Lymphokines - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124320147, 9781483268187


1st Edition

A Forum for Immunoregulatory Cell Products

Editors: Edgar Pick
eBook ISBN: 9781483268187
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th December 1987
Page Count: 488
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Lymphokines: A Forum for Immunoregulatory Cell Products, Volume 14, reviews the state of knowledge on lymphokines.
The book opens with an integrative view of the role of lymphokines in the generation of fever. It stresses that pirogenicity is the attribute of more than one lymphokine: interleukin 1 (IL-1), interferon α, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) all possess this quality. This is followed by separate chapters on the chemistry of IL-1 molecules and cloning of the gene for human monocyte IL-1; the production of lymphokine by cells of the central nervous system; the acute phase plasma protein response studied at the level of gene structure and expression; and the involvement of calcium and calcium-linked enzymes in T cell proliferation.
Subsequent chapters deal with the involvement of pteridines in T cell activation; the discovery of cachectin and the establishment of its identity with TNF; the effect of IFN-γ and several cytotoxic cytokines on the proliferation, differentiation, and function of normal and leukemic myeloid cells; and the cytotoxic lymphokines produced by effector T cells. The final chapter discusses the ways in which chemically defined changes in cell membranes affect cell division.

Table of Contents


Interleukins, Tumor Necrosis Factors (Cachectin), and Interferons as Endogenous Pyrogens and Mediators of Fever

I. Introduction

II. Background

III. Fever

IV. IL-1 as an EP

V. Tumor Necrosis Factor (Cachectin) as an EP

VI. Interferons as EPs

VII. IL-2 as a Pyrogen

VIII. Assaying for EPs

IX. Conclusions


Molecular Biology of Interleukin

I. Introduction

II. Molecular Variability

III. Mapping of the IL-lß Protein Active Site

IV. IL-lß Gene Structure and Regulation

V. Speculations and Summary


Human Interleukin 1 Inhibitors

I. Introduction

II. Results

III. Discussion


Immunoregulatory Factors Secreted by Astrocytes and Glioblastoma Cells

I. Introduction

II. Major Histocompatibility Antigens in the CNS

III. Interferon-7 Induces la Antigens on Astrocytes

IV. Antigen Presentation by Astrocytes

V. Production of IL-1-like Factors by Astrocytes

VI. Astrocytes Synthesize IL-3-like Factors

VII. Production of Prostaglandin E by Astrocytes

VIII. Prostaglandins, IFN-y, and the Expression of MHC Antigens in the Brain

IX. Glioblastoma Cell-Derived T Cell Suppressor Factor (GTSF)

X. Conclusion


Molecular Biology of the Acute Phase Plasma Proteins

I. Introduction

II. The Proteins

III. The Mediators

IV. Summary


Contrasting Requirements for IL-2 Production, IL-1 Receptor Expression, and Lymphocyte Proliferation: The Role of Calcium-Dependent and Calcium-Independent Signals

I. Introduction

II. IL-2 Production

III. IL-2 Receptor Expression

IV. IL-2-IL-2 Receptor Interaction

V. Multiple Signal Hypothesis

VI. Regulation of CA2+ Entry into the Cell

VII. Summary


Production of Pteridines by T Cells and Macrophages: Modulator Function in Interleukin 2 Signal Transmission

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Pteridine Biochemistry and Analysis

III. Pteridine Production by T Cells and Macrophages In Vitro

IV. Pteridines as Indicators of T Cell Activation in Clinical Cases

V. Modulation of IL-2 Response by Pteridines

VI. Are Pteridines Involved in the Modulation of Other Hormone-Receptor Interactions and in the Communication between the Immune and the Nervous System?

VII. Addendum


Cachectin: A Monokine Implicated as a Mediator of Cachexia and Shock

I. Introduction: The Search for Cachectin

II. Tumor Necrosis Factor

III. Isolation and Characterization of Cachectin

IV. Control of Cachectin Gene Expression

V. The Role of Cachectin in the Pathogenesis of Fever and Shock

VI. Other Biological Effects of Cachectin: The List at Present

VII. The Evolutionary Role of Cachectin

VIII. Future Prospects


Studies on the Mode of Action of Tumor Necrosis Factor on Tumor Cells in Vitro

I. Introduction

II. Specificity

III. Receptors

IV. Kinetics

V. Morphological Changes on TNF Treatment

VI. Biochemical Changes on TNF Treatment

VII. Is TNF an Enzyme?

VIII. Modification of Tumor Cell Growth and Its Effect on TNF Mediated Cytotoxicity

IX. Does Free Radical Induction Explain the Cytotoxic Action of TNF?

X. Summary


Lymphokine-Like and Interferon Regulatory Activity of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Epidermal Growth Factor, and Fibroblast Growth Factor

I. Introduction

II. Some Properties of PDGF, EGF, and FGF

III. Regulation of IFN-7 Production and Other Immune Functions by PDGF, EGF, and FGF

IV. IFN, PDGF, and Regulation of Oncogene Expression

V. Summary and Future Directions


Immune Interferon and Cytotoxins: Regulatory Effects on Myeloid Cells

I. Introduction

II. Biology and Interactions of Immune Interferon and Cytotoxins

III. Regulation of Differentiation-Proliferation of Granulocyte-Monocyte Precursor Cells

IV. Differentiation of Normal and Leukemia Myeloid Cells

V. Regulation of Activity of Terminally Differentiated Myelomonocytic Cells

VI. Summary and Conclusions


The Cytotoxic Lymphokines Elaborated by Effector T Cells

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion


Lymphokine-Activated Tumor Inhibition (LATI) in Vivo

I. Introduction

II. Tumor-Specific Helper T Lymphocytes

III. The LATI System

IV. Host Immune Mechanisms Involved in LATI

V. From Local to Systemic Reactivity

VI. The Building Up of a New Immunotherapeutic System


Immunotoxins and Endocytosis

I. Introduction

II. Preparation and Activity of Immunotoxins

III. Endocytosis and Immunotoxins

IV. Conclusion


Heterogeneity of Murine IgG-Binding Factors (IgG-BF): Relation to Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Antigens

I. Introduction

II. Charge Heterogeneity of IgG-BF

III. Expression of Class II Antigens on T Cell Hybridomas and on IgG-BF


Involvement of Antigen-Specific T Cell Factors in Regulation of Separate Steps in the Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Cascade

I. Introduction: A Cascade of Cellular Interactions Comprises Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) and Is Susceptible to Regulation at Different Steps in the Sequence

II. Regulation of T Cells Producing the Antigen-Specific T Cell Factors (TCF) that Initiate DTH

III. Regulation of the Late Aspect of DTH by the Early TCFDependent Component of DTH

IV. Regulation of the Late-Acting, Lymphokine-Producing Lyt-1+2- DTH Effector T Cell

V. Interplay of Various Factors Involved in the Mediation and Regulation of Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity

VI. Summary


Activation of Macrophage C3 Receptors by a Unique Lymphokine

I. Introduction

II. Generation of the Lymphokine

III. Characterization of the Lymphokine

IV. Mechanism of Action of the Lymphokine

V. Significance of C3 Receptor Activation and of C3 Receptor-Mediated Phagocytosis in Host Defense


Control of Cell Division by a Chemically Defined Cell Membrane Modification

I. Introduction

II. Production of IL-2 by Periodic Acid

III. Discussion

IV. Summary




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© Academic Press 1987
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Edgar Pick

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