Managing Wine Quality

Managing Wine Quality

Volume 2: Oenology and Wine Quality

2nd Edition - December 3, 2021

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  • Editor: Andrew Reynolds
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081020661
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081020654

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Description

Managing Wine Quality, Volume 2: Oenology and Wine Quality, Second Edition, brings together authoritative contributions from experts across the world’s winemaking regions who cover yeasts, fermentation, enzymes, and stabilization, amongst other topics. A new chapter covers, in detail, extraction technologies and wine quality. Other sections cover the management of wine sensory quality, with new chapters covering the management of fortified wines, of Botrytized wines, and of wines produced from dried grapes. In addition, an updated section on insect taints in wine has been widened to cover all insects. With a focus on recent studies, advanced methods, and a look to future technologies, this fully updated edition is an essential reference for anyone involved in viticulture and oenology who wants to explore new methods, understand different approaches, and refine existing practices.

Key Features

  • Reviews our current understanding of yeast and fermentation management, as well as the effects of aging on wine quality
  • Details alternatives to cork in bottle closing and the latest developments in the stabilization and clarification of wines
  • Includes new chapters covering extraction technologies for wine quality and on managing the quality of a wide range of wine types, including fortified and Botryized wines
  • Provides extensively expanded coverage of insect taints and their effects on wine quality

Readership

Professionals within the wine industry (both from a grape farming perspective and a wine making perspective). R&D technologists, innovation teams, technicians and product development chemists. Researchers and academics in the fields of viticulture and oenology. Post-graduate students studying viticulture and oenology

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Part One: Winemaking technologies and wine quality
  • 1: Extraction technologies and wine quality
  • Abstract
  • 1.1: Introduction
  • 1.2: Chemical factors in extraction
  • 1.3: Biological factors in extraction
  • 1.4: Physical factors in extraction
  • 1.5: Techniques and procedures applied in white and rosé wine vinification
  • 1.6: Red wine vinification with traditional maceration
  • 1.7: Procedures for red and other wines based on displacement of the must
  • 1.8: Procedures for red and other wines based on displacement of the pomace_ Punching down
  • 1.9: Thermal treatments for red and other wines applied to traditional maceration
  • 1.10: Thermovinification of red and other wines
  • 1.11: Flash-release procedure for red and other wines
  • 1.12: The thermo-release procedure for red and other wines
  • 1.13: Vinification of red and other wines by carbonic maceration
  • 1.14: Traditional vinification of red and other wines with whole berries
  • 1.15: Draining and pressing
  • 1.16: Conclusion
  • References
  • 2: Improving yeast and fermentation management
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 2.1: Introduction
  • 2.2: Yeast and fermentation management and wine quality
  • 2.3: Yeast rehydration and handling
  • 2.4: Yeast inoculation
  • 2.5: Yeast inoculation rate
  • 2.6: Yeast inoculation timing
  • 2.7: Sequential yeast inoculation strategies
  • 2.8: Yeast storage
  • 2.9: Nutrient strategies
  • 2.10: Sulfur compounds and dealing with them
  • 2.11: Preventing stuck and sluggish fermentations
  • 2.12: Restarting stuck and sluggish fermentations
  • 2.13: Conclusions
  • References
  • 3: Metabolic engineering of wine yeast and advances in yeast selection methods for improved wine quality
  • Abstract
  • 3.1: Introduction
  • 3.2: Improving wine yeasts: Current targets
  • 3.3: A systems biology approach to wine yeast studies
  • 3.4: Biotechnology, systems biology and the generation of new yeast strains
  • 3.5: Molecular biology and systems biology in the identification of wine yeasts
  • 3.6: Future trends
  • References
  • 4: Malolactic fermentation and its effects on wine quality and safety
  • Abstract
  • 4.1: Introduction
  • 4.2: Development of lactic acid bacteria in the wine microbiota
  • 4.3: Variations in the diversity of lactic acid bacteria species during winemaking
  • 4.4: Lactic acid bacteria and improving wine quality
  • 4.5: Lactic acid bacteria and wine spoilage, undesirable lactic acid bacteria strains
  • 4.6: Controlling malolactic fermentation by malolactic starters
  • 4.7: Concluding remarks and prospects for wine lactic acid bacteria and malolactic fermentation
  • References
  • 5: Enzymes and wine quality
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 5.1: Introduction
  • 5.2: Definitions and production methods
  • 5.3: Regulatory aspects
  • 5.4: Enzyme applications in winemaking
  • 5.5: Advances in enzyme discovery
  • 5.6: Enzyme use in pre-fermentation stages
  • 5.7: Enzyme use in post-fermentation stages
  • 5.8: Monitoring enzyme performance
  • 5.9: Future trends
  • 5.10: Conclusions
  • 5.11: Sources of further information
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 6: Membrane and other techniques for the management of wine composition
  • Abstract
  • 6.1: Introduction
  • 6.2: Some caveats
  • 6.3: Some perspective—Convention and intervention
  • 6.4: Next-generation tools—Phase change techniques
  • 6.5: Membrane separation techniques
  • 6.6: Membrane separation treatment and recombination
  • 6.7: Volatile acidity removal
  • 6.8: The problem of excess alcohol
  • 6.9: Taint removal
  • 6.10: Ultrafiltration
  • 6.11: Electrodialysis
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 7: Aging on lees and their alternatives: Impact on wine
  • Abstract
  • 7.1: What are wine lees?
  • 7.2: Yeast autolysis
  • 7.3: Aging of red wines on lees
  • 7.4: Yeast lees’ adsorption properties
  • 7.5: Improving wine aging on lees and alternatives
  • 7.6: Conclusions
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 8: New directions in stabilization, clarification, and fining
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 8.1: Introduction
  • 8.2: White wines, proteins, and haze
  • 8.3: The origin of wine proteins
  • 8.4: Characterization of wine proteins
  • 8.5: Protein levels in white wines
  • 8.6: Mechanism of protein haze formation in wine
  • 8.7: Bentonite fining
  • 8.8: Use of gelatine in wine fining
  • 8.9: Yeast protein extracts
  • 8.10: Wine fining with nonanimal proteins
  • 8.11: Other fining agents
  • 8.12: Equipment for the addition of fining agents to wine
  • 8.13: Use of fungus proteases
  • 8.14: Wine fining and allergies
  • 8.15: New fining technologies
  • 8.16: Wine fining: General conclusion and practical recommendations
  • References
  • 9: Microoxygenation: Effect on wine composition and quality
  • Abstract
  • 9.1: Introduction
  • 9.2: Basic oxidation reactions and substrates of oxidation in wine
  • 9.3: Basic phenolic reactions in red wine involving oxygen
  • 9.4: When does oxygen come into contact with wine?
  • 9.5: The traditional method of microoxygenation
  • 9.6: Alternatives or alternative methods for microoxygenation
  • 9.7: Effect of microoxygenation on the chemical and sensorial composition of red wine
  • 9.8: Effect of microoxygenation on the microbiology of wine
  • 9.9: Microoxygenation research at Department of Viticulture and Oenology Stellenbosch University
  • 9.10: Oxygen dosages and treatment periods
  • 9.11: Deciding on the applicability of microoxygenation and monitoring the process
  • 9.12: Future trends
  • References
  • 10: Alternatives to cork in wine bottle closures
  • Abstract
  • 10.1: Introduction
  • 10.2: The key property of closures: Oxygen transmission
  • 10.3: The various closure types
  • 10.4: Conclusions and future trends
  • References
  • 11: Organic wine-making from the research project to the legal framework and a growing sector
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 11.1: Introduction
  • 11.2: Organic wine: A synthesis attempt
  • 11.3: Harmonization process
  • 11.4: After ORWINE project, research needs
  • 11.5: From ORWINE to the EU regulation on organic wine-making
  • 11.6: Organic wine a sector that continues to grow
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Part Two: Managing wine sensory quality
  • 12: Yeast selection for wine flavor modulation
  • Abstract
  • 12.1: Introduction
  • 12.2: Key issues in efficient wine yeast selection
  • 12.3: Selection of natural yeast isolates: Methods and limits
  • 12.4: Metabolic engineering
  • 12.5: Conventional genetic strategies
  • 12.6: Mixed cultures as an alternative strategy
  • 12.7: Yeast by-products affecting wine aromas: Glycerol
  • 12.8: Yeast by-products affecting wine aromas: Acetic acid
  • 12.9: Yeast by-products affecting wine aromas: Hydrogen sulphide
  • 12.10: Yeast by-products affecting wine aromas: Higher alcohols
  • 12.11: Yeast by-products affecting wine aromas: Esters
  • 12.12: Varietal aromas resulting from grape precursor biotransformation
  • 12.13: Conclusions and future trends
  • References
  • 13: Brettanomyces/Dekkera off-flavor and other microbial spoilage
  • Abstract
  • 13.1: Introduction
  • 13.2: Brettanomyces/Dekkera off-flavors and their related metabolism
  • 13.3: Brettanomyces/Dekkera taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other wine yeasts
  • 13.4: Brettanomyces/Dekkera physiology
  • 13.5: Other defects associated with the presence of Brettanomyces/Dekkera
  • 13.6: Other faults associated with microbial spoilage
  • 13.7: Detection and methods to prevent and correct Brettanomyces bruxellensis spoilage faults
  • 13.8: Conclusions
  • References
  • 14: Reducing cork taint in wine
  • Abstract
  • 14.1: Introduction: Cork taint
  • 14.2: Compounds causing musty-moldy off-flavors
  • 14.3: Quality management and control methods for wine corks: Introduction
  • 14.4: Test procedures to evaluate the quality of cork stoppers
  • 14.5: Standard test procedures
  • 14.6: Additional test procedures
  • 14.7: Handling and processing of corks and bottles during bottling and storage
  • 14.8: Prevention of musty-moldy off-flavors in the cellar environment
  • 14.9: Methods to reduce musty off-flavors in contaminated wines
  • References
  • 15: Ladybug (Coccinellidae) taint in wine
  • Abstract
  • 15.1: Introduction
  • 15.2: Quality implications
  • 15.3: Causal compound(s)
  • 15.4: Threshold and tolerances
  • 15.5: Other Coccinellidae species
  • 15.6: Postharvest prevention and remediation
  • 15.7: Conclusions and further research
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 16: Understanding and controlling nonenzymatic wine oxidation
  • Abstract
  • 16.1: Introduction
  • 16.2: Oxygen in wine
  • 16.3: Polyphenol oxidation
  • 16.4: Oxidation of aroma compounds
  • 16.5: Measures of wine oxidation status
  • 16.6: White wine oxidation
  • 16.7: Red wine oxidation
  • 16.8: Influence of wine antioxidants
  • 16.9: Concluding remarks
  • References
  • 17: Aging and flavor deterioration in wine
  • Abstract
  • 17.1: Introduction: Aging
  • 17.2: Sensory changes during storage/aging
  • 17.3: Aromatic compounds related to flavor deterioration
  • 17.4: Chemical reactions of aging
  • 17.5: Factors influencing the aging process and future trends in research
  • 17.6: Untypical aging (UTA) off-flavor
  • References
  • Ageing section (16.1–16.5)
  • UTA section (16.6)
  • 18: Biogenic amines and the winemaking process
  • Abstract
  • 18.1: Introduction
  • 18.2: Incidence of biogenic amines in wines and health effects
  • 18.3: Formation of biogenic amines during the winemaking process
  • 18.4: Methods of detection and quantification of biogenic amines in wines
  • 18.5: Methods and tools to prevent the presence of biogenic amines in wines
  • 18.6: Future trends
  • References
  • 19: Fortified wines
  • 19.1: Sherry wines. A particular sensory profile
  • 19.2: Port
  • 20: Botrytized wines
  • Abstract
  • 20.1: Introduction
  • 20.2: Noble rot
  • 20.3: Composition of Botrytized grapes and musts, and effects on wine
  • 20.4: Aroma composition of Botrytized wines—Impact of grape Botrytization
  • 20.5: Vinification of noble rot sweet wines
  • 20.6: Wine aging
  • 20.7: Tokaji wines
  • 20.8: German Botrytized wines (Trockenbeerenauslese)
  • References
  • 21: Postharvest physiology of wine grape dehydration
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 21.1: Introduction
  • 21.2: General metabolism
  • 21.3: Changes in specific compounds
  • 21.4: Vinification
  • 21.5: Concluding remarks
  • References
  • 22: Managing the quality of icewines
  • Abstract
  • 22.1: Introduction
  • 22.2: What is icewine? Regulation of icewine production
  • 22.3: Viticulture
  • 22.4: Harvest considerations
  • 22.5: Oenology
  • 22.6: Chemical analysis of icewines
  • 22.7: Sensory properties of icewine
  • 22.8: Authentication
  • 22.9: Future trends
  • References
  • 23: Managing the quality of sparkling wines
  • Abstract
  • 23.1: Types of sparkling wines: Definitions and characteristics
  • 23.2: Description of the organoleptic characteristics of sparkling wines
  • 23.3: Factors affecting sensory quality
  • 23.4: Quality control
  • 23.5: Conclusions
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 886
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2021
  • Published: December 3, 2021
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081020661
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081020654

About the Editor

Andrew Reynolds

Prof. Reynolds has had a long and distinguished career in Oenology. His career has included a position as Research Scientist for Agriculture Canada in British Columbia and, since 1997, a faculty position at Brock University. He is well known for his research into canopy management, the impacts of site and soil on flavour, irrigation and water relations, geomatics and the use of GPS/GIS and remote sensing for studying terroir. He is the author of over a hundred published articles and has been the editor of two award-winning titles on wine science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biological Sciences/Viticulture, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada

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