Introduction: The Control of Corrosion in Marine Environments

1.1 The Corrosion Process

1.2 Corrosion Control

Chapter 2 Principles of Corrosion

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Why Metals Corrode

2.3 Rate and Form of Corrosion

2.4 Electrochemical Mechanism of Corrosion

2.5 Spontaneity of Reaction

2.6 Rates of Anodic and Cathodic Reactions

2.7 Corrosion Products

2.8 Equilibrium and Equilibrium Potentials

2.9 Measurement of Potentials of Half-Cells

2.10 Electrode Polarisation

2.11 Potential-pH Equilibrium Diagrams

2.12 Potential-Current Diagrams

2.13 Passivation

2.14 Anodic E-i Curves

2.15 Further Reading

Chapter 3 Marine Environments

3.1 Sea Water

3.2 Temperature

3.3 Dissolved Gases

3.4 Hydrogen Sulphide and Ammonia

3.5 Carbon Dioxide

3.6 Electrical Conductivity

3.7 pH of Sea Water

3.8 Calcareous Scales

3.9 Global Variations in Sea Water

3.10 Fouling

3.11 Corrosion under Immersed Conditions

3.12 Atmospheric Marine Environments

3.13 References

Chapter 4 Forms of Corrosion

4.1 General Attack

4.2 Localised Corrosion

4.3 Selective Leaching

4.4 Intergranular Corrosion

4.5 Velocity Effects on Corrosion

4.6 Stress Corrosion Cracking

4.7 Corrosion Fatigue

4.8 Fretting Corrosion

4.9 Fretting Fatigue

4.10 Filiform Corrosion

4.11 Bimetallic Corrosion

4.12 High-Temperature Oxidation

4.13 The Role of Bacteria in Corrosion

4.14 References

Chapter 5 Ferrous Alloys

5.1 Carbon Steel

5.2 Low-Alloy Steels

5.3 Cast Irons

5.4 Stainless Steels

5.5 Special Stainless Steels for Sea Water

5.6 References

Chapter 6 Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys

6.1 Copper and Copper-Base Alloys

6.2 Nickel Alloys

6.3 Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys

6.4 Titanium

6.5 Magnesium

6.6 Other Metals and Materials used in Marine Situations

6.7 References

Chapter 7 Design

7.1 Features that Promote Corrosion

7.2 Access for Maintenance

7.3 Environment Control in Structures

7.4 Special Situations

7.5 Bimetallic Corrosion

7.6 Flowing Water Systems

7.7 References

Chapter 8 The Selection of Materials for Marine Environments

8.1 Factors Involved in the Selection of Materials

8.2 Costs and Reliability

8.3 Quality Control

8.4 Corrosion Data

8.5 Materials for Salt Water Systems

8.6 General Summary

8.7 References

Chapter 9 Protective Coatings for Steelwork—Surface Preparation of Steel Before Painting

9.1 The Nature of the Steel Surface

9.2 Cleaning of Steelwork

9.3 Acid Pickling

9.4 Flame Cleaning

9.5 Standards for Surface Cleanliness

9.6 Surface Profile

9.7 Soluble Corrosion Products

9.8 Preparation of Welds

9.9 References

Chapter 10 Paint Coatings

10.1 Paint Systems

10.2 Pigments

10.3 Paint Additives, Solvents and Diluents

10.4 Binders

10.5 Types of Paint

10.6 High-Duty Coatings and Plastics Coatings

10.7 Wrapping Tapes

10.8 Paint Application

10.9 Temporary Protection

10.10 References

Chapter 11 Metallic Coatings

11.1 Methods of Applying Metal Coatings

11.2 Corrosion Protection by Metallic Coatings

11.3 Corrosion Data for Metallic Coatings in Marine Environments

11.4 Selection of Metal Coatings

11.5 Welded Areas

11.6 General Comments

11.7 References

Chapter 12 Attaining the Potential Performance of Coating Systems in Marine Environments

12.1 Specifications

12.2 Performance Specifications and Guarantees

12.3 Quality Control of the Application of Coatings

12.4 Reference

Chapter 13 The Selection of Coating Systems for Marine Environments

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Systems for General Marine Structures and Installations

Chapter 14 Maintenance Painting

14.1 The Need for Maintenance

14.2 Factors Affecting Maintenance

14.3 The Approach to Maintenance

14.4 Planning of Maintenance

14.5 Surveys for Maintenance

14.6 Treatment of Painted Steelwork

14.7 Treatment of Metal Coatings

14.8 References

Chapter 15 Control and Treatment of the Environment

15.1 Atmospheric Environments

15.2 Aqueous Environments

15.3 Summary

Chapter 16 Cathodic Protection

16.1 Introduction

16.2 General Principles of Cathodic Protection

16.3 The Practical Application of Cathodic Protection

16.4 Applications of Cathodic Protection in Marine Situations

16.5 Cathodic Protection of Fixed Offshore Structures

16.6 Cathodic Protection of Harbours, Jetties and Related Facilities

16.7 Cathodic Protection of Submarine Pipelines and Outfalls

16.8 Cathodic Protection of Ships

16.9 References

Chapter 17 Offshore Structures for Oil and Gas Production

17.1 Economics

17.2 Environments and Corrosion Control

17.3 Maintenance

17.4 Surveys for Maintenance

17.5 Design

17.6 Fouling

17.7 Hot-Riser Corrosion

17.8 Downhole Corrosion

17.9 Hydrogen-Induced Cracking and Blistering

17.10 Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC)

17.11 Corrosion fatigue

17.12 Submarine Pipelines

17.13 External Coatings for Submarine Pipelines

17.14 Quality Control of Submarine Pipeline Coatings

17.15 References

Chapter 18 Protective Coating of Ships

18.1 Protective Coatings for New Constructions

18.2 Maintenance of Ships' Coating Systems

18.3 References

Chapter 19 Steel Piling

19.1 Corrosion Rates

19.2 Protective Systems

19.3 References

Chapter 20 Reinforced Concrete, Wood and Plastics

20.1 Reinforced Concrete

20.2 Corrosion by Woods

20.3 Corrosion by Plastics

20.4 References

Chapter 21 Testing and Monitoring

21.1 Corrosion Testing

21.2 Types of Test

21.3 Laboratory Tests

21.4 Field Tests

21.5 Service Trials

21.6 Removal of Corrosion Products

21.7 Standards for Testing

21.8 Monitoring

21.9 References

Appendix

Index

Details

No. of pages:
428
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1985
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483192253

About the Author

Kenneth A Chandler