Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar

Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar

2nd Edition - February 1, 1982

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  • Author: V.E. Baikow
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289632

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Sugar Series, Vol. 2: Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar focuses on the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches involved in the manufacture and refining of raw cane sugar. The selection first offers information on sugar cane, harvesting and transportation to the factory, washing, disposal of wash-water and cleaning the juices, and extraction of juice. Discussions focus on disposal of bagasse, screw presses, cane carriers, juice cleaning, waste-water disposal, washing, cane weighing in field and factory, transportation, and sugar-producing plants. The manuscript then examines the sugar cane diffusion process, weighing, clarification, and liming of cane juice, filtration of mud from clarifiers, evaporation, and vacuum pans. The book ponders on boiling of raw sugar massecuites, crystallization by cooling and motion of low-grade massecuites and the exhaustion of final molasses, centrifugals and purging of massecuites, storing and shipping bulk sugar, and final molasses. The selection is a valuable source of data for researchers wanting to study the manufacture and refining of raw cane sugar.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication


    Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition


    Part I. Manufacture of Raw Cane Sugar

    Chapter 1. Sugar Cane

    Miscellaneous Notes

    Sugar in the Diet of Man

    Sugar-Producing Plants

    Molecular Structure of Different Sugars


    Sugar in the Field

    Sugar in the Factory

    Notes on Crop and Soil Analyses

    Growth Records for Sugar Cane

    Notes on the Sugar Cane Stalk Borer

    Chapter 2. Harvesting and Transportation of Sugar Cane to the Factory



    Cane Weighing in Field and Factory

    Unloading Cane at the Mill

    Complete Florida System

    Appendix: Recent Developments in Sugar Cane Harvesting

    Chapter 3. Washing Sugar Cane and Cleaning The Juices

    Washing Sugar Cane

    Losses of Sugar in Wash-Water

    Waste-Water Disposal

    Chapter 4. Extraction of Juice from Sugar Cane


    Modern Tandems


    Cane Carriers

    Improvement in Mill Construction

    Mill Specifications


    Screw Presses

    Screening of Bagasse

    Disposal of Bagasse


    Chapter 5. Sugar Cane Diffusion Process


    Extraction and Draft

    Theory of Diffusion Process

    Process Operation

    Types of Diffuser

    Diffusion Process Vs. Extraction on a Mill Tandem

    Chapter 6. Weighing of Raw Cane Juice

    Manual Weighing

    Automatic Scales

    Chapter 7. Liming of Cane Juice

    Composition of Sugar Cane Juice

    Treatment with Lime

    Use of Magnesium in Treatment of Sugar Cane Juice

    Treatment with Lime Saccharate

    Preparation and Use of Lime

    Heating of Limed Juice

    Chapter 8. Clarification of Cane Juice

    Clarification Process

    Purity of Clarified Juice



    Types of Continuous Clarifier


    Chapter 9. Filtration of Mud from Clarifiers


    Mud Filtration

    Effluent Juice

    Electrolytes and Mud Thickening

    Filter Operation

    Chapter 10. Evaporation

    Multiple-Effect Evaporation

    Other Evaporator Types

    Operation of Evaporators




    Vapor Pipes

    Chapter 11. Vacuum Pans

    Types of Vacuum Pan


    Pipes and Hydraulics

    Vacuum Pan Instrumentation

    Preparation of Molasses (Run-Off) for Reboiling

    Pan Floor Molasses Tanks

    Calculation of Expected Volume of Massecuite

    Chapter 12. Boiling of Raw Sugar Massecuites

    Footing Strike

    Preparation of Seed and Graining

    Method of Boiling Footing Strike

    'C'-Grade Sugar

    Boiling Systems

    Surface-Active Agents


    Steam Requirement for Boiling Massecuites

    Chapter 13. Crystallization by Cooling and Motion of Low-Grade Massecuites, and the Exhaustion of Final Molasses



    Reheating Massecuites

    Chapter 14. Centrifugals and Purging of Massecuites

    Batch Centrifugals

    Purging Massecuites

    Continuous Centrifugals

    Reheating Massecuite


    Chapter 15. Storing and Shipping Bulk Sugar

    History and Origin of Bulk Sugar Shipments

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Handling Raw Sugar in Bulk

    The Bulk Sugar Warehouse

    Quality of Raw Sugar for Bulk Storage and Shipment

    Moving Sugar to the Bulk Terminal

    Method of Distribution and Handling of Raw Sugar in the Terminal

    Size of Conveyors

    Author's Note

    Chapter 16. Final Molasses

    Composition of Blackstrap Molasses

    Appraisal of Final Molasses

    Measurement of Final Molasses

    Exhaustion of Molasses

    Pumping Molasses

    Storage of Final Molasses

    High-Test Molasses

    Uses of Molasses

    Dilution of molasses

    Processes for Extraction of Sugar from Molasses

    Citric Acid from Molasses

    Chapter 17. Cleaning Heating Surfaces of Evaporators, Vacuum Pans and Heaters

    Scale Formation in Evaporators

    Longtube Evaporators

    Cleaning of Heaters

    Cleaning of Refinery Equipment

    Chapter 18. Water in Cane Sugar Mills: Its Uses, Care and Treatment for Boiler Feed

    Part II. Refining of Raw Cane Sugar

    Chapter 19. Raw sugar

    Types of Refinery

    Quality of Raw Sugar

    Plantation White Sugar

    Purchasing of Raw Sugar

    Talodura Process

    Characteristics of Raw Sugar

    Evaluation of Raw Sugar

    Refinery Control

    Methods of Refining

    Water in the Refinery

    Chapter 20. Affination and Melting

    Coloring Matter Inside Crystals


    Affination Greens

    Automechanization of the Affination Station

    Washing Raw Sugar in a Centrifugal

    Color Removal in Affination


    Relative Production of Refined Sugar from Raw Sugar

    Screening of Melt

    Chapter 21. Clarification and Treatment of Refinery Melt

    Clarification by Phosphoric Acid—Lime Treatment and Prefiltration

    Decolorization by Phosphate—Lime Treatment in Continuous Flotation Clarifiers

    Continuous Clarifiers



    Appendix I. Carbonatation of High-Density Washed Sugar Liquors



    Fundamentals of the Process

    Plant Used for Continuous Carbonatation

    Appendix II. Carbon Dioxide Compressors

    Chapter 22. The Talofloc/Taloflote Process for Simultaneous Decolorization and Clarification of Refinery Liquors


    The Talofloc/Taloflote System

    Chapter 23. Decolorization of Refinery Liquors Using Granular Adsorbents and Other Decolorizing Agents

    General Consideration


    Alternative Decolorizing Methods

    Powdered Activated Carbon

    Granular Carbon


    Chapter 24. Filtration

    Types of Filter

    Selection of Filter

    Other Types of Filter



    Filtration Cycle




    Filtration of Scums from Clarifiers and Sluiced Cake



    Check Filters

    Chapter 25. Evaporation in Refinery and Crystallization of Refinery Decolorized Liquors

    Advantages of Pre-Evaporation

    Evaporation of Sweet-Water

    Double-Effect Evaporators

    Triple-Effect Evaporators

    Straight Boiling

    In-Boiling System

    Back-Boiling System

    Growth of Sugar Crystal

    Boiling Procedure

    Steaming Vacuum Pan

    Steam Requirement

    Appendix. Calculation for Double-Effect Evaporator

    Chapter 26. Drying, Cooling, Conditioning and Bulk Handling of Refined Sugar

    Drying and Cooling

    Conditioning and Handling

    Density of Sugar

    Chapter 27. Remelt

    Recovery Methods

    Available Sugar

    Refining Out of Crop

    Recovery House in Refinery

    Preparation of Sugar Magma

    Double Einwurf System

    Centrifugals in Recovery House

    Final Molasses in Refinery

    Heavy Boiling in Remelt House

    Filtration in Recovery House

    Cooling, Reheating and Purging

    Double Affination of Remelt Sugar

    Chapter 28. Types of Refined Sugar

    Tablet and Cube Sugar

    Loaf Sugar

    Pilé Sugar

    Amorfo Sugar

    Areado Sugar

    Powdered Sugar

    Baker's Special Sugar

    Bottler's Sugar

    Superfine Sugar

    Soft Sugar

    Instant Sugar

    Agglomerated Sugar

    Turbinado Sugar

    Sulfitation Sugar

    Liquid Sugar

    Chapter 29. Biological Treatment of Refinery Wastewater

    Full-Scale Plant Design

    Full-Scale Plant Operation


    Chapter 30. Use of Computers in the Sugar Industry


    Computer Use in the Sugar Industry

    Hierarchy of Computer Control

    Process Instrumentation

    Linear Regression

    Data Processing

    Process Data Storage

    Multiple Interpolation


    Improved Instrumentation and Control

    Computer Graphics


    Appendix I. Glossary of Computer Terms

    Appendix II. Economic Sweet-Water Disposal Nomenclature Used

    Appendix III. Sucrose Table and Other Formulas for Use with Programmable Calculators


    Appendix I. Laboratory Control


    Appendix II. Tables and Conversions

    Table 1: Conversion Table of Equivalents

    Table 2: Conversions

    Table 3: Temperature Conversion

    Table 4: Density Equivalents

    Table 5: Properties of Saturated Steam

    Table 6: Properties of Dry Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    Table 7: Properties of Air and Water Vapor at Atmospheric Pressure

    Table 8: Properties of Saturated Steam

    Table 9: Temperature of Saturated Steam

    Table 10: Vapor Pressure of Water

    Table 11: Boiling Point Elevation for Cane Products

    Table 12: Available Sugar Table

    Appendix III. Glossary


Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1982
  • Published: February 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483289632

About the Author

V.E. Baikow

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