Malnutrition in Chronic Diet-Associated Infantile Diarrhea - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124500204, 9781483266848

Malnutrition in Chronic Diet-Associated Infantile Diarrhea

1st Edition

Diagnosis and Management

Editors: Carlos H. Lifschitz Buford L. Nichols
eBook ISBN: 9781483266848
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th December 1990
Page Count: 500
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Description

Malnutrition in Chronic Diet-Associated Infantile Diarrhea: Diagnosis and Management documents the proceedings of eighth annual symposium on nutrition research. The symposium addressed the complex problem of ""Enteropathy of Infantile Malnutrition"" by assembling a distinguished group of international scientists at the Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. Leading experts in the fields of pathology, immunology, gastroenterology, and nutrition reviewed the state of knowledge on the topic; researchers from countries including Sweden, the People's Republic of China, Brazil, India, Australia, and the United States presented the latest findings from field studies. The volume contains 52 chapters organized into seven parts. Part I contains papers on intestinal mucosal histology in infantile malnutrition and chronic diarrhea. Part II presents studies on Intestinal mucosal immunology. Part III examines the epidemiological relationship between malnutrition and chronic diarrhea in infants and children. Part IV focuses on the diagnosis and dietary and pharmacological management of chronic diarrhea. Part V deals with clinical disorders of transient carbohydrate malabsorption. Part VI reports on the terminology and classification of patients with malnutrition in chronic diet-associated infantile diarrhea while Part VII discusses future research priorities.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Editor's Foreword

Foreword

Introduction: a Chronicle of Formula Intolerance

I. Introduction

II. Nineteenth-Century Classifications

III. Twentieth-Century Classifications

IV. Current Directions

References

Part I The Enterocyte and the Intestinal Mucosa in Health and Disease

1 Enterocyte Division and Differentiation

I. Introduction

II. Structure of the Adult Intestinal Mucosa

III. Developmental Changes in Intestinal Cell Differentiation

IV. Intestinal Cell Proliferation

V. Induction and Modulation of Intestinal Cell Differentiation

VΙ. Conclusion

References

2 Protein Structure and Function of Brush Border Enzymes in Clinical Mucosal Disorders

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Biosynthesis of Intestinal Brush Border Membrane Hydrolases in Structurally Normal Mucosa

IV. Biosynthesis and Intracellular Processing of Brush Border Hydrolases in Congenital Disorders

V. Brush Border Hydrolases and Mucosal Injury

VI. Conclusion

References

3 The Small Intestine in Chronic Diarrhea of Infancy: a Light- and Electron-Microscopic Study

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

References

Free Papers on Intestinal Mucosal Histology in Infantile Malnutrition and Chronic Diarrhea

4 Immunofluorescence Studies of Mucosal Enterocyte Pathology in Acquired Monosaccharide Intolerance

I. Methods

II. Results and Discussion

5 Immunopathology of the Jejunal Mucosae in Gambian Children with Chronic Diarrhea-Malnutrition

I. Objective

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Conclusions

V. References

6 Small Intestinal Mucosal Appearance in Relation to Nutritional Status in Childhood: an Assessment Using the Midarm Circumference to Occipitofrontal Circumference Ratio

Text

References

7 Importance of Genetic Control of Lactase Activity of the Jejunal Mucosae in Severely Malnourished Children: the Example of Central Africa

Text

8 Surface Ultrastructure of Small Bowel Mucosa in Patients with Villous Atrophy

I. Celiac Disease (Gluten-Sensitive Enteropathy)

II. Soy Protein Intolerance

III. Cow's Milk Protein Intolerance

IV. Rotavirus Enteritis

V. Microvillous Inclusion Disease

VI. Summary

References

9 Rectal Histology in Chronic Diarrhea of Infancy with Special Reference to Shigella and Salmonella

I. Methods

II. Results

III. Conclusion

10 Postenteritis Syndrome: Diagnostic Categories and Patterns of Mucosal Appearance

Text

11 Immunofluorescence Studies of Mucosal Immunocyte and Immunoglobulin Pathology in Acquired Monosaccharide Intolerance

I. Methods

II. Results and Discussion

Part II Intestinal Immunology

12 Intestinal Immunology: Theoretical Concepts and an Approach to Clinical Investigation

I. Introduction

II. Intestinal Mucosal Immunity

III. Clinical Evaluation of Systemic Immune Status

IV. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Immune Status

V. Overview of the Relationship between Immunocytes and Enterocytes

Bibliography

13 Clues to the Pathogenesis of Immunologically Mediated Enteropathies from Experimental Studies of Intestinal Graft-versus-Host Reaction

I. Introduction

II. Proliferative Enteropathy in GvHR

III. Destructive Enteropathy in GvHR

IV. Atrophic Enteropathy in GvHR

V. Role of Cytokines in Intestinal GvHR

VI. Conclusions

References

14 Expression of Enterocyte Markers of Immune Function, HLA-DR, and Secretory Component in Mucosal Disorders

I. Introduction

II. In the Normal Mucosa

III. In Mucosal Disorders

IV. The Place of Enterocytes in the Local Immune Response

References

15 Immunological Tolerance to Dietary Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Induction of Systemic Tolerance

III. Effect of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide on Tolerance

IV. Genetic Differences in Tolerance

V. Does Failure of Tolerance Induce FSE?

VI. Mucosal DTH following Oral Challenge with Food Antigens

VII. Summary and Conclusions

References

16 Physiological Response of the Gut to Immunological Stimuli

I. Introduction

II. Background

III. Antigen-Induced Physiological Changes

IV. Summary

References

Free Papers on Intestinal Mucosal Immunology in Infantile Malnutrition and Chronic Diarrhea

17 T Lymphocytes, T Lymphocyte Subsets, and B Cells in the Normal Jejunum: Correlation with Age

Text

18 Morphometric Quantification of Immunoglobulin-Containing Cells in Jejunal Mucosae of Children with Protein-Energy Malnutrition

I. Introduction

II. Subjects and Methods

III. Results

IV. Conclusions

References

19 Value of a Lymphoblastic Stimulation Test for Diagnosis of Food Allergy

I. Introduction

II. Subjects and Methods

III. Results

IV. Conclusion

References

20 Persisting Viral Enteritis and Enteropathy in Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

I. Patients

II. Results

III. Conclusion

References

Part III Effect of Malnutrition on Intestinal Function in Infants: Epidemiology

21 Epidemiological Relationship between Malnutrition and Chronic Diarrhea in Infants and Children

I. Introduction

II. Epidemiology of Prolonged Childhood Diarrhea in LDCs

III. Nutritional Status as a Risk Factor for Diarrhea Duration and Severity

IV. Mechanisms of Nutrition-Induced Increased Risk of Chronic Diarrhea

V. Feeding Practices as Risk Factors for Prolonged Diarrhea

VI. Nutritional Complications of Prolonged Diarrhea

VII. Dietary Management of Prolonged Diarrhea in LDCs

References

Free Papers on the Epidemiology of Chronic Diarrhea

22 Acquired Monosaccharide Intolerance in Infants

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Conclusion

References

23 Comparative Study of Acquired Monosaccharide Intolerance in São Paulo, Brazil, and Houston, Texas

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Conclusion

References

24 Risk Factors in the Development of Persistent Diarrhea during Early Infancy

Text

25 The Bacterial Content of Infant Weaning Foods in Relation to Food Hygiene Practices

Text

26 Chronic Diarrhea in the First Year of Life in an Urban Slum: Incidence and Relationship to Feeding Practices

I. Methods

II. Results

III. Conclusion

27 Nutritional Implications of Diarrhea in Infants and Children Caused by Abrupt Change in Their Microbiological Environment

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Discussion

IV. Conclusion

Bibliography

28 Incidence and Prevalence of Chronic Diarrhea in Rural Northern Thailand

Text

29 Infectious Diarrhea of Infancy: Factors Associated with Persistence of Diarrhea

I. Methods

II. Results

III. Conclusions

III. Results

IV. Conclusion

Part IV Diagnosis and Dietary and Pharmacological Management of Chronic Diarrhea

30 General Concepts of Feeding after Gastroenteritis

I. Introduction

II. Terminology

III. Clinical Diagnosis of Lactose Intolerance

IV. Conclusion

References

31 Feeding in Diarrhea during the Acute Stage and after Recovery: Experience in Developing Countries

I. Introduction

II. How Diarrhea Affects Nutritional Status

III. Earlier Studies

IV. Present Study

V. Conclusions

References

32 Carbohydrate Fermentation in the Human Large Bowel: Its Control and Consequences

I. Introduction

II. Carbohydrate Substrates

III. Microflora

IV. Consequences of Fermentation

V. Conclusion

References

33 Effect of Luminal Nutrients on Mucosal Recovery in Chronic Diarrhea

I. Nutrition in Chronic Diarrhea

II. NPO Status and Its Effect on the Small Intestine

III. Possible Adverse Effects Related to Feeding

References

34 Intestinal Permeability in Infants with Malnutrition or Chronic Diarrhea

I. Introduction

II. Studies of Intestinal Permeability

III. Literature Review: Children with Diarrhea

References

Free Papers on Bacteria and Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth in Chronic Diarrhea

35 Pharmacotherapy in Persistent Diarrhea

Text

References

36 The Small Intestinal Microflora in Persistent Postenteritis Diarrhea: a Comparative Study of Peruvian Shantytown Children

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Conclusions

37 Protracted Diarrhea: the Importance of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains and Salmonella in Its Genesis

I. Introduction

II. Patients and Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

Free Papers on the Use of Noninvasive Techniques for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Lumen Problems

38 Serial Studies of Intestinal Permeability in Marasmic Children with Chronic Diarrhea

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results

IV. Conclusion

References

39 Effect of Systemic Infection on Intestinal Permeability in Bangladeshi Children with Persistent Diarrhea

Text

References

40 Rice Carbohydrate Absorption in Burmese Village Children

Text

41 Sugar Malabsorption in Severe Protein-Energy Malnutrition

I. Methods

II. Results

III. Conclusions

References

42 A Carbon-13 Breath Test to Characterize Glucose Absorption and Utilization in Children

Text

Part V Clinical Disorders of Transient Carbohydrate Malabsorption

43 Dietary Basis of Metabolic Acidosis in Infants with Chronic Diarrhea and Acquired Monosaccharide Intolerance

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Calculations

IV. Results and Discussion

References

44 Effect of Rice Carbohydrate Malabsorption on Child Growth

Text

45 Enteral Feeding in Severe Malnutrition with Protracted Diarrhea in Early Childhood in Bolivia: Value of a Chicken-Based Formula

I. Methods

II. Results

III. Conclusion

46 Enteral Nutritional Rehabilitation in Chronic Diarrhea

Text

47 Early Hospital Course in Acquired Monosaccharide Intolerance and Acute Diarrheal Syndrome

Text

48 Aluminum Hydroxide in the Treatment of Postenteritis Syndrome

I. Introduction

II. Patients

III. Results and Conclusions

References

49 An Evaluation of the Effect of Inpatient Rehabilitation on the Recovery from Chronic Diarrhea

I. Methods

II. Results

III. Conclusion

50 A Controlled Trial on the Utility of Oral Zinc Supplementation in Chronic Diarrhea in Infancy

I. Methods

II. Results

III. Conclusion

Part VI Report of the Commission on Terminology and Classification

51 Terminology and Classification of Patients with Malnutrition in Chronic Diet-Associated Infantile Diarrhea: McDAID

I. Introduction

II. Why McDAID?

III. Occurrence

IV. Treatment and Prevention

References

Part VII Priorities for Future Investigation

52 Future Research Priorities

I. Nutrition

II. Immunology

III. Epidemiology

IV. Technology Transfer

V. Conclusion

Bibliography

Index

Details

No. of pages:
500
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1990
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483266848

About the Editor

Carlos H. Lifschitz

Buford L. Nichols