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Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444418968, 9781483289632

Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar, Volume 2

2nd Edition

Author: V.E. Baikow
eBook ISBN: 9781483289632
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st February 1982
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Table of Contents



Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition


Part I. Manufacture of Raw Cane Sugar

Chapter 1. Sugar Cane

Miscellaneous Notes

Sugar in the Diet of Man

Sugar-Producing Plants

Molecular Structure of Different Sugars


Sugar in the Field

Sugar in the Factory

Notes on Crop and Soil Analyses

Growth Records for Sugar Cane

Notes on the Sugar Cane Stalk Borer

Chapter 2. Harvesting and Transportation of Sugar Cane to the Factory



Cane Weighing in Field and Factory

Unloading Cane at the Mill

Complete Florida System

Appendix: Recent Developments in Sugar Cane Harvesting

Chapter 3. Washing Sugar Cane and Cleaning The Juices

Washing Sugar Cane

Losses of Sugar in Wash-Water

Waste-Water Disposal

Chapter 4. Extraction of Juice from Sugar Cane


Modern Tandems


Cane Carriers

Improvement in Mill Construction

Mill Specifications


Screw Presses

Screening of Bagasse

Disposal of Bagasse


Chapter 5. Sugar Cane Diffusion Process


Extraction and Draft

Theory of Diffusion Process

Process Operation

Types of Diffuser

Diffusion Process Vs. Extraction on a Mill Tandem

Chapter 6. Weighing of Raw Cane Juice

Manual Weighing

Automatic Scales

Chapter 7. Liming of Cane Juice

Composition of Sugar Cane Juice

Treatment with Lime

Use of Magnesium in Treatment of Sugar Cane Juice

Treatment with Lime Saccharate

Preparation and Use of Lime

Heating of Limed Juice

Chapter 8. Clarification of Cane Juice

Clarification Process

Purity of Clarified Juice



Types of Continuous Clarifier


Chapter 9. Filtration of Mud from Clarifiers


Mud Filtration

Effluent Juice

Electrolytes and Mud Thickening

Filter Operation

Chapter 10. Evaporation

Multiple-Effect Evaporation

Other Evaporator Types

Operation of Evaporators




Vapor Pipes

Chapter 11. Vacuum Pans

Types of Vacuum Pan


Pipes and Hydraulics

Vacuum Pan Instrumentation

Preparation of Molasses (Run-Off) for Reboiling

Pan Floor Molasses Tanks

Calculation of Expected Volume of Massecuite

Chapter 12. Boiling of Raw Sugar Massecuites

Footing Strike

Preparation of Seed and Graining

Method of Boiling Footing Strike

'C'-Grade Sugar

Boiling Systems

Surface-Active Agents


Steam Requirement for Boiling Massecuites

Chapter 13. Crystallization by Cooling and Motion of Low-Grade Massecuites, and the Exhaustion of Final Molasses



Reheating Massecuites

Chapter 14. Centrifugals and Purging of Massecuites

Batch Centrifugals

Purging Massecuites

Continuous Centrifugals

Reheating Massecuite


Chapter 15. Storing and Shipping Bulk Sugar

History and Origin of Bulk Sugar Shipments

Advantages and Disadvantages of Handling Raw Sugar in Bulk

The Bulk Sugar Warehouse

Quality of Raw Sugar for Bulk Storage and Shipment

Moving Sugar to the Bulk Terminal

Method of Distribution and Handling of Raw Sugar in the Terminal

Size of Conveyors

Author's Note

Chapter 16. Final Molasses

Composition of Blackstrap Molasses

Appraisal of Final Molasses

Measurement of Final Molasses

Exhaustion of Molasses

Pumping Molasses

Storage of Final Molasses

High-Test Molasses

Uses of Molasses

Dilution of molasses

Processes for Extraction of Sugar from Molasses

Citric Acid from Molasses

Chapter 17. Cleaning Heating Surfaces of Evaporators, Vacuum Pans and Heaters

Scale Formation in Evaporators

Longtube Evaporators

Cleaning of Heaters

Cleaning of Refinery Equipment

Chapter 18. Water in Cane Sugar Mills: Its Uses, Care and Treatment for Boiler Feed

Part II. Refining of Raw Cane Sugar

Chapter 19. Raw sugar

Types of Refinery

Quality of Raw Sugar

Plantation White Sugar

Purchasing of Raw Sugar

Talodura Process

Characteristics of Raw Sugar

Evaluation of Raw Sugar

Refinery Control

Methods of Refining

Water in the Refinery

Chapter 20. Affination and Melting

Coloring Matter Inside Crystals


Affination Greens

Automechanization of the Affination Station

Washing Raw Sugar in a Centrifugal

Color Removal in Affination


Relative Production of Refined Sugar from Raw Sugar

Screening of Melt

Chapter 21. Clarification and Treatment of Refinery Melt

Clarification by Phosphoric Acid—Lime Treatment and Prefiltration

Decolorization by Phosphate—Lime Treatment in Continuous Flotation Clarifiers

Continuous Clarifiers



Appendix I. Carbonatation of High-Density Washed Sugar Liquors



Fundamentals of the Process

Plant Used for Continuous Carbonatation

Appendix II. Carbon Dioxide Compressors

Chapter 22. The Talofloc/Taloflote Process for Simultaneous Decolorization and Clarification of Refinery Liquors


The Talofloc/Taloflote System

Chapter 23. Decolorization of Refinery Liquors Using Granular Adsorbents and Other Decolorizing Agents

General Consideration


Alternative Decolorizing Methods

Powdered Activated Carbon

Granular Carbon


Chapter 24. Filtration

Types of Filter

Selection of Filter

Other Types of Filter



Filtration Cycle




Filtration of Scums from Clarifiers and Sluiced Cake



Check Filters

Chapter 25. Evaporation in Refinery and Crystallization of Refinery Decolorized Liquors

Advantages of Pre-Evaporation

Evaporation of Sweet-Water

Double-Effect Evaporators

Triple-Effect Evaporators

Straight Boiling

In-Boiling System

Back-Boiling System

Growth of Sugar Crystal

Boiling Procedure

Steaming Vacuum Pan

Steam Requirement

Appendix. Calculation for Double-Effect Evaporator

Chapter 26. Drying, Cooling, Conditioning and Bulk Handling of Refined Sugar

Drying and Cooling

Conditioning and Handling

Density of Sugar

Chapter 27. Remelt

Recovery Methods

Available Sugar

Refining Out of Crop

Recovery House in Refinery

Preparation of Sugar Magma

Double Einwurf System

Centrifugals in Recovery House

Final Molasses in Refinery

Heavy Boiling in Remelt House

Filtration in Recovery House

Cooling, Reheating and Purging

Double Affination of Remelt Sugar

Chapter 28. Types of Refined Sugar

Tablet and Cube Sugar

Loaf Sugar

Pilé Sugar

Amorfo Sugar

Areado Sugar

Powdered Sugar

Baker's Special Sugar

Bottler's Sugar

Superfine Sugar

Soft Sugar

Instant Sugar

Agglomerated Sugar

Turbinado Sugar

Sulfitation Sugar

Liquid Sugar

Chapter 29. Biological Treatment of Refinery Wastewater

Full-Scale Plant Design

Full-Scale Plant Operation


Chapter 30. Use of Computers in the Sugar Industry


Computer Use in the Sugar Industry

Hierarchy of Computer Control

Process Instrumentation

Linear Regression

Data Processing

Process Data Storage

Multiple Interpolation


Improved Instrumentation and Control

Computer Graphics


Appendix I. Glossary of Computer Terms

Appendix II. Economic Sweet-Water Disposal Nomenclature Used

Appendix III. Sucrose Table and Other Formulas for Use with Programmable Calculators


Appendix I. Laboratory Control


Appendix II. Tables and Conversions

Table 1: Conversion Table of Equivalents

Table 2: Conversions

Table 3: Temperature Conversion

Table 4: Density Equivalents

Table 5: Properties of Saturated Steam

Table 6: Properties of Dry Air at Atmospheric Pressure

Table 7: Properties of Air and Water Vapor at Atmospheric Pressure

Table 8: Properties of Saturated Steam

Table 9: Temperature of Saturated Steam

Table 10: Vapor Pressure of Water

Table 11: Boiling Point Elevation for Cane Products

Table 12: Available Sugar Table

Appendix III. Glossary



Sugar Series, Vol. 2: Manufacture and Refining of Raw Cane Sugar focuses on the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches involved in the manufacture and refining of raw cane sugar. The selection first offers information on sugar cane, harvesting and transportation to the factory, washing, disposal of wash-water and cleaning the juices, and extraction of juice. Discussions focus on disposal of bagasse, screw presses, cane carriers, juice cleaning, waste-water disposal, washing, cane weighing in field and factory, transportation, and sugar-producing plants. The manuscript then examines the sugar cane diffusion process, weighing, clarification, and liming of cane juice, filtration of mud from clarifiers, evaporation, and vacuum pans. The book ponders on boiling of raw sugar massecuites, crystallization by cooling and motion of low-grade massecuites and the exhaustion of final molasses, centrifugals and purging of massecuites, storing and shipping bulk sugar, and final molasses. The selection is a valuable source of data for researchers wanting to study the manufacture and refining of raw cane sugar.


© Elsevier Science 1982
1st February 1982
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:

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About the Author

V.E. Baikow