Lymphokines - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124320086, 9781483266992


1st Edition

A Forum for Immunoregulatory Cell Products

Editors: Edgar Pick
eBook ISBN: 9781483266992
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th March 1983
Page Count: 472
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Lymphokines: A Forum for Immunoregulatory Cell Products deals with immunoregulatory cell products that produce lymphokines. Topics covered include the purification and characterization of transfer factor; activation of cytotoxicity and/or suppressor activity in murine macrophages by lymphokines, lipopolysaccharide, and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid; and the role of clotting processes in the action of lymphokines on macrophages. A comparison of the immune-modulating effects of interferon and interferon inducers is also presented.

Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on transfer factor and its ability to react specifically with antigens. The clinical uses of transfer factor are considered with special emphasis on its value as a prophylactic agent. The reader is then introduced to the subject of T cell regulation of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) response via potentiating and suppressor lymphokines, together with the possible clinical application of IgE suppressive factors in the treatment of atopic diseases. Subsequent chapters examine the evidence in favor of the existence of T cell-derived polyclonal B cell activator (PBA) playing a role in both normal antibody responses and autoimmune diseases; the role of suppressor T cells and the associated lymphokines in contact sensitivity in mice; and lymphokine action on macrophages. The book also analyzes the genetics of the response of human and mouse cells to interferons.

This monograph will be helpful to practitioners and researchers in the fields of microbiology and immunology.

Table of Contents



Transfer Factor

I. Introduction

II. Progress toward Purification and Characterization of Transfer Factor

III. In Vitro Assays for Transfer Factor

IV. Recent Progress with Animal Models

V. On the Mechanism of Action

VI. Clinical Applications of Transfer Factor

VII. Summary and Conclusions


IgE-Binding Factors from Rat T Lymphocytes

I. Introduction

II. Role of IgE-Binding Factors in the Regulation of the IgE Response

II. Induction of IgE-Binding Factors with Biologic Activity

IV Conclusion


A Polyclonal B-Cell Activating Lymphokine and Its Natural Inhibitor: Possible Role in Antibody Formation and Autoimmune Diseases

I. Introduction

II. Hypothetical Models for Antibody Formation with a Role for a Polyclonal B-Cell Activator (PBA)

III. A Hypothetical Model for the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases without a Role for Antigens

IV. Methods for Detecting Polyclonal B-Cell Activators

V. Induction of a PBA in Cultures of Rabbit Lymphoid Cells

VI. The Molecular Nature of the PBA Produced in Lymphoid Cell Cultures

VII. The Cells Involved in the Production of PBA in Rabbit Lymphoid Cell Cultures

VIII. The Induction of PBA Associated with α-Macroglobulin (αM) in Vivo

IX. PBA in the Serum of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Other Autoimmune Diseases

X. The Molecular Nature of PBA Obtained from Patient Serum

XI. Low-Molecular-Weight PBA Inhibitor (LOMPIN) in the Serum of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

XII. Discussion on the Mechanisms of Antibody Formation, Autoimmunity, and the Role of PBA

XIII. Summary and Conclusions


Lymphokines and Antigen-Specific T-Cell Products in Contact Sensitivity

I. Introduction

II. Ts-aff: The T Suppressor Cell Which Acts at the Afferent Stage of the Contact Sensitivity Reaction

III. T Suppressor Circuit Involving Ts-eff, TsF, and T Acceptor Cell and Nonspecific Inhibitor(s)

IV. T Suppressor Factor (TsF)

V. The T Acceptor Cell

VI. Nonspecific Inhibitor Released by the T Acceptor Cell

VII. The Macrophage as an Acceptor Cell

VIII. Function of the T Suppressor Circuits

IX. Summary


Studies on the Activation of Cytotoxicity and/or Suppressor Activity in Murine Macrophages by Lymphokines, Lipopolysaccharide, and Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid

I. Introduction

II. Induction of Tumoricidal Macrophages in Vitro

III. Induction of Suppressor MΦ in Vitro

IV. Summary and Concluding Remarks


The Role of Clotting Processes in the Action of Lymphokines on Macrophages

I. Introduction

II. Fibrin Deposition in Delayed-type Hypersensitivity Reactions

III. Fibrin Deposition on Macrophage Populations

IV. Initiation of Coagulation by Lymphokines

V. Macrophage Procoagulant Activity (MPCA)

VI. MPCA as a Correlate of Cell-Mediated Immunity

VII. Macrophage Tumor Cell Lines as Indicator Cells of MPCA

VIII. Identification of the Procoagulant Activity

IX. Relationship of MPCA and Migration Inhibition

X. Characterization of the Lymphokine Inducing MPCA

XI. Fibronectin: Receptor for the Fibrin Network

XII. Blood Coagulation and Chemotaxis

XIII. Conclusion


A Chemically Defined Monokine: Macrophage-Derived Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF-Acether)

I. Introduction

II. Structure, Assay, and Characterization of PAF-Acether

III. Sources of PAF-Acether Other Than Macrophages

IV. Release of PAF-Acether from Peritoneal Macrophages

V. Release of PAF-Acether from Alveolar Macrophages and Monocytes

VI. PAF-Acether Metabolism

VII. Effects of PAF-Acether on Cells Involved in Inflammation

VIII. Pathobiological Effects of PAF-Acether

IX. Concluding Remarks


Genetic Control of the Response to Interferon in Man and Mouse

I. Introduction

II. The Interferon Receptor Locus (IFRC)

III. Other Loci Affecting the Response to Interferon


A Comparison of Immune Modulating Effects of Interferon and Interferon Inducers

I. Introduction

II. Effect on Antibody Production

III. Effects on Cellular Aspects of Immunity

IV. Effect on Hematopoietic Colony-Forming Cells

V. Effect on Macrophages

VI. Effects on Natural Killer Cell (NK Cell) Activity

VII. Effect on Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxic Activity (ADCC)

VIII. Conclusion


Ciliary Dyskinesia Factors Produced by Leukocytes

I. Introduction

II. Evidence That Leukocytes Generate Ciliary Dyskinesia Factors

III. Biochemical Properties and Functions of Ciliary Dyskinesia Factors

IV. The Monocyte-Macrophage as a Cellular Model for Studying Ciliary Dyskinesia Factor Metabolism

V. Concluding Remarks


Ceruloplasmin: An Acute Phase Reactant and Antioxidant

I. Introduction

II. Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals—Mediators of Inflammation

III. Ceruloplasmin—Some Chemical Properties and Biological Activities

IV. Antioxidant Activity of Ceruloplasmin

V. Ceruloplasmin—A Scavenger of Superoxide Anion Radicals

VI. Ceruloplasmin—An Acute-Phase Reactant

VII. Antiinflammatory Effects of Ceruloplasmin


Properties and Action Mechanism of Clastogenic Factors

I. Introduction

II. Preparation and Testing of Clastogenic Factors

III. Clastogenic Factors after X- and y-Irradiation

IV. Clastogenic Factors in Patients with Collagen Diseases

V. Clastogenic Factors in Other Diseases with Perturbations of the Immune System

VI. Clastogenic Factor in New Zealand Black Mice

VII. Clastogenic Factors in the Congenital Breakage Syndromes

VIII. Common Features and Properties of Clastogenic Factors

IX. Possible Action Mechanism of Clastogenic Factors

X. Significance of Clastogenic Factors


The Biological Effects and Mechanism of Action of the Plasma Tripeptide Glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine

I. Discovery of Glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine (GHL)

II. Biological Effects of GHL

III. Mechanism of Action of GHL

IV. Growth-Inhibitory Analogs of the GHL-Cu Complex



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© Academic Press 1983
Academic Press
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Edgar Pick

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