Marine and Offshore Corrosion

Marine and Offshore Corrosion

Marine Engineering Series

1st Edition - December 19, 1984

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  • Author: Kenneth A Chandler
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483192253

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Description

Marine and Offshore Corrosion describes the principles of effective corrosion control treatments in marine environments, with emphasis on economic solutions to corrosion. The book explains chemical or electrochemical reaction of an alloy with its environment leading to corrosion, and mechanical loss of the metal by erosion, abrasion, or wear resulting also in corrosion. A main consideration of erosion control that the engineer should look into is the economic side. Other considerations that he should investigate are the strength of a structure, time for construction, availability of materials, and costs. The book also discusses the marine environment consisting of sea water, temperature fluctuations, dissolved gases, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity, fouling. The text describes the selection of materials to be used in marine environments, surface preparation of steel before painting, the type of paint, and metallic coatings. Some of the factors in selecting coating systems are: cost and estimated life before the first scheduled maintenance, adhesion properties, moisture tolerance, elasticity, chemical resistance, impact resistance, bacterial resistance. The factors affecting maintenance include environmental conditions, quality of initial protection applied, type of structure, as well as the design and purpose of the structure. The book has been prepared for engineers and designers who are not corrosion specialists but have to deal with marine corrosion problems as part of their day-to-day professional activities. The text will also turn out to be useful for engineers with general interest in structure, building, or machinery maintenance specially those located near coastal areas.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgements

    Chapter 1 Introduction: The Control of Corrosion in Marine Environments

    1.1 The Corrosion Process

    1.2 Corrosion Control

    Chapter 2 Principles of Corrosion

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Why Metals Corrode

    2.3 Rate and Form of Corrosion

    2.4 Electrochemical Mechanism of Corrosion

    2.5 Spontaneity of Reaction

    2.6 Rates of Anodic and Cathodic Reactions

    2.7 Corrosion Products

    2.8 Equilibrium and Equilibrium Potentials

    2.9 Measurement of Potentials of Half-Cells

    2.10 Electrode Polarisation

    2.11 Potential-pH Equilibrium Diagrams

    2.12 Potential-Current Diagrams

    2.13 Passivation

    2.14 Anodic E-i Curves

    2.15 Further Reading

    Chapter 3 Marine Environments

    3.1 Sea Water

    3.2 Temperature

    3.3 Dissolved Gases

    3.4 Hydrogen Sulphide and Ammonia

    3.5 Carbon Dioxide

    3.6 Electrical Conductivity

    3.7 pH of Sea Water

    3.8 Calcareous Scales

    3.9 Global Variations in Sea Water

    3.10 Fouling

    3.11 Corrosion under Immersed Conditions

    3.12 Atmospheric Marine Environments

    3.13 References

    Chapter 4 Forms of Corrosion

    4.1 General Attack

    4.2 Localised Corrosion

    4.3 Selective Leaching

    4.4 Intergranular Corrosion

    4.5 Velocity Effects on Corrosion

    4.6 Stress Corrosion Cracking

    4.7 Corrosion Fatigue

    4.8 Fretting Corrosion

    4.9 Fretting Fatigue

    4.10 Filiform Corrosion

    4.11 Bimetallic Corrosion

    4.12 High-Temperature Oxidation

    4.13 The Role of Bacteria in Corrosion

    4.14 References

    Chapter 5 Ferrous Alloys

    5.1 Carbon Steel

    5.2 Low-Alloy Steels

    5.3 Cast Irons

    5.4 Stainless Steels

    5.5 Special Stainless Steels for Sea Water

    5.6 References

    Chapter 6 Non-Ferrous Metals and Alloys

    6.1 Copper and Copper-Base Alloys

    6.2 Nickel Alloys

    6.3 Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys

    6.4 Titanium

    6.5 Magnesium

    6.6 Other Metals and Materials used in Marine Situations

    6.7 References

    Chapter 7 Design

    7.1 Features that Promote Corrosion

    7.2 Access for Maintenance

    7.3 Environment Control in Structures

    7.4 Special Situations

    7.5 Bimetallic Corrosion

    7.6 Flowing Water Systems

    7.7 References

    Chapter 8 The Selection of Materials for Marine Environments

    8.1 Factors Involved in the Selection of Materials

    8.2 Costs and Reliability

    8.3 Quality Control

    8.4 Corrosion Data

    8.5 Materials for Salt Water Systems

    8.6 General Summary

    8.7 References

    Chapter 9 Protective Coatings for Steelwork—Surface Preparation of Steel Before Painting

    9.1 The Nature of the Steel Surface

    9.2 Cleaning of Steelwork

    9.3 Acid Pickling

    9.4 Flame Cleaning

    9.5 Standards for Surface Cleanliness

    9.6 Surface Profile

    9.7 Soluble Corrosion Products

    9.8 Preparation of Welds

    9.9 References

    Chapter 10 Paint Coatings

    10.1 Paint Systems

    10.2 Pigments

    10.3 Paint Additives, Solvents and Diluents

    10.4 Binders

    10.5 Types of Paint

    10.6 High-Duty Coatings and Plastics Coatings

    10.7 Wrapping Tapes

    10.8 Paint Application

    10.9 Temporary Protection

    10.10 References

    Chapter 11 Metallic Coatings

    11.1 Methods of Applying Metal Coatings

    11.2 Corrosion Protection by Metallic Coatings

    11.3 Corrosion Data for Metallic Coatings in Marine Environments

    11.4 Selection of Metal Coatings

    11.5 Welded Areas

    11.6 General Comments

    11.7 References

    Chapter 12 Attaining the Potential Performance of Coating Systems in Marine Environments

    12.1 Specifications

    12.2 Performance Specifications and Guarantees

    12.3 Quality Control of the Application of Coatings

    12.4 Reference

    Chapter 13 The Selection of Coating Systems for Marine Environments

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Systems for General Marine Structures and Installations

    Chapter 14 Maintenance Painting

    14.1 The Need for Maintenance

    14.2 Factors Affecting Maintenance

    14.3 The Approach to Maintenance

    14.4 Planning of Maintenance

    14.5 Surveys for Maintenance

    14.6 Treatment of Painted Steelwork

    14.7 Treatment of Metal Coatings

    14.8 References

    Chapter 15 Control and Treatment of the Environment

    15.1 Atmospheric Environments

    15.2 Aqueous Environments

    15.3 Summary

    Chapter 16 Cathodic Protection

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 General Principles of Cathodic Protection

    16.3 The Practical Application of Cathodic Protection

    16.4 Applications of Cathodic Protection in Marine Situations

    16.5 Cathodic Protection of Fixed Offshore Structures

    16.6 Cathodic Protection of Harbours, Jetties and Related Facilities

    16.7 Cathodic Protection of Submarine Pipelines and Outfalls

    16.8 Cathodic Protection of Ships

    16.9 References

    Chapter 17 Offshore Structures for Oil and Gas Production

    17.1 Economics

    17.2 Environments and Corrosion Control

    17.3 Maintenance

    17.4 Surveys for Maintenance

    17.5 Design

    17.6 Fouling

    17.7 Hot-Riser Corrosion

    17.8 Downhole Corrosion

    17.9 Hydrogen-Induced Cracking and Blistering

    17.10 Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC)

    17.11 Corrosion fatigue

    17.12 Submarine Pipelines

    17.13 External Coatings for Submarine Pipelines

    17.14 Quality Control of Submarine Pipeline Coatings

    17.15 References

    Chapter 18 Protective Coating of Ships

    18.1 Protective Coatings for New Constructions

    18.2 Maintenance of Ships' Coating Systems

    18.3 References

    Chapter 19 Steel Piling

    19.1 Corrosion Rates

    19.2 Protective Systems

    19.3 References

    Chapter 20 Reinforced Concrete, Wood and Plastics

    20.1 Reinforced Concrete

    20.2 Corrosion by Woods

    20.3 Corrosion by Plastics

    20.4 References

    Chapter 21 Testing and Monitoring

    21.1 Corrosion Testing

    21.2 Types of Test

    21.3 Laboratory Tests

    21.4 Field Tests

    21.5 Service Trials

    21.6 Removal of Corrosion Products

    21.7 Standards for Testing

    21.8 Monitoring

    21.9 References

    Appendix

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 428
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1984
  • Published: December 19, 1984
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483192253

About the Author

Kenneth A Chandler

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