Manual of Engineering Drawing - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780080966526, 9780080966533

Manual of Engineering Drawing

4th Edition

Technical Product Specification and Documentation to British and International Standards

Authors: Colin Simmons Dennis Maguire
Paperback ISBN: 9780080966526
eBook ISBN: 9780080966533
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 11th May 2012
Page Count: 384
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Manual of Engineering Drawing is a comprehensive guide for experts and novices for producing engineering drawings and annotated 3D models that meet the recent BSI and ISO standards of technical product documentation and specifications. This fourth edition of the text has been updated in line with recent standard revisions and amendments. The book has been prepared for international use, and includes a comprehensive discussion of the fundamental differences between the ISO and ASME standards, as well as recent updates regarding legal components, such as copyright, patents, and other legal considerations.

The text is applicable to CAD and manual drawing, and it covers the recent developments in 3D annotation and surface texture specifications. Its scope also covers the concepts of pictorial and orthographic projections, geometrical, dimensional and surface tolerancing, and the principle of duality. The text also presents numerous examples of hydraulic and electrical diagrams, applications, bearings, adhesives, and welding.

The book can be considered an authoritative design reference for beginners and students in technical product specification courses, engineering, and product designing.

Key Features

  • Expert interpretation of the rules and conventions provided by authoritative authors who regularly lead and contribute to BSI and ISO committees on product standards
  • Combines the latest technical information with clear, readable explanations, numerous diagrams and traditional geometrical construction techniques
  • Includes new material on patents, copyrights and intellectual property, design for manufacture and end-of-life, and surface finishing considerations


Engineering designers (including students and practising designers)

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Drawing Office Management and Organization

Engineering Drawing Practices

Drawing Practice and the Computer (CAD: Computer Aided Draughting and Design)

Why Introduce BS 8888 and Withdraw BS 308?

Chapter 2. Product Development and Computer Aided Design

Computer Aided Draughting and Design

Technical Product Documentation

Access into the Computer Network

Quality Assurance

Chapter 3. Design for Manufacture to End of Life

Chapter 4. Intellectual Property and Engineering Design




Important Points to Remember

Chapter 5. CAD Organization and Applications

Computer and Software Purchase

Project Development

Size of Computer

Parametric Design

Sheet Metalwork Application

Pipework Systems

Communicating Design Concepts

Materials Options

Typical CAD Drawings and 3D Models

Chapter 6. Principles of First and Third Angle Orthographic Projection

First Angle Projection

Third Angle Projection

Projection Symbols

Drawing Procedure

Reading Engineering Drawings

Projection Exercises

Chapter 7. Linework and Lettering

Drawing Paper Sizes


Types of Line and Their Application

Chain Lines

Coinciding Lines


Minimum Character Height for Capital Letters and Numerals

Drawing Modifications

Care and Storage of Original Drawings

Chapter 8. Three-dimensional Illustrations Using Isometric and Oblique Projection

Isometric Projection

Oblique Projection

Chapter 9. Drawing Layouts and Simplified Methods

Single-part Drawing

Collective Single-part Drawings

Assembly Drawings

Collective Assembly Drawing

Design Layout Drawings

Combined Detail and Assembly Drawings

Exploded Assembly Drawings

Simplified Drawings

Machine Drawings

Drawing Scales

Scale Used in Geometric Construction


Chapter 10. Sections and Sectional Views

Half Sections

Revolved Sections

Removed Sections

Sections through Thin Material

Local Sections

Components Not Drawn in Section

Successive Sections

Sections in Two Parallel Planes

Chapter 11. Geometrical Constructions and Tangency

To Bisect a Given Angle AOB (Fig. 11.1)

To Bisect a Given Straight Line AB (Fig. 11.2)

To Bisect a Given Arc AB (Fig. 11.3)

To Find the Centre of a Given Arc AB (Fig. 11.4)

To Inscribe a Circle in a Given Triangle ABC (Fig. 11.5)

To Circumscribe a Circle Around Triangle ABC (Fig. 11.6)

To Draw a Hexagon, Given the Distance Across the Corners

To Draw a Hexagon, Given the Distance Across the Flats (Fig. 11.8)

To Draw a Regular Octagon, Given the Distance Across Corners (Fig. 11.9)

To Draw a Regular Octagon, Given the Distance Across the Flats (Fig. 11.10)

To Draw a Regular Polygon, Given the Length of the Sides (Fig. 11.11)


To Draw a Tangent to a Point A on the Circumference of a Circle, Centre O (Fig. 11.13)

To Draw a Tangent to a Circle From Any Given Point A Outside the Circle (Fig. 11.14)

To Draw an External Tangent to Two Circles (Fig. 11.15)

To Draw an Internal Tangent to Two Circles (Fig. 11.16)

To Draw Internal and External Tangents to Two Circles of Equal Diameter (Fig. 11.17)

To Draw a Curve of Given Radius to Touch Two Circles when the Circles Are Outside the Radius (Fig. 11.18)

To Draw a Curve of Given Radius to Touch Two Circles When the Circles Are Inside the Radius (Fig. 11.19)

To Draw a Radius to Join a Straight Line and a Given Circle (Fig. 11.20)

To Draw a Radius Which is Tangential to Given Straight Lines (Fig. 11.21)

Chapter 12. Loci Applications

Methods of Drawing an Ellipse

The Involute

Archimedean Spiral

Right-hand Cylindrical Helix

Right-hand Conical Helix

The Cycloid

The Epicycloid

The Hypocycloid

Chapter 13. True Lengths and Auxiliary Views

Chapter 14. Conic Sections and Interpenetration of Solids

To Draw an Ellipse from Part of a Cone

To Draw a Parabola from Part of a Cone

To Draw a Rectangular Hyperbola from Part of a Cone


Chapter 15. Development of Patterns from Sheet Materials

Chapter 16. Dimensioning Principles

Dimensioning of Features not Drawn to Scale

Chain Dimensioning and Auxiliary Dimensioning

Parallel Dimensioning

Running Dimensioning

Staggered Dimensions

Dimensioning Circles

Dimensioning Radii

Dimensioning Spherical Radii and Diameters

Dimensioning Curves

Dimensioning Irregular Curves

Unidirectional and Aligned Dimensions

Angular Dimensions


Dimensioning Tapers

Dimensioning Two Mating Tapers

Dimensioning Chamfers

Dimensioning Squares or Flats

Dimensioning Holes

Dimensioning Counterbores

Dimensioning Countersunk Holes

Dimensioning Spotfaces

Dimensioning for Manufacture

Chapter 17. Screw Threads and Conventional Representations

Screw Threads

ISO Metric Threads

Unified Threads

Threads for Power Transmission

Draughting Conventions Associated with Threads

Multiple Threads

The Application of Thread Conventions

Tapping Drill

Clearance Drill

Chapter 18. Nuts, Bolts, Screws, and Washers

Drawing Nuts and Bolts

Approximate Construction for Nuts and Bolts (Figs 18.2 and 18.3)

Socket Head Screws Manufactured to BS EN ISO 4762 and BS 3643-2

ISO Metric Socket Cap Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.2)

ISO Metric Hexagon Socket Shoulder Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.3)

ISO Metric Hexagon Socket Button Head Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.4)

ISO Metric Socket Countersunk Head Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.5)

ISO Metric Hexagon Socket Set Screws (Dimensions in Table 18.6)

Machine Screws

‘Posidriv’ Machine Screws, Countersunk and Raised Countersunk Head (Dimensions in Table 18.7)

‘Posidriv’ Machine Screws, Pan Head (Dimensions in Table 18.8)

Slotted Machine Screws, Countersunk and Raised Countersunk Head (Dimensions in Table 18.9)

Slotted Machine Screws, Pan Head (Dimensions in Table 18.10)

Slotted Machine Screws, Cheese Head (Dimensions in Table 18.11)

Machine Screw Nuts

Wing Nuts

Locking and Retaining Devices

Slotted Nuts and Castle Nuts

Simmonds Locknut

Spring Washers

Shakeproof Washers

Wire Locking

Tab Washers

Locking Plates

Taper Pins and Parallel Pins

Split Cotter Pins

Locking by Adhesives


Thread-cutting Screws

Chapter 19. Keys and Key Ways

Sunk Keys

Woodruff Keys

Dimensioning Keyways (Parallel Keys)

Chapter 20. Worked Examples in Machine Drawing

Bushed Bearing Bracket

Drill Table

Cam Operated Clamp

Plug Cock

Air Engine


Solution Notes

Chapter 21. Limits and Fits

Elements of Interchangeable Systems (Fig. 21.9)

Unilateral and Bilateral Limits

Bases of Fits

Selected ISO Fits – Hole Basis (Extracted from BS 4500)

Interpretations of Limits of Size in Relation to Form

Chapter 22. Geometrical Tolerancing and Datums

Geometrical Tolerances



General Rules

Theoretically Exact Dimensions (TEDs)


Method of Indicating Geometrical Tolerances on Drawings

Methods of Applying the Tolerance Frame to the Toleranced Feature

Procedure for Positioning Remarks which are Related to Tolerance

The Application of Tolerances to a Restricted Length of a Feature

Tolerance Zones

Projected Toleranced Zone

Datums and Datum Systems


Methods of Specifying Datum Features

Datum Systems

Common Datums

Datum Targets

Dimensioning and Tolerancing Non-rigid Parts

Chapter 23. Application of Geometrical Tolerances



Circularity (Roundness)


Profile Tolerance of a Line

Profile Tolerance of a Surface


Perpendicularity (Squareness)


Circular Run-out

Total Run-out


Concentricity and Coaxiality


Chapter 24. Maximum Material and Least Material Principles

Maximum Material Condition (MMC)

Least Material Condition (LMC)

Maximum Material Condition Related to Geometrical Form

Maximum Material Condition Applied to Straightness

Maximum Material Condition Applied to Squareness

Maximum Material Condition Applied to Position

Maximum Material Condition Applied to Coaxiality

Maximum Material Condition and Perfect Form

The Application of Maximum Material Condition and its Relationship with Perfect Form and Squareness

The Application of Maximum Material Condition and its Relationship with Perfect Form and Coaxiality

The Application of Maximum Material Condition to Two Mating Components

Chapter 25. Positional Tolerancing

Theoretically Exact Dimensioning (TED) (True-position)

Typical Product Requirement

Chapter 26. Surface Texture

Graphical Symbols to Indicate Surface Texture

Expanded Graphical Symbols

Complete Graphical Symbols

‘All Surfaces Around a Workpiece’ Graphical Symbol

Composition of Complete Graphical Symbols for Surface Texture

Mandatory Positions for Complementary Requirements

Chapter 27. Surface Finish and Corrosion of Metals

Surface Finish

Corrosion of Metals

Design Considerations to Minimize the Effects of Corrosion

Chapter 28. 3D Annotation

Axis or Median Feature

Projected Tolerance Zone

Indicating a Tolerance Zone Between Two Points

Unilateral and Unequal Profile Tolerance

Indicating the Direction of Tolerance Zones

Chapter 29. The Duality Principle – the Essential Link Between the Design Intent and the Verification of the End Product


Design Specification and Verification

Advantages of the Duality Principle

Chapter 30. Differences between American ASME Y 14.5M Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) and ISO/BS 8888 Geometrical Tolerancing Standards

Applicability of Standards


Specification of Datums

Exclusion of Surface Texture

Tolerancing Principle

Features of Size

Chapter 31. Cams and Gears

Cam Followers

Cam Follower Motions

Case 1 (Fig. 31.6)

Case 2 (Fig. 31.7)

Case 3 (Fig. 31.8)

Case 4 (Fig. 31.9)

Case 5 (Fig. 31.10)

Case 6 (Fig. 31.11)

Dimensioning Cams

Spur Gears

Spur-gear Terms (Fig. 31.15)

Involute Gear Teeth Proportions and Relationships

Typical Example Using Professor Unwin's Approximate Construction

Helical Gears

Bevel Gears

Worm Gearing

Chapter 32. Springs

Plain-carbon Steels

Alloy Steels

Stainless Steels

High-nickel Alloys

Copper-base Alloys

Compression Springs

Flat Springs

Torsion Springs

Leaf Springs

Helical Extension Springs

Disc Springs

Spring Specifications

Wire Forms

Corrosion Prevention

Fatigue Conditions

Chapter 33. Welding and Welding Symbols

The Indication and Application of Welding Symbols on Drawings

Dimensioning of Welds

Chapter 34. Engineering Diagrams

General Engineering Graphical Symbols

Engineered Systems

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems

Refrigeration Systems and Energy-saving Applications

Pneumatic Systems

Pneumatics and Electronics

Chapter 35. Bearings and Applied Technology

Plain Bearings

Ball and Roller Bearings

Chapter 36. Engineering Adhesives

Designing for Adhesives

The Bond Line

Typical Bonded Joints

Engineering Applications

Instant Adhesives

Structural Applications

Chapter 37. Related Standards

The British Standards Institution

BSI Knowledge Centre

Technical Information Group

Foreign Standards and Translations

PLUS – Private List Updating Service



British Standards Online and CD-ROM

The Standards-making Process

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Chapter 38. Production Drawings

Further Standards for Design, Project and Risk Management of Interest to Engineers and Manufacturers

Chapter 39. Drawing Solutions



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About the Author

Colin Simmons

Colin H. Simmons is an international engineering standards consultant and a member of numerous BSI and ISO committees dealing with technical product documentation and specifications. He is a former practising mechanical design engineer and author of many publications on engineering drawing, product specification and standards.

Affiliations and Expertise

Engineering Standards Consultant, UK

Dennis Maguire

Dennis E. Maguire was a design engineer and senior lecturer at Southall College, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Former Lecturer, Southall College, UK