Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies

Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies

4th Edition - September 28, 2011

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  • Editor: D Manley
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093646
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697709

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Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies is widely regarded as the standard work in its field. Part one covers management issues such as HACCP, quality control, process control and product development. Part two deals with the selection of raw materials and ingredients. The range and types of biscuits is covered in part three, while part four covers the main production processes and equipment, from bulk handling and metering of ingredients to packaging, storage and waste management. Eight expert authors have joined Duncan Manley in extensively updating and expanding the book, which is now some 25% longer than the previous edition. Part one now includes a new chapter on sustainability in the biscuit industry and the discussion of process and efficiency control is more detailed. In part two the information on wheat flour has been extensively revised to reflect recent developments and there are entirely new chapters on fats and oils and packaging materials. Photographs of the major types of biscuits now illustrate chapters in part three, which also includes a newly-composed chapter on the position of biscuits in nutrition. Finally, part four has been comprehensively reviewed and revised with the assistance of an author from a major machinery manufacturer. With its distinguished editor and team of expert contributors this new edition consolidates the position of Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies as the standard reference work in the industry.

Key Features

  • Widely regarded as the standard work in its field
  • Covers management issues such as HACCP, quality control, process control and product development
  • Deals with the selection of raw materials and ingredients


Biscuit, cookie, and cracker manufacturing plants, bakers

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Setting the scene: A history and the position of biscuits


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 The beginnings of biscuit manufacturing

    1.3 Ingredients and formulation development

    1.4 Engineering

    Part I: Management of technology in biscuit manufacture

    Chapter 2: The role of the technical department in biscuit manufacture


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The requirements of the technical (or technology) department

    2.3 Selection of staff for the technical department

    2.4 Facilities for the technical department

    2.5 Liaison with other technical establishments

    2.6 Support for purchasing

    2.7 Support for training

    2.8 Management of technical developments

    Chapter 3: Quality management systems and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) in biscuit manufacture


    3.1 Quality management

    3.2 Management of product safety

    Chapter 4: Quality control and good manufacturing practice (GMP) in the biscuit industry


    4.1 Principles and management

    4.2 Quality control tasks for finished product inspection

    4.3 Quality control tasks for ingredient and packaging materials

    4.4 Good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    4.5 Hygiene surveys

    Chapter 5: Process and efficiency control in biscuit manufacture


    5.1 Process control and efficiency

    5.2 Process audit

    5.3 Process control checks and records for plants with no continuous monitoring sensors

    5.4 Making process control measurements

    5.5 Action procedures as a result of product measurements

    5.6 Instrumentation for monitoring

    5.7 Efficiency and integrated plant control

    5.8 Outline of the instrumentation that is available

    5.9 Troubleshooting

    5.10 Energy efficiency

    Chapter 6: Product development in the biscuit industry


    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Product development

    6.3 Facilities for process and product development

    6.4 Assessing products

    6.5 Establishing the product specification

    6.6 Management of product development

    Chapter 7: Sustainability in the biscuit industry


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Key drivers for sustainability in the biscuit industry

    7.3 Carbon emissions and energy use

    7.4 Reducing water use

    7.5 Reducing waste

    7.6 Packaging

    7.7 Other options for improving sustainability

    Part II: Materials and ingredients for biscuit manufacture

    Chapter 8: Choosing materials for biscuit production


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Important technical aspects

    8.3 Important commercial aspects

    8.4 Programme for the meeting with a supplier

    Chapter 9: Wheat flour and vital wheat gluten as biscuit ingredients


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Flour from the viewpoint of the miller

    9.3 Flour from the viewpoint of the biscuit manufacturer

    9.4 Vital wheat gluten

    Chapter 10: Meals, grits, flours and starches (other than wheat)


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Cereal-based materials

    10.3 Non-cereal flours and starches

    Chapter 11: Sugars and syrups as biscuit ingredients


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Common sugar, sucrose

    11.3 Syrups

    11.4 Sugars and syrups from starches – glucose

    11.5 Non-diastatic malt extract

    11.6 Maillard reaction

    11.7 Polyols

    Chapter 12: Fats and oils as biscuit ingredients


    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 The role of fat in biscuits

    12.3 The chemistry and physical properties of fats

    12.4 Quality and handling issues of fats

    12.5 Key characteristics of fats for biscuits

    12.6 Quality control of fats

    12.7 General specification requirements for oils and fats

    12.8 Challenges for the biscuit manufacturer

    Chapter 13: Emulsifiers (surfactants) and antioxidants as biscuit ingredients


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Function of emulsifiers in biscuits

    13.3 Types of food emulsifiers

    13.4 Reduced fat biscuits

    13.5 General use of emulsifiers in biscuit doughs

    13.6 Application help

    13.7 Antioxidants

    Chapter 14: Milk products and egg as biscuit ingredients


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Milk and milk products

    14.3 Egg

    Chapter 15: Dried fruits and nuts as biscuit ingredients


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Dried grapes

    15.3 Other dried fruits used in biscuits

    15.4 Fruit pastes and syrups

    15.5 Tree nuts

    15.6 Peanuts, arachis or ground nut

    15.7 Health problems associated with nuts

    Chapter 16: Yeast and enzymes as biscuit ingredients


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Yeast

    16.3 Enzymes

    Chapter 17: Flavours, spices and flavour enhancers as biscuit ingredients


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Sources and types of flavours

    17.3 Suitability of a flavour material

    17.4 Flavouring of biscuits

    17.5 Flavour enhancers

    17.6 Storage of flavours and quality control

    Chapter 18: Additives as biscuit ingredients


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl)

    18.3 Leavening agents

    18.4 Processing aids

    18.5 Food acids

    18.6 Colours

    18.7 Artificial sweeteners

    Chapter 19: Chocolate and cocoa as biscuit ingredients


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 The flavour of chocolate

    19.3 Chocolate viscosity

    19.4 Cocoa butter, cocoa butter equivalents and hard butters

    19.5 Definitions of cocoa and chocolate products

    19.6 Types of chocolate

    19.7 Supply and storage of chocolate

    19.8 Chocolate drops and chips

    19.9 Cocoa

    19.10 Handling of chocolate and chocolate chips

    19.11 Compound chocolate

    19.12 Carob powder

    Chapter 20: Packaging materials for biscuits and their influence on shelf life


    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Packaging materials

    20.3 Packaging and shelf life

    20.4 Indices of failure (IoFs)

    20.5 Package requirements to address indices of failure (IoFs)

    Part III: Types of biscuits

    Chapter 21: Classification of biscuits


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Classification based on enrichment of the formulation

    21.3 Conversion of units

    Chapter 22: Cream crackers


    22.1 History and introduction to cream crackers

    22.2 Mixing and fermentation of cream cracker doughs

    22.3 Dough piece forming

    22.4 Baking of cream crackers

    22.5 Yields from fermented doughs

    Chapter 23: Soda crackers


    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Dough preparation

    23.3 Outline of typical soda cracker manufacturing techniques

    Chapter 24: Savoury or snack crackers


    24.1 General description

    24.2 Manufacturing technology

    24.3 Post-oven oil spraying

    Chapter 25: Matzos and water biscuits


    25.1 Matzos

    25.2 Water biscuits

    25.3 Typical recipes

    Chapter 26: Puff biscuits


    26.1 General description

    26.2 Puff dough preparation

    26.3 Baking of puff biscuits

    26.4 Puff biscuit production techniques

    Chapter 27: Hard sweet, semi-sweet and Garibaldi fruit sandwich biscuits


    27.1 General description of this group of biscuits

    27.2 Ingredients and recipes

    27.3 Dough mixing

    27.4 Mixer instrumentation

    27.5 Dough piece forming

    27.6 Instrumentation of the forming machine

    27.7 Baking

    27.8 Flavouring of biscuits

    27.9 Cooling and handling of biscuits

    27.10 Continental semi-sweet biscuits

    27.11 Garibaldi or fruit sandwich biscuits

    Chapter 28: Short dough biscuits


    28.1 Description of the group

    28.2 Recipes and ingredients

    28.3 Dough mixing

    28.4 Dough piece forming

    28.5 Instrumentation of the forming machine

    28.6 Baking

    28.7 Factors affecting dough piece spread during baking

    Chapter 29: Deposited soft dough and sponge drop biscuits


    29.1 Description of deposited biscuits

    29.2 Description of sponge batter drops

    29.3 Typical recipes

    Chapter 30: Wafer biscuits


    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 The wafer oven or wafer baker

    30.3 Wafer sheet production

    30.4 Batter mixing

    30.5 Batter handling

    30.6 Batter deposition and baking

    30.7 Sheet handling, creaming and cutting

    30.8 Process control of wafer production

    30.9 Hollow rolled wafer sticks

    Chapter 31: The position of biscuits in nutrition


    31.1 Introduction

    31.2 Biscuits in our diets

    31.3 The evolution of biscuit nutrition

    31.4 Different biscuits for different people

    31.5 Food labelling can help – when you understand it

    Chapter 32: Miscellaneous biscuit-like products


    32.1 Introduction

    32.2 Products that are made on a type of biscuit plant 32.2.1 Crispbread

    32.3 Products that are not made on conventional biscuit plant

    Part IV: Biscuit production processes and equipment

    Chapter 33: Bulk handling and metering of biscuit ingredients


    33.1 Introduction

    33.2 Bulk handling

    33.3 Some technical aspects of bulk handling

    33.4 Process control in bulk storage

    33.5 Metering of ingredients to mixers

    Chapter 34: Mixing and premixes in biscuit manufacture


    34.1 Introduction

    34.2 General conditions for mixing

    34.3 Process control and instrumentation of mixers

    34.4 Considerations in the selection of a mixer

    34.5 Types of mixer available for biscuit doughs

    34.6 Integrated mixing schemes in the future

    34.7 Premixes

    Chapter 35: Sheeting, gauging and cutting in biscuit manufacture


    35.1 Principles

    35.2 Sheeters

    35.3 Gauge rolls

    35.4 Multiple-roller gauging units

    35.5 Dough relaxation units

    35.6 Cutting

    35.7 Cutter scrap dough handling

    35.8 Dough piece garnishing and panning

    35.9 Control of biscuit cutting machines

    35.10 Operator maintenance requirements

    Chapter 36: Laminating in biscuit manufacture


    36.1 Principles and techniques of laminating

    36.2 Types of automatic laminator

    36.3 Is laminating really necessary?

    36.4 Process control during laminating

    Chapter 37: Rotary moulding in biscuit manufacture


    37.1 Introduction

    37.2 General description of the rotary moulding machine

    37.3 The formation of the dough piece

    37.4 Dough piece weight control

    37.5 Differential speeds of moulding roller and extraction roller

    37.6 Common difficulties that may be encountered with rotary moulders

    37.7 Instrumentation of a rotary moulder

    37.8 Disadvantages of a rotary moulder

    37.9 The soft dough rotary moulder and Rotodepositor

    37.10 Printing on dough pieces

    Chapter 38: Extruding and depositing of biscuit dough


    38.1 Introduction

    38.2 General description of extruding and depositing machines for doughs

    38.3 Process control of extruded and deposited biscuits

    38.4 Sponge batter drops and sponge finger biscuits

    Chapter 39: Biscuit baking


    39.1 Introduction

    39.2 Changes to the dough piece during baking

    39.3 Oven conditions

    39.4 Typical baking profiles

    39.5 Types of oven

    39.6 Preparation and care of oven bands

    39.7 Measurement and control in baking

    39.8 Post oven oil spraying

    Chapter 40: Biscuit cooling and handling


    40.1 Introduction

    40.2 Checking

    40.3 Methods and speeds of cooling

    40.4 Biscuit handling prior to packaging

    Chapter 41: Secondary processing of biscuits


    41.1 General considerations

    41.2 Sandwich creams

    41.3 Icing

    41.4 Jams, jellies, caramels and marshmallows

    41.5 Chocolate and chocolate flavoured coatings

    Chapter 42: Biscuit packaging and storage


    42.1 Introduction

    42.2 Functions of a pack

    42.3 Types of primary packages

    42.4 Collation and feeding to wrapping machines

    42.5 Biscuit size variations

    42.6 Post-wrapping operations

    42.7 Process and quality control

    42.8 Storage

    42.9 Robotics

    Chapter 43: Recycling, handling and disposal of waste biscuit materials


    43.1 Management of waste

    43.2 Sources of waste materials

    43.3 Estimating the size of the problem

    43.4 Recycling

    43.5 Disposal of waste materials that are not recycled

    Part V: Suppliers’ presentations


Product details

  • No. of pages: 632
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2011
  • Published: September 28, 2011
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857093646
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697709

About the Editor

D Manley

Duncan Manley is an internationally-renowned consultant to the biscuit and food industries, with over 40 years’ experience. He is the author of the Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manuals and Biscuit, cracker and cookie recipes for the food industry, also published by Woodhead Publishing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant, UK

Ratings and Reviews

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  • edvino j. Tue May 15 2018

    About Manley’s Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies

    A very good thecnical book, very useful to concretely improve the production of biscuits and bakery products in general. A book that should never be missing in the professional bookshelf of those who do this work