Managing Time in Relational Databases: How to Design, Update and Query Temporal Data introduces basic concepts that will enable businesses to develop their own framework for managing temporal data. It discusses the management of uni-temporal and bi-temporal data in relational databases, so that they can be seamlessly accessed together with current data; the encapsulation of temporal data structures and processes; ways to implement temporal data management as an enterprise solution; and the internalization of pipeline datasets. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 traces the history of temporal data management and presents a taxonomy of bi-temporal data management methods. Part 2 provides an introduction to Asserted Versioning, covering the origins of Asserted Versioning; core concepts of Asserted Versioning; the schema common to all asserted version tables, as well as the various diagrams and notations used in the rest of the book; and how the basic scenario works when the target of that activity is an asserted version table. Part 3 deals with designing, maintaining, and querying asserted version databases. It discusses the design of Asserted Versioning databases; temporal transactions; deferred assertions and other pipeline datasets; Allen relationships; and optimizing Asserted Versioning databases.

Key Features

KEY FEATURES 1. Integrates an enterprise-wide viewpoint with a strong conceptual model of temporal data management allowing for realistic implementation of database application development. 2. Provides a true practical guide to the different possible methods of time-oriented databases with techniques of using existing funtionality to solve real world problems within an enterprise data architecture environment. 3. Written by IT professionals for IT professionals, this book employs a heavily example-driven approach which reinforces learning by showing the results of puting the techniques discussed into practice.


IT professionals directly concerned with managing data and providign access to it. This inlcudes data modelers, database developers, database designers, data architects, database analysts, corporate database administrators, SQL programmers, and applications systems developers.

Table of Contents

About the Authors Preface Part 1 An Introduction to Temporal Data Management Chapter 1 A Brief History of Temporal Data Management Chapter 2 A Taxonomy of Bi-Temporal Data Management Methods Part 2 An Introduction to Asserted Versioning Chapter 3 The Origins of Asserted Versioning: Computer Science Research Chapter 4 The Origins of Asserted Versioning: IT Best Practices Chapter 5 The Core Concepts of Asserted Versioning Chapter 6 Diagrams and Other Notations Chapter 7 The Basic Scenario Part 3 Designing, Maintaining and Querying Asserted Version Databases Chapter 8 Designing and Generating Asserted Versioning Databases Chapter 9 An Introduction to Temporal Transactions Chapter 10 Temporal Transactions on Single Tables Chapter 11 Temporal Transactions on Multiple Tables Chapter 12 Deferred Assertions and Other Pipeline Datasets Chapter 13 Re-Presenting Internalized Pipeline Datasets Chapter 14 Allen Relationship and Other Queries Chapter 15 Optimizing Asserted Versioning Databases Chapter 16 Conclusion Appendix: Bibliographical Essay The Asserted Versioning Glossary Index


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© 2010
Morgan Kaufmann
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Electronic ISBN:

About the authors

Tom Johnston

Dr. Tom Johnston is the Chief Scientist at Asserted Versioning, LLC, which has developed a middleware product which supports the standard theory of bitemporal data, and which also implements the Asserted Versioning extensions to that standard theory. He is the co-author of Managing Time in Relational Databases (Morgan-Kaufmann, 2010). He lives in Atlanta, Georgia.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief Scientist, Asserted Versioning, LLC, Atlanta, GA

Randall Weis

Randall Weis, founder and CEO of InBase, Inc, has more than 25 years of experience in IT and IT management, specializing in enterprise data architecture. Weis' technical expertise is in sophisticated, multi-tiered systems. He has designed logical and physical data models and implemented several high profile, very large database (VLDB) systems in the financial and insurance industries. These systems have had very stringent performance and real-time history requirements. His software development company, InBase, Inc., has developed software and Web sites used by some of the nations largest companies. Weis has been a presenter at various user groups, including Guide, Share, Midwest Database Users Group and Camp IT Expo. His technique for modeling history, retro activity and future dating has been reviewed and approved for the physical implementation of IBM's Insurance Application Architecture (IAA).

Affiliations and Expertise

Founder and CEO, InBase Inc., Lemont, IL, USA


"You cannot escape temporal data. You need to get over it, sit down and read what Tom and Randy are telling you in this book. "--Joe Celko, Independent Consultant & Columnist for Intelligent Enterprise, USA

"The authors present an original and comprehensive conceptual approach called Asserted Versioning, which includes support for bi-temporality and is a significant advance in the theory and practice of managing time-varying data."--Richard Snodgrass, Professor of Computer Science at the University of Arizona

"Information technology consultants Johnston and Weis explain how to integrate time into a business data system, so that the past, present, and projected future of things can be accessed easily and quickly. Tables that show time are versioned tables, and they show how using them lowers the cost and increases the value of temporal data, data that shows change through time. They introduce temporal data management and asserted versioning, then look at designing, maintaining, and querying asserted version databases."--SciTech Book News