Lymphokines

Lymphokines

A Forum for Immunoregulatory Cell Products

1st Edition - January 1, 1983

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  • Editor: Edgar Pick
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483266992

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Description

Lymphokines: A Forum for Immunoregulatory Cell Products deals with immunoregulatory cell products that produce lymphokines. Topics covered include the purification and characterization of transfer factor; activation of cytotoxicity and/or suppressor activity in murine macrophages by lymphokines, lipopolysaccharide, and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid; and the role of clotting processes in the action of lymphokines on macrophages. A comparison of the immune-modulating effects of interferon and interferon inducers is also presented. Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on transfer factor and its ability to react specifically with antigens. The clinical uses of transfer factor are considered with special emphasis on its value as a prophylactic agent. The reader is then introduced to the subject of T cell regulation of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) response via potentiating and suppressor lymphokines, together with the possible clinical application of IgE suppressive factors in the treatment of atopic diseases. Subsequent chapters examine the evidence in favor of the existence of T cell-derived polyclonal B cell activator (PBA) playing a role in both normal antibody responses and autoimmune diseases; the role of suppressor T cells and the associated lymphokines in contact sensitivity in mice; and lymphokine action on macrophages. The book also analyzes the genetics of the response of human and mouse cells to interferons. This monograph will be helpful to practitioners and researchers in the fields of microbiology and immunology.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Transfer Factor

    I. Introduction

    II. Progress toward Purification and Characterization of Transfer Factor

    III. In Vitro Assays for Transfer Factor

    IV. Recent Progress with Animal Models

    V. On the Mechanism of Action

    VI. Clinical Applications of Transfer Factor

    VII. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    IgE-Binding Factors from Rat T Lymphocytes

    I. Introduction

    II. Role of IgE-Binding Factors in the Regulation of the IgE Response

    II. Induction of IgE-Binding Factors with Biologic Activity

    IV Conclusion

    References

    A Polyclonal B-Cell Activating Lymphokine and Its Natural Inhibitor: Possible Role in Antibody Formation and Autoimmune Diseases

    I. Introduction

    II. Hypothetical Models for Antibody Formation with a Role for a Polyclonal B-Cell Activator (PBA)

    III. A Hypothetical Model for the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases without a Role for Antigens

    IV. Methods for Detecting Polyclonal B-Cell Activators

    V. Induction of a PBA in Cultures of Rabbit Lymphoid Cells

    VI. The Molecular Nature of the PBA Produced in Lymphoid Cell Cultures

    VII. The Cells Involved in the Production of PBA in Rabbit Lymphoid Cell Cultures

    VIII. The Induction of PBA Associated with α-Macroglobulin (αM) in Vivo

    IX. PBA in the Serum of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Other Autoimmune Diseases

    X. The Molecular Nature of PBA Obtained from Patient Serum

    XI. Low-Molecular-Weight PBA Inhibitor (LOMPIN) in the Serum of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    XII. Discussion on the Mechanisms of Antibody Formation, Autoimmunity, and the Role of PBA

    XIII. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Lymphokines and Antigen-Specific T-Cell Products in Contact Sensitivity

    I. Introduction

    II. Ts-aff: The T Suppressor Cell Which Acts at the Afferent Stage of the Contact Sensitivity Reaction

    III. T Suppressor Circuit Involving Ts-eff, TsF, and T Acceptor Cell and Nonspecific Inhibitor(s)

    IV. T Suppressor Factor (TsF)

    V. The T Acceptor Cell

    VI. Nonspecific Inhibitor Released by the T Acceptor Cell

    VII. The Macrophage as an Acceptor Cell

    VIII. Function of the T Suppressor Circuits

    IX. Summary

    References

    Studies on the Activation of Cytotoxicity and/or Suppressor Activity in Murine Macrophages by Lymphokines, Lipopolysaccharide, and Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid

    I. Introduction

    II. Induction of Tumoricidal Macrophages in Vitro

    III. Induction of Suppressor MΦ in Vitro

    IV. Summary and Concluding Remarks

    References

    The Role of Clotting Processes in the Action of Lymphokines on Macrophages

    I. Introduction

    II. Fibrin Deposition in Delayed-type Hypersensitivity Reactions

    III. Fibrin Deposition on Macrophage Populations

    IV. Initiation of Coagulation by Lymphokines

    V. Macrophage Procoagulant Activity (MPCA)

    VI. MPCA as a Correlate of Cell-Mediated Immunity

    VII. Macrophage Tumor Cell Lines as Indicator Cells of MPCA

    VIII. Identification of the Procoagulant Activity

    IX. Relationship of MPCA and Migration Inhibition

    X. Characterization of the Lymphokine Inducing MPCA

    XI. Fibronectin: Receptor for the Fibrin Network

    XII. Blood Coagulation and Chemotaxis

    XIII. Conclusion

    References

    A Chemically Defined Monokine: Macrophage-Derived Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF-Acether)

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure, Assay, and Characterization of PAF-Acether

    III. Sources of PAF-Acether Other Than Macrophages

    IV. Release of PAF-Acether from Peritoneal Macrophages

    V. Release of PAF-Acether from Alveolar Macrophages and Monocytes

    VI. PAF-Acether Metabolism

    VII. Effects of PAF-Acether on Cells Involved in Inflammation

    VIII. Pathobiological Effects of PAF-Acether

    IX. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Genetic Control of the Response to Interferon in Man and Mouse

    I. Introduction

    II. The Interferon Receptor Locus (IFRC)

    III. Other Loci Affecting the Response to Interferon

    References

    A Comparison of Immune Modulating Effects of Interferon and Interferon Inducers

    I. Introduction

    II. Effect on Antibody Production

    III. Effects on Cellular Aspects of Immunity

    IV. Effect on Hematopoietic Colony-Forming Cells

    V. Effect on Macrophages

    VI. Effects on Natural Killer Cell (NK Cell) Activity

    VII. Effect on Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxic Activity (ADCC)

    VIII. Conclusion

    References

    Ciliary Dyskinesia Factors Produced by Leukocytes

    I. Introduction

    II. Evidence That Leukocytes Generate Ciliary Dyskinesia Factors

    III. Biochemical Properties and Functions of Ciliary Dyskinesia Factors

    IV. The Monocyte-Macrophage as a Cellular Model for Studying Ciliary Dyskinesia Factor Metabolism

    V. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Ceruloplasmin: An Acute Phase Reactant and Antioxidant

    I. Introduction

    II. Oxygen-Derived Free Radicals—Mediators of Inflammation

    III. Ceruloplasmin—Some Chemical Properties and Biological Activities

    IV. Antioxidant Activity of Ceruloplasmin

    V. Ceruloplasmin—A Scavenger of Superoxide Anion Radicals

    VI. Ceruloplasmin—An Acute-Phase Reactant

    VII. Antiinflammatory Effects of Ceruloplasmin

    References

    Properties and Action Mechanism of Clastogenic Factors

    I. Introduction

    II. Preparation and Testing of Clastogenic Factors

    III. Clastogenic Factors after X- and y-Irradiation

    IV. Clastogenic Factors in Patients with Collagen Diseases

    V. Clastogenic Factors in Other Diseases with Perturbations of the Immune System

    VI. Clastogenic Factor in New Zealand Black Mice

    VII. Clastogenic Factors in the Congenital Breakage Syndromes

    VIII. Common Features and Properties of Clastogenic Factors

    IX. Possible Action Mechanism of Clastogenic Factors

    X. Significance of Clastogenic Factors

    References

    The Biological Effects and Mechanism of Action of the Plasma Tripeptide Glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine

    I. Discovery of Glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine (GHL)

    II. Biological Effects of GHL

    III. Mechanism of Action of GHL

    IV. Growth-Inhibitory Analogs of the GHL-Cu Complex



    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 472
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: January 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483266992

About the Editor

Edgar Pick

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