Part 1 Introduction; Background: Knowledge and its actionable representation; Web as a global knowledge base. Part 2 Making sense of the web: Semantic web and linked open data; Social network analysis; Open issues and possible solutions. Part 3 Towards machine-aided knowledge evolution: From (semantic) web to knowledge web; Sparking the knowledge evolution. Part 4 Selected application areas: Knowledge discovery; Publishing and library science. Part 5 Conclusions: The status quo and future outlook.