Manual of Engineering Drawing

Manual of Engineering Drawing

Technical Product Specification and Documentation to British and International Standards

4th Edition - April 27, 2012

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  • Authors: Colin Simmons, Dennis Maguire
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080966533
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780080966526

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Manual of Engineering Drawing is a comprehensive guide for experts and novices for producing engineering drawings and annotated 3D models that meet the recent BSI and ISO standards of technical product documentation and specifications. This fourth edition of the text has been updated in line with recent standard revisions and amendments. The book has been prepared for international use, and includes a comprehensive discussion of the fundamental differences between the ISO and ASME standards, as well as recent updates regarding legal components, such as copyright, patents, and other legal considerations. The text is applicable to CAD and manual drawing, and it covers the recent developments in 3D annotation and surface texture specifications. Its scope also covers the concepts of pictorial and orthographic projections, geometrical, dimensional and surface tolerancing, and the principle of duality. The text also presents numerous examples of hydraulic and electrical diagrams, applications, bearings, adhesives, and welding. The book can be considered an authoritative design reference for beginners and students in technical product specification courses, engineering, and product designing.

Key Features

  • Expert interpretation of the rules and conventions provided by authoritative authors who regularly lead and contribute to BSI and ISO committees on product standards
  • Combines the latest technical information with clear, readable explanations, numerous diagrams and traditional geometrical construction techniques
  • Includes new material on patents, copyrights and intellectual property, design for manufacture and end-of-life, and surface finishing considerations


Engineering designers (including students and practising designers)

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Drawing Office Management and Organization

    Engineering Drawing Practices

    Drawing Practice and the Computer (CAD: Computer Aided Draughting and Design)

    Why Introduce BS 8888 and Withdraw BS 308?

    Chapter 2. Product Development and Computer Aided Design

    Computer Aided Draughting and Design

    Technical Product Documentation

    Access into the Computer Network

    Quality Assurance

    Chapter 3. Design for Manufacture to End of Life

    Chapter 4. Intellectual Property and Engineering Design




    Important Points to Remember

    Chapter 5. CAD Organization and Applications

    Computer and Software Purchase

    Project Development

    Size of Computer

    Parametric Design

    Sheet Metalwork Application

    Pipework Systems

    Communicating Design Concepts

    Materials Options

    Typical CAD Drawings and 3D Models

    Chapter 6. Principles of First and Third Angle Orthographic Projection

    First Angle Projection

    Third Angle Projection

    Projection Symbols

    Drawing Procedure

    Reading Engineering Drawings

    Projection Exercises

    Chapter 7. Linework and Lettering

    Drawing Paper Sizes


    Types of Line and Their Application

    Chain Lines

    Coinciding Lines


    Minimum Character Height for Capital Letters and Numerals

    Drawing Modifications

    Care and Storage of Original Drawings

    Chapter 8. Three-dimensional Illustrations Using Isometric and Oblique Projection

    Isometric Projection

    Oblique Projection

    Chapter 9. Drawing Layouts and Simplified Methods

    Single-part Drawing

    Collective Single-part Drawings

    Assembly Drawings

    Collective Assembly Drawing

    Design Layout Drawings

    Combined Detail and Assembly Drawings

    Exploded Assembly Drawings

    Simplified Drawings

    Machine Drawings

    Drawing Scales

    Scale Used in Geometric Construction


    Chapter 10. Sections and Sectional Views

    Half Sections

    Revolved Sections

    Removed Sections

    Sections through Thin Material

    Local Sections

    Components Not Drawn in Section

    Successive Sections

    Sections in Two Parallel Planes

    Chapter 11. Geometrical Constructions and Tangency

    To Bisect a Given Angle AOB (Fig. 11.1)

    To Bisect a Given Straight Line AB (Fig. 11.2)

    To Bisect a Given Arc AB (Fig. 11.3)

    To Find the Centre of a Given Arc AB (Fig. 11.4)

    To Inscribe a Circle in a Given Triangle ABC (Fig. 11.5)

    To Circumscribe a Circle Around Triangle ABC (Fig. 11.6)

    To Draw a Hexagon, Given the Distance Across the Corners

    To Draw a Hexagon, Given the Distance Across the Flats (Fig. 11.8)

    To Draw a Regular Octagon, Given the Distance Across Corners (Fig. 11.9)

    To Draw a Regular Octagon, Given the Distance Across the Flats (Fig. 11.10)

    To Draw a Regular Polygon, Given the Length of the Sides (Fig. 11.11)


    To Draw a Tangent to a Point A on the Circumference of a Circle, Centre O (Fig. 11.13)

    To Draw a Tangent to a Circle From Any Given Point A Outside the Circle (Fig. 11.14)

    To Draw an External Tangent to Two Circles (Fig. 11.15)

    To Draw an Internal Tangent to Two Circles (Fig. 11.16)

    To Draw Internal and External Tangents to Two Circles of Equal Diameter (Fig. 11.17)

    To Draw a Curve of Given Radius to Touch Two Circles when the Circles Are Outside the Radius (Fig. 11.18)

    To Draw a Curve of Given Radius to Touch Two Circles When the Circles Are Inside the Radius (Fig. 11.19)

    To Draw a Radius to Join a Straight Line and a Given Circle (Fig. 11.20)

    To Draw a Radius Which is Tangential to Given Straight Lines (Fig. 11.21)

    Chapter 12. Loci Applications

    Methods of Drawing an Ellipse

    The Involute

    Archimedean Spiral

    Right-hand Cylindrical Helix

    Right-hand Conical Helix

    The Cycloid

    The Epicycloid

    The Hypocycloid

    Chapter 13. True Lengths and Auxiliary Views

    Chapter 14. Conic Sections and Interpenetration of Solids

    To Draw an Ellipse from Part of a Cone

    To Draw a Parabola from Part of a Cone

    To Draw a Rectangular Hyperbola from Part of a Cone


    Chapter 15. Development of Patterns from Sheet Materials

    Chapter 16. Dimensioning Principles

    Dimensioning of Features not Drawn to Scale

    Chain Dimensioning and Auxiliary Dimensioning

    Parallel Dimensioning

    Running Dimensioning

    Staggered Dimensions

    Dimensioning Circles

    Dimensioning Radii

    Dimensioning Spherical Radii and Diameters

    Dimensioning Curves

    Dimensioning Irregular Curves

    Unidirectional and Aligned Dimensions

    Angular Dimensions


    Dimensioning Tapers

    Dimensioning Two Mating Tapers

    Dimensioning Chamfers

    Dimensioning Squares or Flats

    Dimensioning Holes

    Dimensioning Counterbores

    Dimensioning Countersunk Holes

    Dimensioning Spotfaces

    Dimensioning for Manufacture

    Chapter 17. Screw Threads and Conventional Representations

    Screw Threads

    ISO Metric Threads

    Unified Threads

    Threads for Power Transmission

    Draughting Conventions Associated with Threads

    Multiple Threads

    The Application of Thread Conventions

    Tapping Drill

    Clearance Drill

    Chapter 18. Nuts, Bolts, Screws, and Washers

    Drawing Nuts and Bolts

    Approximate Construction for Nuts and Bolts (Figs 18.2 and 18.3)

    Socket Head Screws Manufactured to BS EN ISO 4762 and BS 3643-2

    ISO Metric Socket Cap Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.2)

    ISO Metric Hexagon Socket Shoulder Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.3)

    ISO Metric Hexagon Socket Button Head Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.4)

    ISO Metric Socket Countersunk Head Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.5)

    ISO Metric Hexagon Socket Set Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.6)

    Machine Screws

    ‘Posidriv’ Machine Screws, Countersunk and Raised Countersunk Head (Dimensions in Table 18.7)

    ‘Posidriv’ Machine Screws, Pan Head (Dimensions in Table 18.8)

    Slotted Machine Screws, Countersunk and Raised Countersunk Head (Dimensions in Table 18.9)

    Slotted Machine Screws, Pan Head (Dimensions in Table 18.10)

    Slotted Machine Screws, Cheese Head (Dimensions in Table 18.11)

    Machine Screw Nuts

    Wing Nuts

    Locking and Retaining Devices

    Slotted Nuts and Castle Nuts

    Simmonds Locknut

    Spring Washers

    Shakeproof Washers

    Wire Locking

    Tab Washers

    Locking Plates

    Taper Pins and Parallel Pins

    Split Cotter Pins

    Locking by Adhesives


    Thread-cutting Screws

    Chapter 19. Keys and Key Ways

    Sunk Keys

    Woodruff Keys

    Dimensioning Keyways (Parallel Keys)

    Chapter 20. Worked Examples in Machine Drawing

    Bushed Bearing Bracket

    Drill Table

    Cam Operated Clamp

    Plug Cock

    Air Engine


    Solution Notes

    Chapter 21. Limits and Fits

    Elements of Interchangeable Systems (Fig. 21.9)

    Unilateral and Bilateral Limits

    Bases of Fits

    Selected ISO Fits – Hole Basis (Extracted from BS 4500)

    Interpretations of Limits of Size in Relation to Form

    Chapter 22. Geometrical Tolerancing and Datums

    Geometrical Tolerances



    General Rules

    Theoretically Exact Dimensions (TEDs)


    Method of Indicating Geometrical Tolerances on Drawings

    Methods of Applying the Tolerance Frame to the Toleranced Feature

    Procedure for Positioning Remarks which are Related to Tolerance

    The Application of Tolerances to a Restricted Length of a Feature

    Tolerance Zones

    Projected Toleranced Zone

    Datums and Datum Systems


    Methods of Specifying Datum Features

    Datum Systems

    Common Datums

    Datum Targets

    Dimensioning and Tolerancing Non-rigid Parts

    Chapter 23. Application of Geometrical Tolerances



    Circularity (Roundness)


    Profile Tolerance of a Line

    Profile Tolerance of a Surface


    Perpendicularity (Squareness)


    Circular Run-out

    Total Run-out


    Concentricity and Coaxiality


    Chapter 24. Maximum Material and Least Material Principles

    Maximum Material Condition (MMC)

    Least Material Condition (LMC)

    Maximum Material Condition Related to Geometrical Form

    Maximum Material Condition Applied to Straightness

    Maximum Material Condition Applied to Squareness

    Maximum Material Condition Applied to Position

    Maximum Material Condition Applied to Coaxiality

    Maximum Material Condition and Perfect Form

    The Application of Maximum Material Condition and its Relationship with Perfect Form and Squareness

    The Application of Maximum Material Condition and its Relationship with Perfect Form and Coaxiality

    The Application of Maximum Material Condition to Two Mating Components

    Chapter 25. Positional Tolerancing

    Theoretically Exact Dimensioning (TED) (True-position)

    Typical Product Requirement

    Chapter 26. Surface Texture

    Graphical Symbols to Indicate Surface Texture

    Expanded Graphical Symbols

    Complete Graphical Symbols

    ‘All Surfaces Around a Workpiece’ Graphical Symbol

    Composition of Complete Graphical Symbols for Surface Texture

    Mandatory Positions for Complementary Requirements

    Chapter 27. Surface Finish and Corrosion of Metals

    Surface Finish

    Corrosion of Metals

    Design Considerations to Minimize the Effects of Corrosion

    Chapter 28. 3D Annotation

    Axis or Median Feature

    Projected Tolerance Zone

    Indicating a Tolerance Zone Between Two Points

    Unilateral and Unequal Profile Tolerance

    Indicating the Direction of Tolerance Zones

    Chapter 29. The Duality Principle – the Essential Link Between the Design Intent and the Verification of the End Product


    Design Specification and Verification

    Advantages of the Duality Principle

    Chapter 30. Differences between American ASME Y 14.5M Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) and ISO/BS 8888 Geometrical Tolerancing Standards

    Applicability of Standards


    Specification of Datums

    Exclusion of Surface Texture

    Tolerancing Principle

    Features of Size

    Chapter 31. Cams and Gears

    Cam Followers

    Cam Follower Motions

    Case 1 (Fig. 31.6)

    Case 2 (Fig. 31.7)

    Case 3 (Fig. 31.8)

    Case 4 (Fig. 31.9)

    Case 5 (Fig. 31.10)

    Case 6 (Fig. 31.11)

    Dimensioning Cams

    Spur Gears

    Spur-gear Terms (Fig. 31.15)

    Involute Gear Teeth Proportions and Relationships

    Typical Example Using Professor Unwin's Approximate Construction

    Helical Gears

    Bevel Gears

    Worm Gearing

    Chapter 32. Springs

    Plain-carbon Steels

    Alloy Steels

    Stainless Steels

    High-nickel Alloys

    Copper-base Alloys

    Compression Springs

    Flat Springs

    Torsion Springs

    Leaf Springs

    Helical Extension Springs

    Disc Springs

    Spring Specifications

    Wire Forms

    Corrosion Prevention

    Fatigue Conditions

    Chapter 33. Welding and Welding Symbols

    The Indication and Application of Welding Symbols on Drawings

    Dimensioning of Welds

    Chapter 34. Engineering Diagrams

    General Engineering Graphical Symbols

    Engineered Systems

    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems

    Refrigeration Systems and Energy-saving Applications

    Pneumatic Systems

    Pneumatics and Electronics

    Chapter 35. Bearings and Applied Technology

    Plain Bearings

    Ball and Roller Bearings

    Chapter 36. Engineering Adhesives

    Designing for Adhesives

    The Bond Line

    Typical Bonded Joints

    Engineering Applications

    Instant Adhesives

    Structural Applications

    Chapter 37. Related Standards

    The British Standards Institution

    BSI Knowledge Centre

    Technical Information Group

    Foreign Standards and Translations

    PLUS – Private List Updating Service



    British Standards Online and CD-ROM

    The Standards-making Process

    International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

    Chapter 38. Production Drawings

    Further Standards for Design, Project and Risk Management of Interest to Engineers and Manufacturers

    Chapter 39. Drawing Solutions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 384
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2012
  • Published: April 27, 2012
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080966533
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780080966526

About the Authors

Colin Simmons

Colin H. Simmons is an international engineering standards consultant and a member of numerous BSI and ISO committees dealing with technical product documentation and specifications. He is a former practising mechanical design engineer and author of many publications on engineering drawing, product specification and standards.

Affiliations and Expertise

Engineering Standards Consultant, UK

Dennis Maguire

Dennis E. Maguire was a design engineer and senior lecturer at Southall College, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Former Lecturer, Southall College, UK

Ratings and Reviews

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  • WilliamLamb Thu Sep 13 2018

    Manual of Engineering Drawing

    A well written guide to creating engineering drawings using BS8888, much better than having the standards on your desk, lots of examples of good practice. I now have 5 spread across our design office and will be buying more in the near future.

  • David M. Mon May 14 2018

    Drafts-mans Bible

    Fantastic book. Every respectable engineering office should have this book for reference. I always carry this book and have it in my desk for technical manufacturing drawing instruction. Very in-depth and informative.