Magnetic Materials and Their Applications

Magnetic Materials and Their Applications

1st Edition - January 1, 1974

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  • Author: Carl Heck
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483103174

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Magnetic Materials and their Applications discusses the principles and concepts behind magnetic materials and explains their applications in the fields of physics and engineering. The book covers topics such as the principal concepts and definitions related to magnetism; types of magnetic materials and their electrical and mechanical properties; and the different factors influencing magnetic behavior. The book also covers topics such as permanent-magnet materials; magnetic materials in heavy-current engineering; and the different uses of magnetic materials. The text is recommended for physicists and electrical engineers who would like to know more about magnetic materials and their applications in the field of electronics.

Table of Contents

  • Contents

    Chapter 1


    Chapter 2

    Review of Magnetic Effects

    2.1 Preliminary Remarks

    2.2 The Most Important Effects

    2.2.1 The Joule Effect

    2.2.2 The Faraday Effect

    2.2.3 The Matteucci Effect

    2.2.4 The Wiedemann Effect

    2.2.5 The Villau Effect

    2.2.6 The Kerr Effect

    2.2.7 The Hopkinson Effect

    2.2.8 The Cotton-Mouton Effect

    2.2.9 The Barnett Effect

    2.2.10 The Einstein-de-Haas Effect

    2.2.11 The Barkhausen Effect

    2.2.12 The magnetothermal Effect

    2.2.13 The Hughes Effect

    Chapter 3

    Magnetic Parameters of Materials

    3.1 Types of Magnetic Materials

    3.1.1 Paramagnetic Materials

    3.1.2 Diamagnetic Materials

    3.1.3 Ferromagnetic Materials

    3.1.4 Ferrimagnetic Materials

    3.1.5 Antiferromagnetic Materials

    3.1.6 Metamagnetic Materials

    3.2 The Principal Concepts and Definitions

    3.2.1 Susceptibility

    3.2.2 Magnetic Flux Density

    3.2.3 Magnetisation

    3.2.4 The Various Permeabilities

    3.2.5 Magnetic Losses

    3.2.6 Permeability as a Function of Temperature

    3.2.7 Losses as a Function of Temperature

    3.2.8 Drop in Permeability With Time

    3.2.9 Permeability as a Function of Frequency

    3.2.10 Losses as a Function of Frequency

    3.2.11 Magnetostriction

    3.2.12 The Hysteresis Loop

    3.2.13 The Demagnetising Factor

    3.2.14 Magnetic Anisotropics

    Chapter 4

    The Magnetising Process and the Basis of the Hysteresis Loop

    4.1 The Origin of Magnetism

    4.2 Magnetic Domains

    4.2.1 Making the Domains Visible

    4.2.2 Size and Shape of Domains

    4.2.3 The Bloch Wall

    4.3 The Magnetising Process

    4.3.1 Bloch-wall displacement

    4.3.2 Bloch-wall energy

    4.3.3 The reversible rotation process

    4.3.4 The irreversible rotation process

    4.4 Magnetising Processes and the Hysteresis Loop for Polycrystalline Materials

    4.4.1 The initial magnetising curve

    4.4.2 The limiting loop

    4.4.3 The hysteresis family

    4.4.4 The ideal magnetising curve

    4.5 Magnetising Processes in Single Crystals

    4.5.1 The iron single crystal

    4.5.2 The nickel single crystal

    4.5.3 The cobalt single crystal

    4.5.4 Ferrite single crystals

    4.6 Micromagnetics

    4.7 Magnetisation of Thin Films

    4.7.1 The Néel wall

    4.7.2 Crosstie walls

    4.7.3 Intermediate walls

    4.8 The Rayleigh Loop

    4.9 The Steinmetz Law

    4.10 The Various Segments of the Hysteresis Loop and Their Practical Applications

    Chapter 5

    The Various Shapes of Hysteresis Loops and Their Physical Causes

    5.1 The Normal Hysteresis Loop

    5.2 The Rectangular Loop

    5.2.1 Rectangular loops in metals

    5.2.2 Rectangular loops in ferrites

    5.3 Perminvar Loops

    5.3.1 Perminvar loops in metals and alloys

    5.3.2 Perminvar loops in ferrites

    5.3.3 Transformation of Perminvar loops to rectangular shape

    5.4 Isoperm Loops

    5.4.1 Isoperm loops in metals and alloys

    5.4.2 Isoperm loops in ferrites

    Chapter 6

    Factors Influencing Magnetic Behaviour

    6.1 The Influence of Impurities and Low-level Additives

    6.1.1 Metallic materials

    6.1.2 Oxide materials

    6.2 Effect of the Manufacturing Process

    6.2.1 Effect of rolling temperature for sheet or strip

    6.2.2 Effect of heat treatment on high-permeability materials

    6.2.3 Effect of heat treatment on permanent magnets

    6.2.4 Effect of sintering on metallic dusts

    6.2.5 Effect of sintering conditions on the preparation of ferrites

    6.2.6 Shape effects

    6.3 Effects due to Mechanical Working

    6.3.1 Effect of winding strip cores

    6.3.2 Effect of stacking

    6.3.3 Effect of resin encapsulation

    6.4 Ambient Effects

    Chapter 7

    Mechanical Properties

    7.1 Crystal Structure

    7.1.1 Iron

    7.7.2 Nickel

    7.1.3 Fe-Ni alloys

    7.1.4 Cobalt

    7.7.5 Cubic ferrites

    7.7.6 Hexagonal ferrites

    7.2 Density

    7.3 Melting Point

    7.4 Special Mechanical Properties

    Chapter 8

    Electrical Properties of Magnetic Materials

    8.1 Specific Electrical Resistance

    8.1.1 The electrical resistance of metals and alloys

    8.1.2 Specific electrical resistance as a function of temperature

    8.1.3 The electrical resistance of ferrites

    8.2 Dielectric Constant and Loss Angle

    8.2.1 Heterogeneous bodies (dust cores)

    8.2.2 Ferrites

    Chapter 9

    Permanent-Magnet Materials

    9.1 Role of the Permanent Magnet

    9.2 Descriptive Characteristics of Permanent-magnet Materials

    9.3 The Optimum Working Point

    9.4 Dimensioning a Permanent Magnet

    9.5 Fulness Factor

    9.6 Stabilising

    9.7 Influence of Temperature

    9.8 Residual Effect and Ageing

    9.9 The Working Line

    9.10 The Fundamental Types of Permanent-Magnet Materials

    9.10.1 Martensitic steels

    9.10.2 Precipitation alloys

    9.10.3 Cold-deformed permanent magnets

    9.10.4 Superstructure alloys

    9.10.5 Materials for dust magnets

    9.10.6 Ceramic magnet materials (ferrites)

    9.10.7 Materials having exchange anisotropy

    9.11 Varieties of Permanent-Magnet Materials Available From Industry

    9.12 Applications of Permanent Magnets

    Chapter 10

    Magnetic Materials in Heavy-Current Engineering

    10.1 Requirements for Laminated Materials

    10.1.1 Requirements for transformer sheet

    10.1.2 Requirements for dynamo sheet and electrosheet

    10.1.3 Requirements for materials for level-convertor cores

    10.2 Unalloyed Iron

    10.3 Fe-Si Alloys

    10.3.1 Effect of silicon content

    10.3.2 Effect of impurities

    10.3.3 Effect of grain size

    10.3.4 Temperature dependence of losses

    10.3.5 Properties of hot-rolled electrosheet

    10.3.6 Cold-rolled Fe-Si sheet

    10.4 Fe-Al Alloys

    10.5 Fe-Si-Al Alloys

    10.6 Fe-Co Alloys

    10.7 Ferrite Cores for Power Transformers

    Chapter 11

    Materials for Transductor Cores

    11.1 Principles and Properties of a Transductor

    11.2 Transductor Applications

    11.3 Requirements for Core Material

    11.4 Miscellaneous Materials

    11.4.1 Hot-rolled Fe-Si sheet

    11.4.2 Grain-oriented Fe-Si sheet

    11.4.3 Fe-Ni alloys

    11.4.4 Fe-Co alloys

    11.4.5 Ferrites

    11.5 Effect of Core Construction

    Chapter 12

    Magnetic Materials for Relays

    12.1 Uses and Properties of the Electromagnetic Relay

    12.2 Material Requirements for Core and Yoke

    12.3 Magnetic Ageing

    12.4 Classification of Magnetically Soft Materials for Relays

    12.5 Unalloyed Iron

    12.6 Fe-Si Alloys

    12.7 Fe-Ni Alloys

    12.8 Fe-Co Alloys

    12.9 Ferrites

    Chapter 13

    Core Materieals for Inductance Coils and Transformers

    13.1 Magnetic Materials in Communications Technology

    13.2 Inductively Loaded Conductors

    13.3 Specified Requirements for Inductance Coils and Transformer Cores

    13.4 Solid Metal and Alloy Core Materials

    13.4.1 Core shapes

    13.4.2 Types of materials for the cores of communications transformers

    13.4.3 Fe-Si alloys

    13.4.4 Fe-Al alloys

    13.4.5 Fe-Si-Al alloys

    13.4.6 Fe-Ni alloys

    13.4.7 Fe-Ni-Mo alloys

    13.4.8 Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    13.4.9 Fe-Ni-Co alloys

    13.4.10 Fe-m-Cu alloys

    13.4.11 Fe-Co alloys

    13.5 Dust Cores

    13.5.1 Core shapes

    13.5.2 Comparison of dust cores and laminated cores

    13.5.3 Production of dust cores

    13.5.4 Properties of dust cores

    13.6 Ferrites

    13.6.1 Comparison between dust cores and ferrite cores

    13.6.2 Core shapes

    13.6.3 Adjustable cores

    13.6.4 Properties of the more usual ferrites

    Chapter 14

    Magnetic Materials for the Microwave Region

    14.1 Electromagnetic Waves in Waveguides

    14.2 The Reciprocity Principle

    14.3 Electrical Properties of Ferrites at Super-high F requencies

    14.4 Magnetic Properties of Ferrites in a Microwave Field

    14.4.1 Permeability

    14.4.2 The Faraday effect

    14.4.3 Resonance absorption

    14.4.4 Field displacement

    14.4.5 Effect of specimen shape

    14.4.6 Microwave losses

    14.4.7 Isolators working on Faraday-absorption and resonance absorption principles

    14.4.8 Arrangement of ferrite elements in the waveguide

    14.4.9 Bandwidth of an isolator

    14.4.10 Effect of temperature

    14.5 Materials

    14.5.1 Mg-Mn ferrites

    14.5.2 Mg-Mn-Al ferrites and Mg-Fe aluminates

    14.5.3 Magnesium ferrite-chromite

    14.5.4 Manganese ferrites and Mn-Zn ferrites

    14.5.5 Nickel ferrite and nickel aluminates

    14.5.6 Cobalt ferrite

    14.5.7 Hexagonal barium ferrites

    14.5.8 Garnets

    14.6 Microwave Components using Ferrite

    Chapter 15

    Magnetic Materials for Information Storage

    15.1 Types of Magnetic Store

    15.2 Historical

    15.3 Tape Recorders

    15.3.1 Operating principles

    15.3.2 Magnetic tape

    15.3.3 Magnetic heads

    15.4 Drum Stores

    15.4.1 Operation and construction

    15.4.2 The magnétisable coating

    15.4.3 Magnetic heads

    15.4.4 Detailed examples of drum stores

    15.5 Magnetic Disc Stores

    15.6 Toroidal Core Stores

    15.6.1 Principle of operation

    15.6.2 The cyclic magnetising or flux-reversal process

    15.6.3 Requirements for core materials

    15.6.4 Characteristic curves of a memory core

    15.6.5 Core materials

    15.7 Ferrite Storage Plates

    15.8 Thin-film Stores

    15.8.1 Manufacture of thin films

    15.8.2 Materials used for magnetic films

    15.8.3 The magnetic spot

    15.8.4 The storage element and its functioning

    15.8.5 The switching process in film elements

    15.8.6 Advantages and disadvantages of plane film storage elements

    15.9 Cylindrical Thin-film Storage Elements

    15.10 The Waffle-iron Memory Store

    15.11 Transfluxors

    15.11.1 Working principles of a transfluxor

    15.11.2 Applications of transfluxors

    15.11.3 Transfluxor materials

    15.12 The Twistor

    15.13 The Magnetostrictive Delay Line

    15.14 The Orthoferrite Memory

    Chapter 16

    Materials for Magnetomechanical Resonators

    16.1 Applications

    16.2 Requirements Specified for the Material

    16.3 The Magnetomechanical Coupling Factor

    16.4 Forms of Mechanical Oscillator

    16.5 Example of a Magnetostrictive Filter

    16.6 Materials

    16.6.1 Metals and alloys

    16.6.2 Ferrites

    Chapter 17

    Materials for Magnetic Shielding

    17.1 Stray-field Effects

    17.2 Operation of a Shield

    17.3 The Shielding Factor

    17.4 Magnetic-shield Materials

    Chapter 18

    Materials for Temperature Compensation

    18.1 Problem and Principles

    18.2 Materials

    18.2.1 Metallic compensation materials

    18.2.2 Ferrites

    Chapter 19


    19.1 Tables of Materials

    19.1.1 Permanent-magnet materials

    19.1.2 Sheet and strip

    19.1.3 Ferrites for inductance coils and communications transformers

    19.1.4 Ferrites for microwave applications

    19.1.5 Core materials for storage and switching devices

    19.2 Trade Names and Producers of Magnetic Materials

Product details

  • No. of pages: 784
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1974
  • Published: January 1, 1974
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483103174

About the Author

Carl Heck

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