Machinery Noise and Diagnostics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780409901016, 9781483289458

Machinery Noise and Diagnostics

1st Edition

Authors: Richard H Lyon
eBook ISBN: 9781483289458
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 15th July 1987
Page Count: 312
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Machinery Noise and Diagnostics provides engineers with an understanding of how dynamic forces produce structural vibration in machines and how these vibrations are transmitted through the machine and produce radiated sound.

The book presents the theoretical and practical aspects of machinery noise and diagnostics. The chapters contained in the text discuss subjects on the integration of noise reduction into the design process; sounds radiated by machines; the vibratory or acoustical signals picked up by a sensor and used for diagnostics; and other aspects of diagnostic procedures likely to be important in future machine monitoring systems.

This publication will be of value to mechanical engineers, mechanics and machine designers.

Table of Contents


1 Introduction to Machinery Noise and Diagnostics

1.1 Relations between Machinery Noise and Diagnostics

1.2 The Goals of Noise Reduction Compared with Those of Diagnostics

1.3 General Features of a Noise Reduction Program

1.4 Noise Reduction by Design—Some Principles

1.5 Integrating Noise Reduction into the Design Process

1.6 Costs Assessment

1.7 Approaches to Diagnostic System Design

1.8 Extraction of Source Features or "Signatures"

1.9 Detection and Classification of Faults

1.10 Machine Control Using Diagnostic Signals

1.11 Decision Analysis and Classification Systems

2 Sources of Vibration

2.1 Vibration Generators as Sources

2.2 Excitation of Vibrations in a Machine Due to Imbalance

2.3 Reciprocating Imbalance

2.4 Impact as a Source of Vibration

2.5 Mechanical Diagrams

2.6 Piston Slap

2.7 Crank-Slider Vibration

2.8 Displacement Sources: Excitation by Dimensional and Other Errors in Gears, Cams, and Similar Machine Components

2.9 Noise Generation by Fluctuating Magnetic Forces

2.10 Diesel Engine Combustion Pressure as a Source

2.11 Turbulent Flow as a Source of Vibration

3 Structural Response to Excitation

3.1 Wave Motion in Structural Response

3.2 Longitudinal Wave Motion

3.3 Mobility of a Finite Rod

3.4 Structural Damping

3.5 Bending Waves

3.6 Measurement of Power Flow in Bending Waves

3.7 Resonances of a Finite Bending Beam

3.8 Mode Count in Two-Dimensional Structures

3.9 The Effects of Curvature on Modal Density

3.10 Modal Densities of Some Machine Structures

3.11 Response Functions and Reciprocity

3.12 Response of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom Resonator

3.13 Structural Response to Imbalance

3.14 Modal Response of Finite Structures

3.15 Average Drive Point Mobility

3.16 Transfer Functions

3.17 Force Transmission in Machine Structures: An Application of Reciprocity

3.18 Isolator Performance on Flexible Structures

4 Vibration Transmission in Machine Structures

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Analyzing Vibration Transmission by Two-Port Methods

4.3 Joining System Components

4.4 Application of the Joining Relation to a Diesel Engine

4.5 Noise Transmission through Structural Junctions

4.6 Transmission Line "Finite Element" Analysis

4.7 Statistical Energy Analysis

4.8 Coupling Loss Factors

4.9 Example of Noise Transmission in a Ship Structure

4.10 Comparison of Results from Calculations and Experiments

4.11 Use of SEA in Organizing Vibration Data

4.12 Uncertainty in Noise Transmission Estimates

5 Sound Radiated by Machines

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Plane-Wave Radiation and Radiation Efficiency

5.3 Geometric Radiation Efficiency: Sound from a Vibrating Sphere

5.4 Other Elementary Sources of Sound

5.5 Sound Radiation from Colliding Parts

5.6 Specific Acoustic Mobility and Sound Intensity

5.7 Measuring Sound Power Using Acoustical Intensity

5.8 Reverberation Room Sound Power

5.9 Using Reciprocity to Determine Sound Radiation

5.10 Measuring Product Sound with a Small Reverberation Chamber

5.11 Sound Radiation by Structural Surfaces

5.12 Radiation from Structural Bending Waves

5.13 Radiation Below the Critical Frequency

5.14 Numerical Methods for Sound Radiation

6 Diagnostics Using Signal Energy

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Energy versus Time Analysis of Rotating Machine Vibration

6.3 Envelope Methods Using a High-Frequency Resonance

6.4 Determining Gear Transmission Errors from Noise Data

6.5 Using the Power Cepstrum in Diagnostics

6.6 Diagnostics of a Horizontal Centrifuge

6.7 Diagnostics of Valve and Valve Seat Impacts

6.8 Analysis of Valve Resonances

6.9 The Use of Inverse Filters

6.10 Uncertainty in the Vibration Transmission

6.11 Modeling Randomness in Transfer Function Magnitude

7 Diagnostics Using Signal Phase

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Cylinder Pressure Waveform Recovery

7.3 Cepstral Analysis in Waveform Recovery

7.4 Phase Characteristics of Structural Transfer Functions

7.5 Phase of Input and Transfer Functions

7.6 Poles and Zeros of Transfer Functions

7.7 Drive Point System Functions

7.8 The One-Dimensional Acoustical Pipe

7.9 Phase in Two-Dimensional Systems

7.10 An Experimental Study of Phase Shift

7.11 Phase Variability of Structural Transfer Functions

7.12 Non-Minimum-Phase Systems and Cepstral Analysis

8 Advanced Topics in Diagnostics

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Waveform Recovery for Sources that Operate at the Same Time

8.3 Diagnostic System Design and Application

8.4 System Identification Using Orthonormal Functions


A Some Relevant Mathematics

A.l Introduction

A.2 Complex Variables

A.3 Periodic Functions: Fourier Series

A.4 Nonperiodic Functions: Fourier Integral Transforms

A.5 Relation between Fourier Series and Fourier Integral Transforms

A.6 Analysis of Sequences

A.7 Frequency Analysis

A.8 Sampling Formulas

A.9 Antialiasing in the Frequency Domain

A.10 Z-Transform

A.11 Inverse Z-Transform

A.12 Discrete Fourier Transform

A.13 Hilbert Transform

A.14 Power Spectrum and the Cepstrum

B Criteria for Machinery Noise and Vibration

B.l Introduction

B.2 Hearing Loss

B.3 Loudness of Machinery Noise

B.4 Criteria for Communication in the Workplace

B.5 Combined Noise Criteria

B.6 Criteria Based on Perceived Quality

B.7 Criteria for Vibration

C Determining Transfer Functions from Measured Data

C.l Introduction

C.2 Construction of Inverse Filters Based on Measured Data




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© Butterworth-Heinemann 1987
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About the Author

Richard H Lyon

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