Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar

Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar

1st Edition - January 1, 1967

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  • Author: V. E. Baikow
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274966

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Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar provides an operating manual to the workers in cane raw sugar factories and refineries. While there are many excellent reference and text books written by prominent authors, there is none that tell briefly to the superintendent of fabrication the best and simplest procedures in sugar production. This book is not meant to replace existing books treating sugar production, but rather to supplement them. All that is written in this book, each chapter of which deals with a separate station in a raw sugar factory and refinery, is also based on material already published and known to many in the sugar industry. The book is organized into two parts. Part I covers raw sugar and includes chapters on the harvesting and transportation of sugar cane to the factory; washing of sugar cane and juice extraction; weighing of cane juice; boiling of raw sugar massecuites; and storing and shipping bulk sugar. Part II on refining deals with processes such as clarification and treatment of refinery melt; filtration; and drying, cooling, conditioning, and bulk handling of refined sugar.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Contributors to the Book

    Part I / Raw Sugar Factory

    Chapter 1. Sugar Cane

    Miscellaneous Notes

    Sugar in the Diet

    Sugar Producing Plants

    Molecules of Sugar


    Sugar in the Field

    Sugar in the Factory

    Chapter 2. Harvesting and Transportation of Sugar Cane to the Factory


    Cane Harvesters

    Cane Loaders

    Systems of Cane Transportation

    Transfer Stations

    Weighing and Unloading of Cane

    Chapter 3. Washing the Sugar Cane and Cleaning the Juices


    Loading and Washing Tables

    Washing on Cane Carrier

    Wash Water

    Disposal of Wash Water

    Cleaning of Raw Juices

    Chapter 4. Extraction of Juice from Sugar Cane

    Extraction by Crushing

    Sugar Cane Diffusion Process

    Chapter 5. Weighing of Raw Cane Juice

    Importance of Weighing Cane Juice

    Various Juice Scales

    Foxboro System

    Flow Meters for Cane Juice

    Chapter 6. Liming of Cane Juice

    Importance of Liming

    Method of Liming

    pH Control

    Leuconostoc in Cane Juice

    Liming Systems


    Chapter 7. Clarification of Cane Juice

    Purpose of Clarification

    Effect of P2O5, Temperature and pH

    Retention of Juices in Clarifiers

    Various Clarifiers

    Rules for Clarification

    Chapter 8. Filtration of Mud from Clarifiers


    Vacuum Filters

    Bagacillo Admixture

    Rapi-Floc Process

    Washing the Filter Cake

    Nash Vacuum Pump

    Chapter 9. Evaporation

    Multiple Effect

    Steam Economy

    Boiling Point Elevation

    Steam Balance

    Evaporation Rate

    Types of Evaporators

    Surface-Active Additive

    Injection Water

    Chapter 10. Boiling of Raw Sugar Massecuites

    Vacuum Pans

    Footing Magma

    Low Grade Massecuite

    Melting Excess Magma

    Boiling Systems

    Surface-Active Agents

    Instrumentation for Vacuum Pans

    Calculation of Massecuite Volumes

    Chapter 11. Crystallization by Cooling and Motion of Low Grade Massecuites, and the Exhaustion of Final Molasses


    Solubility of Sucrose in the Presence of Inorganic Salts and Invert Sugar

    Rate of Cooling

    Viscosity of Massecuite

    Batch and Continuous Crystallizers

    The Continuous Flow System

    Green-Smith Stationary Reheater

    Incrustation Inside of Cooling Elements

    Chapter 12. Centrifuging and Purging of Massecuites

    Batch Centrifugals

    Purging Low Grade Massecuites

    Feed Mixers

    Continuous Centrifugals

    Centrifugal Force

    Fracture of Crystals and High Grade Massecuite Purged on Continuous Centrifugals

    Resistance Heater

    Conveyors for Sugar

    Chapter 13. Storing and Shipping Bulk Sugar

    Origin of Bulk Sugar Shipments

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Handling Raw Sugar in Bulk

    Bulk Sugar Warehouses

    Quality of Raw Sugar for Bulk Storage and Shipment

    Bulk Terminal


    Chapter 14. Final Molasses

    Definition and Composition of Blackstrap

    Exhaustion of Molasses

    Froth Fermentation and Decomposition of Molasses

    Uses of Blackstrap Molasses

    Chapter 15. Cleaning Heating Surfaces of Evaporators, Vacuum Pans and Heaters

    Scaling of Heating Surfaces

    Cleaning of Evaporators and Heaters

    Cleaning Vapor Side of Calandria

    Scaling of Refinery Evaporators and Vacuum Pans

    Chapter 16. Water in Cane Sugar Mills. Its Uses, Care and Treatment for Boiler Feed

    Sources and Uses of Water

    Emergency Boiler Feed Water Storage

    Contamination, Hardness and Dissolved Solids

    Chemical Conditioning of Boiler Water

    Continuous Blowdown

    Water for Condensers


    Part II / Refining

    Chapter 17. Raw Sugar

    Quality of Raw Sugar

    Types of Refineries

    Theoretical Yield in Refinery

    Type of Raw Sugar and Refining Quality

    Methods of Refining and Quality of Water

    Chapter 18. Affination and Melting

    Coloring Matter and Impurities Inside Crystal



    Green Syrup

    Washing Instead of Affinition

    Continuous Centrifugals in Affinition Process


    Chapter 19. Clarification and Treatment of Refinery Melt

    Pretreatment of Melt

    Decolorization by Phosphate-Lime Treatment in Continuous Floatation Clarifiers


    Carbon Dioxide Compressors

    Chapter 20, Decolorization of Refinery Liquors Using Granular Adsorbents and Other Decolorizing Agents

    Decolorization Using Granular Adsorbents

    Powdered Activated Carbons

    Sucro-Blanc Process

    Ion Exchangers

    Chapter 21. Filtration

    Mechanical Filters

    Medium for Retention of Suspended Matter


    Filter Aids


    Sweetening Off

    Check Filtration

    Chapter 22. Evaporation in Refinery and Crystallization of Refinery Decolorized Liquors

    Multiple Effects in Refinery

    Use of Vapors from Raw Sugar House

    Film Evaporation

    Rust Prevention

    Systems of Sugar Boiling in Refinery

    Steam Requirements in Refinery

    Chapter 23. Drying, Cooling, Conditioning and Bulk Handling of Refined Sugar

    Principle of Drying

    Types of Granulatore

    Limit of Drying

    Additional Cooling of Sugar

    Kathabar System


    Specification for Refined Sugar

    Chapter 24. Remelt

    Recovery from Refinery Returns

    Available Sugar



    Curing Remelt Sugar

    Treatment of Refinery Returns

    Chapter 25. Various Types of Refined Sugar

    Tablets and Cube Sugar

    Wrapping Machines

    Loaf Sugar

    Pile Sugar

    Amorphous Sugar

    Soft Sugar


    Liquid Sugar

    Specification of Liquid Sugar


    Laboratory Control

    Temperature Conversion Table

    Density Equivalents Table

    Conversion Table of Equivalents

    Properties of Saturated Steam (Table)

    Properties of Dry Air (Table)

    Properties of Air and Water at Atmospheric Pressure (Table)

    Properties of Saturated Steam (Table)

    Temperature of Saturated Steam (Table)

    Vapor Pressure of Water (Table)

    Boiling Point Elevation for Cane Products (Table)

    Available Sugar Table

    Excerpts from 'Conversion Factors and Tables'

    Useful Formulas

    Boiling Point of Liquid Sugar Solutions (Graph)

    Relation of Altitude to Barometric Pressure or Vacuum (Graph)


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 470
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1967
  • Published: January 1, 1967
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274966

About the Author

V. E. Baikow

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  • HaroldDavis Fri Jan 10 2020

    Good practical Manual for sugar

    Good practical Manual for sugar technologists