Managing Trade-offs in Adaptable Software Architectures - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128028551, 9780128028919

Managing Trade-offs in Adaptable Software Architectures

1st Edition

Editors: Ivan Mistrik Nour Ali Rick Kazman John Grundy Bradley Schmerl
eBook ISBN: 9780128028919
Paperback ISBN: 9780128028551
Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
Published Date: 11th August 2016
Page Count: 430
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Managing Trade-Offs in Adaptable Software Architectures explores the latest research on adapting large complex systems to changing requirements. To be able to adapt a system, engineers must evaluate different quality attributes, including trade-offs to balance functional and quality requirements to maintain a well-functioning system throughout the lifetime of the system.

This comprehensive resource brings together research focusing on how to manage trade-offs and architect adaptive systems in different business contexts. It presents state-of-the-art techniques, methodologies, tools, best practices, and guidelines for developing adaptive systems, and offers guidance for future software engineering research and practice.

Each contributed chapter considers the practical application of the topic through case studies, experiments, empirical validation, or systematic comparisons with other approaches already in practice. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, how to architect a system for adaptability, software architecture for self-adaptive systems, understanding and balancing the trade-offs involved, architectural patterns for self-adaptive systems, how quality attributes are exhibited by the architecture of the system, how to connect the quality of a software architecture to system architecture or other system considerations, and more.

Key Features

  • Explains software architectural processes and metrics supporting highly adaptive and complex engineering
  • Covers validation, verification, security, and quality assurance in system design
  • Discusses domain-specific software engineering issues for cloud-based, mobile, context-sensitive, cyber-physical, ultra-large-scale/internet-scale systems, mash-up, and autonomic systems
  • Includes practical case studies of complex, adaptive, and context-critical systems


Researchers, practitioners, and graduate students of software engineering and software quality assurance; working software designers and IT managers.

Table of Contents

  • About the Editors
  • Foreword by David Garlan
  • Foreword by Nenad Medvidovic Behold the Golden Age of Software Architecture
  • Foreword by Paris Avgeriou
  • Foreword by Rogério de Lemos
  • Preface
    • Introduction
    • Part I: Concepts and Models for Self-Adaptive Software Architectures
    • Part II: Analyzing and Evaluating Trade-offs in Self-Adaptive Software Architectures
    • Part III: Managing Trade-offs in Self-Adaptive Software Architectures
    • Part IV: Quality Assurance in Self-Adaptive Software Architectures
  • Chapter 1: Managing Trade-Offs in Adaptable Software Architectures
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Background
    • 1.3 Trade-Offs in Adaptive Systems Design
    • 1.4 Runtime Trade-Offs in Self-Adaptive Systems
    • 1.5 Challenges and the Road Ahead
  • Part I: Concepts and Models for Self-Adaptive Software Architectures
    • Chapter 2: Architecting Software Systems for Runtime Self-Adaptation: Concepts, Models, and Challenges
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Motivation: A Web-Mashup Application
      • 2.3 Adaptation vs. Self-Adaptation
      • 2.4 Foundational Concepts for Architecting Self-Adaptive Software
      • 2.5 Reference Models for Architecting Self-Adaptive Software
      • 2.6 Major Architectural Challenges in Self-Adaptation
      • 2.7 Summary
    • Chapter 3: A Classification Framework of Uncertainty in Architecture-Based Self-Adaptive Systems With Multiple Quality Requirements
      • Abstract
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Study Design
      • 3.3 Results
      • 3.4 Discussion
      • 3.5 Conclusion and Future Work
    • Chapter 4: An Architecture Viewpoint for Modeling Dynamically Configurable Software Systems
      • Abstract
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Architecture Viewpoints
      • 4.3 Case Study: DDSCM Systems
      • 4.4 Metamodel for Runtime Adaptability Viewpoint
      • 4.5 Runtime Adaptability Viewpoint
      • 4.6 Case Study—Adaptability View of the SCM Software Architecture
      • 4.7 Related Work
      • 4.8 Conclusion
    • Chapter 5: Adaptive Security for Software Systems
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Motivation
      • 5.3 Security Engineering State-of-the-Art
      • 5.4 Runtime Security Adaptation
      • 5.5 Usage Example
      • 5.6 Discussion
      • 5.7 Chapter Summary
      • Appendix
  • Part II: Analyzing and Evaluating Trade-Offs in Self-Adaptive Software Architectures
    • Chapter 6: Automated Inference Techniques to Assist With the Construction of Self-Adaptive Software
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Motivating Application
      • 6.3 Shortcomings With the State-of-the-Art
      • 6.4 Overview of Inference-Based Techniques
      • 6.5 Learning-Based Approach for Goal Management
      • 6.6 Mining-Based Approach for Change Management
      • 6.7 Related Work
      • 6.8 Conclusion
    • Chapter 7: Evaluating Trade-Offs of Human Involvement in Self-Adaptive Systems
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Motivating Scenario
      • 7.3 Related Work
      • 7.4 Analyzing Trade-Offs in Self-Adaptation
      • 7.5 Analyzing Trade-Offs of Involving Humans in Adaptation
      • 7.6 Reasoning About Human-in-the-Loop Adaptation
      • 7.7 Conclusion
    • Chapter 8: Principled Eliciting and Evaluation of Trade-Offs When Designing Self-Adaptive Systems Architectures
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Requirements for Automated Architecture Design and Analysis
      • 8.3 The DuSE Approach for Automated Architecture Design and Analysis
      • 8.4 Automating the Design and Analysis of Self-Adaptive Systems Architectures
      • 8.5 Evaluation
      • 8.6 Conclusions and Future Work
    • Chapter 9: Analyzing the Architectures of Software-Intensive Ecosystems
      • Abstract
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 The Metropolis Model and Core-Periphery Structures
      • 9.3 The Challenge to Architecture Analysis
      • 9.4 Extending Architectural Analysis
      • 9.5 An Example Analysis
      • 9.6 Conclusions/Future Research
    • Chapter 10: Architectural Perspective for Design and Analysis of Scalable Software as a Service Architectures
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Software as a Service Architecture
      • 10.3 Software Architecture Perspective
      • 10.4 Case Study
      • 10.5 Software Architecture Perspective for Scalability
      • 10.6 Related Work
      • 10.7 Conclusion
  • Part III: Managing Trade-Offs in Self-Adaptive Software Architectures
    • Chapter 11: Managing Trade-offs in Self-Adaptive Software Architectures: A Systematic Mapping Study
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Background
      • 11.3 Systematic Mapping Protocol
      • 11.4 Systematic Mapping Process
      • 11.5 Results and Discussions
      • 11.6 Related Surveys
      • 11.7 Challenges and Research Directions
      • 11.8 Conclusions and Future Work
      • Appendix A Primary Studies
      • Appendix B Classification and Data Extraction of Primary Studies
    • Chapter 12: The Many Facets of Mediation: A Requirements-Driven Approach for Trading Off Mediation Solutions
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 The Different Perspectives on Mediation
      • 12.3 The Software Architecture Perspective: Mediators as Connectors
      • 12.4 The Middleware Perspective: Mediators as Middleware
      • 12.5 The Formal Methods Perspective: Mediators as Controllers
      • 12.6 The Semantic Web Perspective: Mediators as Translators
      • 12.7 Mediator Synthesis as a Service
      • 12.8 Requirements and Mediation
      • 12.9 Summary
  • Part IV: Quality Assurance in Self-Adaptive Software Architectures
    • Chapter 13: An Overview on Quality Evaluation of Self-Adaptive Systems
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Evaluation of Self-Adaptive Systems
      • 13.3 Evaluation Based on Quality Attributes
      • 13.4 Evaluation Based on Software Metrics
      • 13.5 Trade-offs in Evaluation of Self-Adaptive Systems
      • 13.6 Conclusions and Further Work
    • Chapter 14: Identifying and Handling Uncertainties in the Feedback Control Loop
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Motivation
      • 14.3 Methodology
      • 14.4 Case Study: Identification of Uncertainties
      • 14.5 Related Work
      • 14.6 Conclusions
  • Glossary
  • Author Index
  • Subject Index


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© Morgan Kaufmann 2017
Morgan Kaufmann
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About the Editor

Ivan Mistrik

Ivan Mistrik is a computer scientist who is interested in system and software engineering (SE/SWE) and in system and software architecture (SA/SWA), in particular: life cycle system/software engineering, requirements engineering, relating software requirements and architectures, knowledge management in software development, rationale-based software development, aligning enterprise/system/software architectures, and collaborative system/software engineering. He has more than forty years’ experience in the field of computer systems engineering as an information systems developer, R&D leader, SE/SA research analyst, educator in computer sciences, and ICT management consultant.

In the past 40 years, he has been primarily working at various R&D institutions and has done consulting on a variety of large international projects sponsored by ESA, EU, NASA, NATO, and UN. He has also taught university-level computer sciences courses in software engineering, software architecture, distributed information systems, and human-computer interaction. He is the author or co-author of more than 80 articles and papers in international journals, conferences, books and workshops, most recently a chapter Capture of Software Requirements and Rationale through Collaborative Software Development, a paper Knowledge Management in the Global Software Engineering Environment, and a paper Architectural Knowledge Management in Global Software Development.

He has written a number of editorials and prefaces, most recently for the book on Aligning Enterprise, System, and Software Architecture and the book on Agile Software Architecture. He has also written over 120 technical reports and presented over 70 scientific/technical talks. He has served in many program committees and panels of reputable international conferences and organized a number of scientific workshops, most recently two workshops on Knowledge Engineering in Global Software and Development at International Conference on Global Software Engineering 2009 and 2010 and IEEE International Workshop on the Future of Software Engineering for/in the Cloud (FoSEC) held in conjunction with IEEE Cloud 2011.He has been the guest-editor of IEE Proceedings Software: A special Issue on Relating Software Requirements and Architectures published by IEE in 2005 and the lead-editor of the book Rationale Management in Software Engineering published by Springer in 2006. He has been the co-author of the book Rationale-Based Software Engineering published by Springer in May 2008. He has been the lead-editor of the book Collaborative Software Engineering published by Springer in 2010, the book on Relating Software Requirements and Architectures published by Springer in 2011 and the lead-editor of the book on Aligning Enterprise, System, and Software Architectures published by IGI Global in 2012. He was the lead-editor of the Expert Systems Special Issue on Knowledge Engineering in Global Software Development and the co-editor of the JSS Special Issue on the Future of Software Engineering for/in the Cloud, both published in 2013. He was the co-editor for the book on Agile Software Architecture published in 2013. Currently, he is the lead-editor for the book on Economics-driven Software Architecture to be published in 2014.

Affiliations and Expertise

Systems Engineering Researcher/Consultant, Heidelberg, Germany

Nour Ali

Nour Ali is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Brighton since December, 2012. She holds a PhD in Software Engineering from the Polytechnic University of Valencia-Spain for her work in Ambients in Aspect-Oriented Software Architecture. Her research area encompasses service oriented architecture, software architecture, model driven engineering and mobile systems. In 2014, the University of Brighton have awarded her a Rising Stars project in Service Oriented Architecture Recovery and Consistency.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Lecturer, University of Brighton, UK

Rick Kazman

Rick Kazman is a Professor at the University of Hawaii and a Principal Researcher at the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. His primary research interests are software architecture, design and analysis tools, software visualization, and software engineering economics. He also has interests in human-computer interaction and information retrieval. Kazman has created several highly influential methods and tools for architecture analysis, including the SAAM (Software Architecture Analysis Method), the ATAM (Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method), the CBAM (Cost-Benefit Analysis Method) and the Dali architecture reverse engineering tool.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor at the University of Hawaii and a Principal Researcher at the Software Engineering, Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, USA

John Grundy

John Grundy is Professor of Software Engineering, Dean of Software and Electrical Engineering and Director of the Centre for Computing and Engineering Software Systems at the Swinburne University of Technology. Previously he was Professor of Software Engineering and Head of Department for Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. He is Assistant Editor in Chief of IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, and Associate Editor for IEEE Software and Automated Software Engineering. He is on the Steering Committee of the IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering.

Affiliations and Expertise

Pro Vice-Chancellor — ICT Innovation & Translation and Professor of Software Engineering, School of Information Technology, Faculty of Science Engineering & Built Environment, Deakin University, Australia

Bradley Schmerl

Bradley Schmerl is a Senior Systems Scientist in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, USA. He has been involved in research in self-adaptive systems for over 20 years, starting with his Ph.D. at Flinders University in South Australia, which investigated using configuration management techniques to manage dynamically changing systems. He was a Lecturer at Flinders University and an Assistant Professor at Clemson University in South Carolina before joining CMU in 2000. At CMU he has been involved in research using software architecture models as a basis for reasoning about self-adapting systems, including using utility theory to select appropriate strategies that balance multiple quality and business priorities.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Systems Scientist in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, USA


Contributions Include:
 · Norha M. Villegas (Universidad Icesi, Colombia) discusses architecting software systems for runtime self-adaptation: concepts, models, instrumentation and challenges
 · Mohamed Almorsy Abdelrazek (Deakin University, Australia) explores adaptive security for software systems
 · Sam Malek (University of California, Irvine, USA) delves into automated inference techniques to assist with construction of adaptable software architectures
 · Javier Camara (Carnegie Mellon University, USA) evaluates trade-offs of human involvement in self-adaptive systems
 · Maria Salama (University of Birmingham, UK) presents a systematic mapping study on managing trade-offs in self-adaptive architectures
 · Amel Bennaceur (The Open University, UK) examines the many facets of mediation: a requirements-driven approach for trading-off mediation solutions
 · Claudia Raibulet (University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy) proposes an overview of quality evaluation mechanisms for self-adaptive systems
Plus Forewords from:
 · David Garlan (Carnegie Mellon University, USA)
 · Nenad Medvidovic (University of Southern California, USA) on the Golden Age of software architecture, that continues on in finding solutions to the problem of how quality trade-offs are managed in adaptable software architectures.
 · Paris Avgeriou (University of Groningen, Netherlands) on the current problems and potential solutions in managing tradeoffs of quality attributes in self-adaptive architectures
 · Rogerio De Lemos (University of Kent, UK)

And much more...