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Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9781845697709, 9780857093646

Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies

4th Edition

Editor: D Manley
eBook ISBN: 9780857093646
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697709
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 28th September 2011
Page Count: 632
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Setting the scene: A history and the position of biscuits


1.1 Introduction

1.2 The beginnings of biscuit manufacturing

1.3 Ingredients and formulation development

1.4 Engineering

Part I: Management of technology in biscuit manufacture

Chapter 2: The role of the technical department in biscuit manufacture


2.1 Introduction

2.2 The requirements of the technical (or technology) department

2.3 Selection of staff for the technical department

2.4 Facilities for the technical department

2.5 Liaison with other technical establishments

2.6 Support for purchasing

2.7 Support for training

2.8 Management of technical developments

Chapter 3: Quality management systems and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) in biscuit manufacture


3.1 Quality management

3.2 Management of product safety

Chapter 4: Quality control and good manufacturing practice (GMP) in the biscuit industry


4.1 Principles and management

4.2 Quality control tasks for finished product inspection

4.3 Quality control tasks for ingredient and packaging materials

4.4 Good manufacturing practice (GMP)

4.5 Hygiene surveys

Chapter 5: Process and efficiency control in biscuit manufacture


5.1 Process control and efficiency

5.2 Process audit

5.3 Process control checks and records for plants with no continuous monitoring sensors

5.4 Making process control measurements

5.5 Action procedures as a result of product measurements

5.6 Instrumentation for monitoring

5.7 Efficiency and integrated plant control

5.8 Outline of the instrumentation that is available

5.9 Troubleshooting

5.10 Energy efficiency

Chapter 6: Product development in the biscuit industry


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Product development

6.3 Facilities for process and product development

6.4 Assessing products

6.5 Establishing the product specification

6.6 Management of product development

Chapter 7: Sustainability in the biscuit industry


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Key drivers for sustainability in the biscuit industry

7.3 Carbon emissions and energy use

7.4 Reducing water use

7.5 Reducing waste

7.6 Packaging

7.7 Other options for improving sustainability

Part II: Materials and ingredients for biscuit manufacture

Chapter 8: Choosing materials for biscuit production


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Important technical aspects

8.3 Important commercial aspects

8.4 Programme for the meeting with a supplier

Chapter 9: Wheat flour and vital wheat gluten as biscuit ingredients


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Flour from the viewpoint of the miller

9.3 Flour from the viewpoint of the biscuit manufacturer

9.4 Vital wheat gluten

Chapter 10: Meals, grits, flours and starches (other than wheat)


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Cereal-based materials

10.3 Non-cereal flours and starches

Chapter 11: Sugars and syrups as biscuit ingredients


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Common sugar, sucrose

11.3 Syrups

11.4 Sugars and syrups from starches – glucose

11.5 Non-diastatic malt extract

11.6 Maillard reaction

11.7 Polyols

Chapter 12: Fats and oils as biscuit ingredients


12.1 Introduction

12.2 The role of fat in biscuits

12.3 The chemistry and physical properties of fats

12.4 Quality and handling issues of fats

12.5 Key characteristics of fats for biscuits

12.6 Quality control of fats

12.7 General specification requirements for oils and fats

12.8 Challenges for the biscuit manufacturer

Chapter 13: Emulsifiers (surfactants) and antioxidants as biscuit ingredients


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Function of emulsifiers in biscuits

13.3 Types of food emulsifiers

13.4 Reduced fat biscuits

13.5 General use of emulsifiers in biscuit doughs

13.6 Application help

13.7 Antioxidants

Chapter 14: Milk products and egg as biscuit ingredients


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Milk and milk products

14.3 Egg

Chapter 15: Dried fruits and nuts as biscuit ingredients


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Dried grapes

15.3 Other dried fruits used in biscuits

15.4 Fruit pastes and syrups

15.5 Tree nuts

15.6 Peanuts, arachis or ground nut

15.7 Health problems associated with nuts

Chapter 16: Yeast and enzymes as biscuit ingredients


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Yeast

16.3 Enzymes

Chapter 17: Flavours, spices and flavour enhancers as biscuit ingredients


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Sources and types of flavours

17.3 Suitability of a flavour material

17.4 Flavouring of biscuits

17.5 Flavour enhancers

17.6 Storage of flavours and quality control

Chapter 18: Additives as biscuit ingredients


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl)

18.3 Leavening agents

18.4 Processing aids

18.5 Food acids

18.6 Colours

18.7 Artificial sweeteners

Chapter 19: Chocolate and cocoa as biscuit ingredients


19.1 Introduction

19.2 The flavour of chocolate

19.3 Chocolate viscosity

19.4 Cocoa butter, cocoa butter equivalents and hard butters

19.5 Definitions of cocoa and chocolate products

19.6 Types of chocolate

19.7 Supply and storage of chocolate

19.8 Chocolate drops and chips

19.9 Cocoa

19.10 Handling of chocolate and chocolate chips

19.11 Compound chocolate

19.12 Carob powder

Chapter 20: Packaging materials for biscuits and their influence on shelf life


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Packaging materials

20.3 Packaging and shelf life

20.4 Indices of failure (IoFs)

20.5 Package requirements to address indices of failure (IoFs)

Part III: Types of biscuits

Chapter 21: Classification of biscuits


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Classification based on enrichment of the formulation

21.3 Conversion of units

Chapter 22: Cream crackers


22.1 History and introduction to cream crackers

22.2 Mixing and fermentation of cream cracker doughs

22.3 Dough piece forming

22.4 Baking of cream crackers

22.5 Yields from fermented doughs

Chapter 23: Soda crackers


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Dough preparation

23.3 Outline of typical soda cracker manufacturing techniques

Chapter 24: Savoury or snack crackers


24.1 General description

24.2 Manufacturing technology

24.3 Post-oven oil spraying

Chapter 25: Matzos and water biscuits


25.1 Matzos

25.2 Water biscuits

25.3 Typical recipes

Chapter 26: Puff biscuits


26.1 General description

26.2 Puff dough preparation

26.3 Baking of puff biscuits

26.4 Puff biscuit production techniques

Chapter 27: Hard sweet, semi-sweet and Garibaldi fruit sandwich biscuits


27.1 General description of this group of biscuits

27.2 Ingredients and recipes

27.3 Dough mixing

27.4 Mixer instrumentation

27.5 Dough piece forming

27.6 Instrumentation of the forming machine

27.7 Baking

27.8 Flavouring of biscuits

27.9 Cooling and handling of biscuits

27.10 Continental semi-sweet biscuits

27.11 Garibaldi or fruit sandwich biscuits

Chapter 28: Short dough biscuits


28.1 Description of the group

28.2 Recipes and ingredients

28.3 Dough mixing

28.4 Dough piece forming

28.5 Instrumentation of the forming machine

28.6 Baking

28.7 Factors affecting dough piece spread during baking

Chapter 29: Deposited soft dough and sponge drop biscuits


29.1 Description of deposited biscuits

29.2 Description of sponge batter drops

29.3 Typical recipes

Chapter 30: Wafer biscuits


30.1 Introduction

30.2 The wafer oven or wafer baker

30.3 Wafer sheet production

30.4 Batter mixing

30.5 Batter handling

30.6 Batter deposition and baking

30.7 Sheet handling, creaming and cutting

30.8 Process control of wafer production

30.9 Hollow rolled wafer sticks

Chapter 31: The position of biscuits in nutrition


31.1 Introduction

31.2 Biscuits in our diets

31.3 The evolution of biscuit nutrition

31.4 Different biscuits for different people

31.5 Food labelling can help – when you understand it

Chapter 32: Miscellaneous biscuit-like products


32.1 Introduction

32.2 Products that are made on a type of biscuit plant 32.2.1 Crispbread

32.3 Products that are not made on conventional biscuit plant

Part IV: Biscuit production processes and equipment

Chapter 33: Bulk handling and metering of biscuit ingredients


33.1 Introduction

33.2 Bulk handling

33.3 Some technical aspects of bulk handling

33.4 Process control in bulk storage

33.5 Metering of ingredients to mixers

Chapter 34: Mixing and premixes in biscuit manufacture


34.1 Introduction

34.2 General conditions for mixing

34.3 Process control and instrumentation of mixers

34.4 Considerations in the selection of a mixer

34.5 Types of mixer available for biscuit doughs

34.6 Integrated mixing schemes in the future

34.7 Premixes

Chapter 35: Sheeting, gauging and cutting in biscuit manufacture


35.1 Principles

35.2 Sheeters

35.3 Gauge rolls

35.4 Multiple-roller gauging units

35.5 Dough relaxation units

35.6 Cutting

35.7 Cutter scrap dough handling

35.8 Dough piece garnishing and panning

35.9 Control of biscuit cutting machines

35.10 Operator maintenance requirements

Chapter 36: Laminating in biscuit manufacture


36.1 Principles and techniques of laminating

36.2 Types of automatic laminator

36.3 Is laminating really necessary?

36.4 Process control during laminating

Chapter 37: Rotary moulding in biscuit manufacture


37.1 Introduction

37.2 General description of the rotary moulding machine

37.3 The formation of the dough piece

37.4 Dough piece weight control

37.5 Differential speeds of moulding roller and extraction roller

37.6 Common difficulties that may be encountered with rotary moulders

37.7 Instrumentation of a rotary moulder

37.8 Disadvantages of a rotary moulder

37.9 The soft dough rotary moulder and Rotodepositor

37.10 Printing on dough pieces

Chapter 38: Extruding and depositing of biscuit dough


38.1 Introduction

38.2 General description of extruding and depositing machines for doughs

38.3 Process control of extruded and deposited biscuits

38.4 Sponge batter drops and sponge finger biscuits

Chapter 39: Biscuit baking


39.1 Introduction

39.2 Changes to the dough piece during baking

39.3 Oven conditions

39.4 Typical baking profiles

39.5 Types of oven

39.6 Preparation and care of oven bands

39.7 Measurement and control in baking

39.8 Post oven oil spraying

Chapter 40: Biscuit cooling and handling


40.1 Introduction

40.2 Checking

40.3 Methods and speeds of cooling

40.4 Biscuit handling prior to packaging

Chapter 41: Secondary processing of biscuits


41.1 General considerations

41.2 Sandwich creams

41.3 Icing

41.4 Jams, jellies, caramels and marshmallows

41.5 Chocolate and chocolate flavoured coatings

Chapter 42: Biscuit packaging and storage


42.1 Introduction

42.2 Functions of a pack

42.3 Types of primary packages

42.4 Collation and feeding to wrapping machines

42.5 Biscuit size variations

42.6 Post-wrapping operations

42.7 Process and quality control

42.8 Storage

42.9 Robotics

Chapter 43: Recycling, handling and disposal of waste biscuit materials


43.1 Management of waste

43.2 Sources of waste materials

43.3 Estimating the size of the problem

43.4 Recycling

43.5 Disposal of waste materials that are not recycled

Part V: Suppliers’ presentations



Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies is widely regarded as the standard work in its field. Part one covers management issues such as HACCP, quality control, process control and product development. Part two deals with the selection of raw materials and ingredients. The range and types of biscuits is covered in part three, while part four covers the main production processes and equipment, from bulk handling and metering of ingredients to packaging, storage and waste management.

Eight expert authors have joined Duncan Manley in extensively updating and expanding the book, which is now some 25% longer than the previous edition. Part one now includes a new chapter on sustainability in the biscuit industry and the discussion of process and efficiency control is more detailed. In part two the information on wheat flour has been extensively revised to reflect recent developments and there are entirely new chapters on fats and oils and packaging materials. Photographs of the major types of biscuits now illustrate chapters in part three, which also includes a newly-composed chapter on the position of biscuits in nutrition. Finally, part four has been comprehensively reviewed and revised with the assistance of an author from a major machinery manufacturer.

With its distinguished editor and team of expert contributors this new edition consolidates the position of Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies as the standard reference work in the industry.

Key Features

  • Widely regarded as the standard work in its field
  • Covers management issues such as HACCP, quality control, process control and product development
  • Deals with the selection of raw materials and ingredients


Biscuit, cookie, and cracker manufacturing plants, bakers


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2011
28th September 2011
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:


"Clear, authoritative and practical – you can find the answer to most problems in it." --Mike Webber, The Biscuit, Cake, Chocolate and Confectionery Association, UK on the third edition

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

D Manley

Duncan Manley is an internationally-renowned consultant to the biscuit and food industries, with over 40 years’ experience. He is the author of the Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manuals and Biscuit, cracker and cookie recipes for the food industry, also published by Woodhead Publishing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant, UK