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Mapping the Epidemic - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780323910613

Mapping the Epidemic, Volume 9

1st Edition

A Systemic Geography of COVID-19 in Italy

Editors: Emanuela Casti Fulvio Adobati Ilia Negri
Paperback ISBN: 9780323910613
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st September 2021
Page Count: 200
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Table of Contents

1. The COVID-19 epidemic in Italy: The role played by reflexive cartography in the European epicenter

2. Reflexive mapping and territorial analysis on COVID-19 infection

3. Reticularity.and Territorial Fragility
3.1. Reticularity, production and logistics pattern of COVID-19 outbreaks
3.2. Localization and weaknesses of Residential Care Homes (RSAs)
3.3. Contagion spread and the role of health districts, Residential Care Homes and retirement homes

4. Population and Contagion Dissemination
4.1. Evolution of the COVID-19 contagion in Europe
4.2. The Three Italies: the spatio-temporal spread of the infection
4.3. Population and contagion rate
4.4. Contagion unfolding in Bergamo and socio-territorial data on the Valle Seriana (River Serio Valley) outbreak

5. Mortality and Infection Severity
5.1. Estimating the mortality and severity of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy
5.2. The mortality and infection severity in Lombardy

6. Pollution and Contagion Rate 
6.1. Diffusion of pollutants through the urban and peri-urban territory in relation to active population workers and their movements 
6.2. Pollution and infection rate as territorial fragility in Lombardy

7. Commuting and Urban Clusters in Lombardy
7.1. Reticularity of commuting, Big Data and cybercartography
7.2. A rhizome-like pattern of commuting in Lombardy

8. Containment Policies
8.1. Public containment policies in the European context
8.2. Containing the outbreak through key measures of public health in Italy


Mapping the Epidemic: A Systemic Geography of COVID-19 in Italy provides a theoretical-methodological framework based on space-time analysis to map and interpret the set of factors that could have contributed to the spread of COVID-19, as well as a reflexive cartographic mapping visualizing the virus’s dynamics. After an introduction that constitutes the theoretical anchor of the work carried out both with respect to territorial analysis and the use of reflexive cartography, the book discusses the role played by reflexive cartography in research on the COVID-19 pandemic conducted by an Italian university working group dealing with reticularity and the territorial fragilities that have influenced the spread. The data, subjected to analysis, are translated into reflexive cartography as a tool for restitution and investigation of the territorial dynamics. Each chapter consists of detailed information in which the European context of data analysis is illustrated, to then investigate the Italian territory and focus on the case of Lombardy and, in particular, of Bergamo as the epicenter. The book addresses the theoretical and methodological approaches of mapping the epidemic in Italy and the importance of cartography in the outbreak response, as well as including data accounting for contributing factors such as atmospheric pollution and infection rate, population distribution and major mobility corridors, and measures adopted to contain the outbreak, by implementing mapping at the regional Lombard, national, and European levels.

Mapping the Epidemic: A Systemic Geography of COVID-19 in Italy uses an interdisciplinary approach that highlights the key role of geography and cartography in providing usable data and conclusions on the virus outbreak and will be valuable for researchers and professionals in the fields of geography, GIS, and spatial mapping, as well as statisticians working on mapping outbreaks and epidemiological scientists needing mapping data on the virus.

Key Features

  • Details reflexive mapping of the COVID pandemic, giving an interpretation that explains the epidemic’s variable complexity and visualizes it
  • Provides a space-time approach, based on a database from the beginning of the Italian emergence to the decline phase, showing the virus spread intensity and speed in relation to socio-territorial factors
  • Is complementary to studies carried out in the biomedical domain, referring to the results of these studies in an original and innovative way, envisaged through cybercartography


Researchers and professionals in geography, cartography, GIS, and spatial phenomena and mapping. Statisticians working on mapping outbreaks and epidemiological scientists needing mapping data on the virus


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2021
1st September 2021
Paperback ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Emanuela Casti

Emanuela Casti is full professor of Geography at the University of Bergamo where she directs the CST-Centro Studi sul Territorio, is responsible of the DiathesisLab ( and is President of the MA in Geourbanistica. Considered and innovator in cartographic theories studies, she has formalize a semiotic theory that investigates the relationship between cartography and geography, extending it to the new systems of cybercartography in the book of theory Reflexive Cartography published in the Modern Cartography Series by Elsevier. Her researches concern the historical context (the prehistoric cartography in Valcamonica, the renaissance and modern cartography of Venice, the Italian and French colonial cartography in Africa) as well as the contemporary one: mapping of movement, of conservation (;, for the governance (;, and the regeneration of urban peripheries ( She has published more that a hundred of essays, among which the books: Reality as representation. The semiotics of cartography and the generation of meaning (Bergamo University Press, 2000); Reflexive Cartography. A New Perspective on Mapping (Elsevier, 2015).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Chair of Geography, University of Bergamo, Italy

Fulvio Adobati

Fulvio Adobati is a Researcher in Urban Planning at the Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences of the University of Bergamo. He carries out research, study and territorial planning activities at the "Lelio Pagani" Center for Territorial Studies. he is a holder of the Integrated Course of Architectural Design-Architectural and Urban Composition at the Degree Course in Building Engineering, of the Course of Territorial Cultures and Policies at the Degree Course in Letters-Culture and Territorial Analysis, of the Spatial Dimension of Urban Planning course at the master's degree course in Geourbanistics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Engineering and Applied sciences, University of Bergamo, Italy

Ilia Negri

Ilia Negri graduated in Mathematics at the University of Milan, PhD in Methodological Statistics at the University of Trento and PhD in Mathématique (option Statistique) at L'Université du Maine (France). Today her research focuses mainly on Stochastic Differential Equations, empirical processes, non-parametric inference for diffusion processes. Recently she has also dealt with environmental issues (placement of measures) and the social sphere (changes in the structure of families).

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Engineering of Management, Information, and Production, University of Bergamo, Italy