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Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483232126, 9781483274966

Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar

1st Edition

Author: V. E. Baikow
eBook ISBN: 9781483274966
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 470
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Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar provides an operating manual to the workers in cane raw sugar factories and refineries. While there are many excellent reference and text books written by prominent authors, there is none that tell briefly to the superintendent of fabrication the best and simplest procedures in sugar production. This book is not meant to replace existing books treating sugar production, but rather to supplement them. All that is written in this book, each chapter of which deals with a separate station in a raw sugar factory and refinery, is also based on material already published and known to many in the sugar industry. The book is organized into two parts. Part I covers raw sugar and includes chapters on the harvesting and transportation of sugar cane to the factory; washing of sugar cane and juice extraction; weighing of cane juice; boiling of raw sugar massecuites; and storing and shipping bulk sugar. Part II on refining deals with processes such as clarification and treatment of refinery melt; filtration; and drying, cooling, conditioning, and bulk handling of refined sugar.

Table of Contents



Contributors to the Book

Part I / Raw Sugar Factory

Chapter 1. Sugar Cane

Miscellaneous Notes

Sugar in the Diet

Sugar Producing Plants

Molecules of Sugar


Sugar in the Field

Sugar in the Factory

Chapter 2. Harvesting and Transportation of Sugar Cane to the Factory


Cane Harvesters

Cane Loaders

Systems of Cane Transportation

Transfer Stations

Weighing and Unloading of Cane

Chapter 3. Washing the Sugar Cane and Cleaning the Juices


Loading and Washing Tables

Washing on Cane Carrier

Wash Water

Disposal of Wash Water

Cleaning of Raw Juices

Chapter 4. Extraction of Juice from Sugar Cane

Extraction by Crushing

Sugar Cane Diffusion Process

Chapter 5. Weighing of Raw Cane Juice

Importance of Weighing Cane Juice

Various Juice Scales

Foxboro System

Flow Meters for Cane Juice

Chapter 6. Liming of Cane Juice

Importance of Liming

Method of Liming

pH Control

Leuconostoc in Cane Juice

Liming Systems


Chapter 7. Clarification of Cane Juice

Purpose of Clarification

Effect of P2O5, Temperature and pH

Retention of Juices in Clarifiers

Various Clarifiers

Rules for Clarification

Chapter 8. Filtration of Mud from Clarifiers


Vacuum Filters

Bagacillo Admixture

Rapi-Floc Process

Washing the Filter Cake

Nash Vacuum Pump

Chapter 9. Evaporation

Multiple Effect

Steam Economy

Boiling Point Elevation

Steam Balance

Evaporation Rate

Types of Evaporators

Surface-Active Additive

Injection Water

Chapter 10. Boiling of Raw Sugar Massecuites

Vacuum Pans

Footing Magma

Low Grade Massecuite

Melting Excess Magma

Boiling Systems

Surface-Active Agents

Instrumentation for Vacuum Pans

Calculation of Massecuite Volumes

Chapter 11. Crystallization by Cooling and Motion of Low Grade Massecuites, and the Exhaustion of Final Molasses


Solubility of Sucrose in the Presence of Inorganic Salts and Invert Sugar

Rate of Cooling

Viscosity of Massecuite

Batch and Continuous Crystallizers

The Continuous Flow System

Green-Smith Stationary Reheater

Incrustation Inside of Cooling Elements

Chapter 12. Centrifuging and Purging of Massecuites

Batch Centrifugals

Purging Low Grade Massecuites

Feed Mixers

Continuous Centrifugals

Centrifugal Force

Fracture of Crystals and High Grade Massecuite Purged on Continuous Centrifugals

Resistance Heater

Conveyors for Sugar

Chapter 13. Storing and Shipping Bulk Sugar

Origin of Bulk Sugar Shipments

Advantages and Disadvantages of Handling Raw Sugar in Bulk

Bulk Sugar Warehouses

Quality of Raw Sugar for Bulk Storage and Shipment

Bulk Terminal


Chapter 14. Final Molasses

Definition and Composition of Blackstrap

Exhaustion of Molasses

Froth Fermentation and Decomposition of Molasses

Uses of Blackstrap Molasses

Chapter 15. Cleaning Heating Surfaces of Evaporators, Vacuum Pans and Heaters

Scaling of Heating Surfaces

Cleaning of Evaporators and Heaters

Cleaning Vapor Side of Calandria

Scaling of Refinery Evaporators and Vacuum Pans

Chapter 16. Water in Cane Sugar Mills. Its Uses, Care and Treatment for Boiler Feed

Sources and Uses of Water

Emergency Boiler Feed Water Storage

Contamination, Hardness and Dissolved Solids

Chemical Conditioning of Boiler Water

Continuous Blowdown

Water for Condensers


Part II / Refining

Chapter 17. Raw Sugar

Quality of Raw Sugar

Types of Refineries

Theoretical Yield in Refinery

Type of Raw Sugar and Refining Quality

Methods of Refining and Quality of Water

Chapter 18. Affination and Melting

Coloring Matter and Impurities Inside Crystal



Green Syrup

Washing Instead of Affinition

Continuous Centrifugals in Affinition Process


Chapter 19. Clarification and Treatment of Refinery Melt

Pretreatment of Melt

Decolorization by Phosphate-Lime Treatment in Continuous Floatation Clarifiers


Carbon Dioxide Compressors

Chapter 20, Decolorization of Refinery Liquors Using Granular Adsorbents and Other Decolorizing Agents

Decolorization Using Granular Adsorbents

Powdered Activated Carbons

Sucro-Blanc Process

Ion Exchangers

Chapter 21. Filtration

Mechanical Filters

Medium for Retention of Suspended Matter


Filter Aids


Sweetening Off

Check Filtration

Chapter 22. Evaporation in Refinery and Crystallization of Refinery Decolorized Liquors

Multiple Effects in Refinery

Use of Vapors from Raw Sugar House

Film Evaporation

Rust Prevention

Systems of Sugar Boiling in Refinery

Steam Requirements in Refinery

Chapter 23. Drying, Cooling, Conditioning and Bulk Handling of Refined Sugar

Principle of Drying

Types of Granulatore

Limit of Drying

Additional Cooling of Sugar

Kathabar System


Specification for Refined Sugar

Chapter 24. Remelt

Recovery from Refinery Returns

Available Sugar



Curing Remelt Sugar

Treatment of Refinery Returns

Chapter 25. Various Types of Refined Sugar

Tablets and Cube Sugar

Wrapping Machines

Loaf Sugar

Pile Sugar

Amorphous Sugar

Soft Sugar


Liquid Sugar

Specification of Liquid Sugar


Laboratory Control

Temperature Conversion Table

Density Equivalents Table

Conversion Table of Equivalents

Properties of Saturated Steam (Table)

Properties of Dry Air (Table)

Properties of Air and Water at Atmospheric Pressure (Table)

Properties of Saturated Steam (Table)

Temperature of Saturated Steam (Table)

Vapor Pressure of Water (Table)

Boiling Point Elevation for Cane Products (Table)

Available Sugar Table

Excerpts from 'Conversion Factors and Tables'

Useful Formulas

Boiling Point of Liquid Sugar Solutions (Graph)

Relation of Altitude to Barometric Pressure or Vacuum (Graph)


Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 1967
1st January 1967
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

V. E. Baikow

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