Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases

Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases

Coordinated Agricultural Research through GRACEnet to Address our Changing Climate

1st Edition - June 6, 2011

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  • Editors: Mark Liebig, A.J. Franzluebbers, Ronald Follett
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123868985
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781493301263

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Description

Global climate change is a natural process that currently appears to be strongly influenced by human activities, which increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG). Agriculture contributes about 20% of the world’s global radiation forcing from carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, and produces 50% of the methane and 70% of the nitrous oxide of the human-induced emission. Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases synthesizes the wealth of information generated from the GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) effort with contributors from a variety of backgrounds, and reports findings with important international applications.

Key Features

  • Frames responses to challenges associated with climate change within the geographical domain of the U.S., while providing a useful model for researchers in the many parts of the world that possess similar ecoregions
  • Covers not only soil C dynamics but also nitrous oxide and methane flux, filling a void in the existing literature
  • Educates scientists and technical service providers conducting greenhouse gas research, industry, and regulators in their agricultural research by addressing the issues of GHG emissions and ways to reduce these emissions
  • Synthesizes the data from top experts in the world into clear recommendations and expectations for improvements in the agricultural management of global warming potential as an aggregate of GHG emissions

Readership

Research scientists working in agricultural and biogeochemical fields, soil scientists, agronomists, agricultural climatologists, scientists in climate science workgroups, conservation scientists, agricultural researchers at federal and state agencies and carbon footprinting consulting firms, advanced undergraduate/graduate students studying agricultural and climate science

Table of Contents

  • Foreword

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Contributors

    Executive Summary

    Section 1. Agricultural Research for a Carbon-Constrained World

    Chapter 1. Agriculture and Climate Change: Mitigation Opportunities and Adaptation Imperatives

    Introduction

    Mitigating and Adapting To Climate Change

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 2. GRACEnet: Addressing Policy Needs through Coordinated Cross-location Research

    Why GRACEnet?

    Clear Objectives, Communication, Organization, Leadership: Elements for Successful Science

    Significant Milestones and Impact

    Future: New Directions and the Relevance of GRACEnet To Sustainable Agriculture

    References

    Section 2. Agricultural Management and Soil Carbon Dynamics

    Chapter 3. Cropland Management in the Eastern United States for Improved Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration

    Introduction

    Geographic Regions of the Eastern U.S

    Cropland Management in the Eastern U.S.

    Synthesis of Published Findings

    Carbon Sequestration Potential in the Region

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    References

    Chapter 4. Soil Carbon Sequestration in Central U.S. Agroecosystems

    Introduction

    Climate, Soil, and Land-Use Characteristics

    Management Practices Affecting Carbon Storage

    Climate Change and Management Interactions

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5. Agricultural Management and Soil Carbon Dynamics: Western U.S. Croplands

    Introduction

    Climate, Crop, and Cropping Practice Characteristics

    Management Effects On Soil C Storage: Dryland Systems

    Management Effects On Soil C Storage: Irrigated Systems

    Gaps In Knowledge

    Synthesis

    References

    Chapter 6. Soil Carbon Dynamics and Rangeland Management

    Definition and Extent of U.S. Rangelands

    Rangeland GHG Mitigation Potential

    Rangeland C Distribution: Vegetation and Soils

    Rangeland Management Impacts

    Interactions Between Management and Climate

    Knowledge Gaps and Future Research Needs

    References

    Chapter 7. Soil Organic Carbon under Pasture Management

    Climate and Soils of the Eastern U.S.

    Description of Pasture Types, Uses, and Extent

    Long-Term Land-Use Effects on Soil Organic C

    Pasture Management Effects on Soil Organic C

    Spatial Distribution of Soil Organic C

    Temporal Changes in Soil Organic C

    Impact of Sequestered Soil Organic C in Pastures on Other Environmental Issues

    Key Research Issues

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 8. Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production Systems: Integrating Carbon Dynamics, Erosion, Water Quality, and Greenhouse Gas Production

    Introduction

    Challenges of Historical Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Management of Row Crops for Sustainability—Avoiding/Mitigating Risks

    Managing for Sustainable Bioenergy with Perennials

    Managing For Sustainable Bioenergy with a Novel Amendment

    Summary and Research Needs

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 3. Agricultural Management and Greenhouse Gas Flux

    Chapter 9. Cropland Management Contributions to Greenhouse Gas Flux: Central and Eastern U.S.

    Introduction

    Factors Controlling N2o and Ch4 Flux From Soils

    Proposed GWP Mitigation Options for Croplands

    Soil, Climate, and Agricultural Characteristics of Eastern and Central U.S.

    Performance of Mitigation Options in Eastern and Central U.S.

    N Rate Effects: Synthetic N Fertilizers

    N Rate Effects: Animal Manures

    N Source Effects: N Fertilizers and Inhibitors

    N Source Effects: Synthetic N Fertilizers vs. Animal Manures

    N Timing: Fertilizers and Manures

    N Placement: Fertilizers and Manures

    Cover Crops

    Biochar

    Tillage Regime

    Crop Selection

    Cropping Systems

    Methane

    Carbon Dioxide

    Information Gaps and Future Research Needs

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 10. Management to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Western U.S. Croplands

    Introduction

    Characterization of Climate, Crops, and Management Practices

    Management Effects On Greenhouse Gas (CO2, Ch4, N2o) Flux

    Synthesis

    Gaps In Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Knowledge

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 11. Greenhouse Gas Flux from Managed Grasslands in the U.S.

    Introduction

    Managed Grasslands in the U.S.: Description, Extent, and Use

    Greenhouse Gas Flux from U.S. Grasslands

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 12. Mitigation Opportunities for Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions during Feedstock Production across Heterogeneous Landscapes

    Life-Cycle Biofuel Compliance Policy Standards

    Review and Analysis

    Feedstock Production is a Significant GWI Component of the Fuel Life-Cycle

    GWI Size of Life-Cycle Components Vary within and Between Feedstocks

    Heterogeneity of N2o Emissions in the Landscape

    Mitigation Opportunities to Reduce the GWI of Feedstock Production

    Precision Agriculture

    Summary and Conclusions

    Policy Implications

    References

    Chapter 13. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes of Drained Organic and Flooded Mineral Agricultural Soils in the United States

    Introduction

    Organic Soils (Histosols and Peatlands)

    Flooded Agriculture on Mineral Soils

    Assessment of Flux Amelioration

    Conclusions and Recommendations

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 4. Modeling to Estimate Soil Carbon Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Flux from Agricultural Production Systems

    Chapter 14. DayCent Model Simulations for Estimating Soil Carbon Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Agricultural Production Systems

    Introduction

    DAYCENT Model History

    DAYCENT Model Overview

    Recent Model Improvements

    Recent Model Testing

    Recent Model Applications

    Model Limitations and Planned Improvements

    References

    Chapter 15. COMET2.0—Decision Support System for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Accounting

    Introduction

    System Overview

    New Modules

    System Testing and Applications

    Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 16. CQESTR Simulations of Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics

    Introduction

    CQESTR Model Description

    Experimental Sites Description

    THE CQESTR Model Applications

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 17. Development and Application of the EPIC Model for Carbon Cycle, Greenhouse Gas Mitigation, and Biofuel Studies

    Introduction

    Description of the Epic Model and its Carbon/Nitrogen Model

    Examples of Applications

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 18. The General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) and its Applications to Agricultural Systems in the United States

    General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS)

    Study Areas and Modeling Design

    Results

    Discussion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 5. Measurements and Monitoring: Improving Estimates of Soil Carbon Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Flux

    Chapter 19. Quantifying Biases in Non-Steady-State Chamber Measurements of Soil–Atmosphere Gas Exchange

    Introduction

    Physical Basis for the Chamber Effect

    Experimental Approaches

    Non-Linear Flux Calculation Schemes

    Bias Estimation Techniques

    Soil Property Effects

    Chamber Bias Correction (CBC)

    Limitations of the CBC Method

    Bias Versus Precision

    Current Recommendations

    Ultimate Solutions

    References

    Appendix: Steps and Calculations Used in CBC Method

    Chapter 20. Advances in Spectroscopic Methods for Quantifying Soil Carbon

    Introduction

    Chemometrics

    Calibration Development

    Calibration Transfer

    Instrumentation

    Particle Size Considerations

    Scale and Sampling Intensity

    Prediction Accuracy

    Proximal and Remote Sensing

    Water Effects and Spectroscopy

    Present Status and Future Research Needs

    Advances In Instrumentation

    References

    Chapter 21. Micrometeorological Methods for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Flux

    Introduction

    Methods Based on Flux-Gradient Theory

    Eddy Covariance Method

    Issues Affecting Flux Measurements

    Micrometeorological Measurements of Nitrous Oxide Fluxes

    Micrometeorological Measurements of CO2 Flux

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 22. Remote Sensing of Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics across Agricultural Landscapes

    Introduction

    Historical Background

    Fundamental Spectral Properties of Vegetation and Soils

    Remote Sensing Products for Assessing Soil Organic Carbon and Greenhouse Gases

    Synergies of Remote Sensing and Process Models to Determine Soil Carbon Dynamics

    Case Study: South Fork Watershed

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 6. Economic and Policy Considerations Associated with Reducing Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture

    Chapter 23. Economic Outcomes of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options

    Introduction

    Management Alternatives for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Impact of Bioenergy Markets

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 24. Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Trading Markets in North America

    Introduction

    Historical Background

    Current Status

    Future Outlook

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 25. Eligibility Criteria Affecting Landowner Participation in Greenhouse Gas Programs

    Introduction

    Eligibility Criteria for GHG Mitigation Programs

    Simulating Eligibility Criteria

    Simulation Results

    Summary

    References

    Section 7. Looking Ahead: Opportunities for Future Research and Collaboration

    Chapter 26. Potential GRACEnet Linkages with Other Greenhouse Gas and Soil Carbon Research and Monitoring Programs

    Introduction

    Soil-Based Networks

    Greenhouse Gas Networks

    General Ecological Networks

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 27. Elevated CO2 and Warming Effects on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Agroecosystems: A Review

    Methods

    The Effect of eCO2 On Soil C

    The Effect of eCO2 On Soil Respiration

    The Effect of eCO2 On N2o Emission

    The Effect of eCO2 On Ch4 Exchange

    Warming Effects On Soil C, Soil Respiration, N2o Emission and Ch4 Exchange

    Interactive eCO2 × Warming Effects On Soil C, Soil Respiration, N2o Emission, and Ch4 Exchange

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 28. Mitigation Opportunities from Land Management Practices in a Warming World: Increasing Potential Sinks

    Changing Climate

    Soil Management Practices

    Soil Water Changes

    CO2 Fluxes from Soil

    Climate Impacts on Soil and Plant

    Mitigation Opportunities

    Mitigation of CO2 from Soil

    Mitigation of N2o Fluxes from Soil

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 29. Beyond Mitigation: Adaptation of Agricultural Strategies to Overcome Projected Climate Change

    Climate and Climate Change

    The Role of Agriculture

    References

    Index

    Color Plates

Product details

  • No. of pages: 572
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: June 6, 2011
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123868985
  • Paperback ISBN: 9781493301263

About the Editors

Mark Liebig

Affiliations and Expertise

USDA‐ARS Northern Great Plains Research Laboratory, Mandan, ND, USA

A.J. Franzluebbers

Affiliations and Expertise

USDA-ARS, Watkinsville, GA, USA

Ronald Follett

Affiliations and Expertise

USDA-ARS Soil-Plant-Nutrient Research Unit, Fort Collins, CO, USA

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