Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780750677660, 9780080469706

Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

4th Edition

Authors: A. Kayode Coker
eBook ISBN: 9780080469706
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750677660
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 25th January 2007
Page Count: 1024
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Description

This complete revision of Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume 1 builds upon Ernest E. Ludwig’s classic text to further enhance its use as a chemical engineering process design manual of methods and proven fundamentals. This new edition includes important supplemental mechanical and related data, nomographs and charts. Also included within are improved techniques and fundamental methodologies, to guide the engineer in designing process equipment and applying chemical processes to properly detailed equipment.

All three volumes of Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants serve the practicing engineer by providing organized design procedures, details on the equipment suitable for application selection, and charts in readily usable form. Process engineers, designers, and operators will find more chemical petrochemical plant design data in:

Volume 2, Third Edition, which covers distillation and packed towers as well as material on azeotropes and ideal/non-ideal systems.

Volume 3, Third Edition, which covers heat transfer, refrigeration systems, compression surge drums, and mechanical drivers.

A. Kayode Coker, is Chairman of Chemical & Process Engineering Technology department at Jubail Industrial College in Saudi Arabia. He’s both a chartered scientist and a chartered chemical engineer for more than 15 years. and an author of Fortran Programs for Chemical Process Design, Analysis and Simulation, Gulf Publishing Co., and Modeling of Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Key Features

  • Provides improved design manuals for methods and proven fundamentals of process design with related data and charts
  • Covers a complete range of basic day-to-day petrochemical operation topics with new material on significant industry changes since 1995.

Readership

Chemical Engineers

Table of Contents

Dedication

Preface to the Fourth Edition

Preface to the Third Edition

Foreword

Acknowledgments

Biography

Disclaimer

Using the Software and Excel Spreadsheet Programs

USING FORTRAN PROGRAMS

USING MICROSOFT EXCEL SPREADSHEET

RULES OF THUMB: SUMMARY

COMPRESSORS, FANS, BLOWERS AND VACUUM PUMPS

CONVEYORS FOR PARTICULATE SOLIDS

COOLING TOWERS

CRYSTALLIZATION FROM SOLUTION

DISINTEGRATION

TOWERS

TRAY TOWERS

PACKED TOWERS

DRIVERS AND POWER RECOVERY EQUIPMENT

DRYING OF SOLIDS

EVAPORATORS

EXTRACTION, LIQUID–LIQUID

FILTRATION

FLUIDIZATION OF PARTICLES WITH GASES

HEAT EXCHANGERS

INSULATION

MIXING AND AGITATION

PARTICLE SIZE ENLARGEMENT

PIPING

PUMPS

REACTORS

REFRIGERATION

SIZE SEPARATION OF PARTICLES

UTILITIES, COMMON SPECIFICATIONS

VESSELS (DRUMS)

VESSEL (PRESSURE)

VESSELS (STORAGE TANKS)

Chapter 1: PROCESS PLANNING, SCHEDULING, AND FLOWSHEET DESIGN

1.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

1.2 PROCESS DESIGN SCOPE

1.3 ROLE OF THE PROCESS DESIGN ENGINEER

1.4 COMPUTER-AIDED FLOWSHEETING

1.5 THE SEQUENTIAL MODULAR SIMULATION

1.6 THE EQUATION MODULAR APPROACH

1.7 DEGREES-OF-FREEDOM MODELING

1.8 ISOBUTANE CHEMICALS (iC4H10)

1.9 FLOWSHEETS – TYPES

1.10 FLOWSHEET PRESENTATION

1.11 GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS GUIDE

1.12 COMPUTER-AIDED FLOWSHEET DESIGN/DRAFTING

1.13 OPERATOR TRAINING SIMULATOR SYSTEM

1.14 FLOWSHEET SYMBOLS

1.15 WORKING SCHEDULES

1.16 INFORMATION CHECKLISTS

1.17 SYSTEM OF UNITS

1.18 SYSTEM DESIGN PRESSURES

1.19 TIME PLANNING AND SCHEDULING

1.20 PLANT LAYOUT

1.21 RULES OF THUMB ESTIMATING

NOMENCLATURE

ABBREVIATION

Chapter 2: COST ESTIMATION AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 CAPITAL COST ESTIMATION

2.3 EQUIPMENT COST ESTIMATIONS BY CAPACITY RATIO EXPONENTS

2.4 YEARLY COST INDICES

2.5 FACTORED COST ESTIMATE

2.6 DETAILED FACTORIAL COST ESTIMATES

2.7 BARE MODULE COST FOR EQUIPMENT

2.8 SUMMARY OF THE FACTORIAL METHOD

2.9 COMPUTER COST ESTIMATING

2.10 PROJECT EVALUATION

Chapter 3: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND GASES

3.1 DENSITY OF LIQUIDS

3.2 VISCOSITY OF GAS

3.3 VISCOSITY OF LIQUIDS

3.4 HEAT CAPACITY OF GAS

3.5 HEAT CAPACITY OF LIQUID

3.6 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GAS

3.7 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

3.8 SURFACE TENSION

3.9 VAPOR PRESSURE

3.10 ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION

3.11 ENTHALPY OF FORMATION

3.12 GIBBS ENERGY OF FORMATION

3.13 SOLUBILITY IN WATER CONTAINING SALT

3.14 SOLUBILITY IN WATER AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE

3.15 HENRY’S LAW CONSTANT FOR GASES IN WATER

3.16 SOLUBILITY OF GASES IN WATER

3.17 SOLUBILITY AND HENRY’S LAW CONSTANT FOR SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN WATER

3.18 SOLUBILITY OF NAPHTHENES IN WATER

3.19 SOLUBILITY AND HENRY’S LAW CONSTANT FOR NITROGEN COMPOUNDS IN WATER

3.20 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION OF LIQUID

3.21 VOLUMETRIC EXPANSION RATE

3.22 ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

3.23 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS (DIFFUSIVITIES)

3.24 COMPRESSIBILITY Z-FACTOR OF NATURAL GASES

3.25 GENERALIZED COMPRESSIBILITY Z-FACTOR

3.26 GAS MIXTURES

NOMENCLATURE

GREEK LETTERS

Chapter 4: FLUID FLOW

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 FLOW OF FLUIDS IN PIPES

4.3 SCOPE

4.4 BASIS

4.5 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

4.6 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW: VAPORS AND GASES [4]

4.7 IMPORTANT PRESSURE LEVEL REFERENCES

4.8 FACTORS OF “SAFETY” FOR DESIGN BASIS

4.9 PIPE, FITTINGS, AND VALVES

4.10 PIPE

4.11 USUAL INDUSTRY PIPE SIZES AND CLASSES PRACTICE

4.12 BACKGROUND INFORMATION (ALSO SEE CHAPTER 5)

4.13 REYNOLDS NUMBER, Re (SOMETIMES USED NRe)

4.14 PIPE RELATIVE ROUGHNESS

4.15 DARCY FRICTION FACTOR, F

4.16 FRICTION HEAD LOSS (RESISTANCE) IN PIPE, FITTINGS, AND CONNECTIONS

4.17 PRESSURE DROP IN FITTINGS, VALVES, AND CONNECTIONS

4.18 VELOCITY AND VELOCITY HEAD

4.19 EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF FITTINGS

4.20 L/D VALUES IN LAMINAR REGION

4.21 VALIDITY OF K VALUES

4.22 LAMINAR FLOW

4.23 LOSS COEFFICIENT

4.24 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT OR CONTRACTION [2]

4.25 PIPING SYSTEMS

4.26 RESISTANCE OF VALVES

4.27 FLOW COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES, CV

4.28 NOZZLES AND ORIFICES [4]

4.29 ALTERNATE CALCULATION BASIS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS FRICTION HEAD LOSS: LIQUIDS

4.30 EQUIVALENT LENGTH CONCEPT FOR VALVES, FITTINGS AND SO ON

4.31 FRICTION PRESSURE DROP FOR NON-VISCOUS LIQUIDS

4.32 ESTIMATION OF PRESSURE LOSS ACROSS CONTROL VALVES

4.33 THE DIRECT DESIGN OF A CONTROL VALVE

Establishing Control Valve Estimated Pressure Drop, using Connell’s Method [18]

4.34 FRICTION LOSS FOR WATER FLOW

4.35 FLOW OF WATER FROM OPEN-END HORIZONTAL PIPE

4.36 WATER HAMMER [23]

4.37 FRICTION PRESSURE DROP FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW

4.38 COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW IN PIPES

4.39 MAXIMUM FLOW AND PRESSURE DROP

4.40 SONIC CONDITIONS LIMITING FLOW OF GASES AND VAPORS

4.67 A SOLUTION FOR ALL TWO-PHASE PROBLEMS

4.68 GAS–LIQUID TWO-PHASE VERTICAL DOWN FLOW

4.69 PRESSURE DROP IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

4.70 LOW ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SYSTEMS FOR AIR [62]

4.71 VACUUM FOR OTHER GASES AND VAPORS

4.72 PIPE SIZING FOR NON-NEWTONIAN FLOW

4.73 SLURRY FLOW IN PROCESS PLANT PIPING

4.74 PRESSURE DROP FOR FLASHING LIQUIDS

4.75 SIZING CONDENSATE RETURN LINES

4.76 DESIGN PROCEDURE USING SARCO CHART [74]

4.77 FLOW THROUGH PACKED BEDS

NOMENCLATURE

SOFTWARE FOR CALCULATING PRESSURE DROP

4.41 THE MACH NUMBER, MA

4.42 MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COMPRESSIBLE ISOTHERMAL FLOW

4.43 FLOW RATE THROUGH PIPELINE

4.44 PIPELINE PRESSURE DROP (ΔP)

4.45 CRITICAL PRESSURE RATIO

4.46 ADIABATIC FLOW

4.47 THE EXPANSION FACTOR, Y

4.48 MISLEADING RULES OF THUMB FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW

4.49 OTHER SIMPLIFIED COMPRESSIBLE FLOW METHODS

4.50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OF VAPORS, GASES, AND STEAM

4.51 DARCY RATIONAL RELATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE VAPORS AND GASES

4.52 VELOCITY OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS IN PIPE

4.53 ALTERNATE SOLUTION TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW PROBLEMS

4.54 PROCEDURE

4.55 FRICTION DROP FOR COMPRESSIBLE NATURAL GAS IN LONG PIPE LINES

4.56 PANHANDLE-A GAS FLOW FORMULA [4]

4.57 MODIFIED PANHANDLE FLOW FORMULA [26]

4.58 AMERICAN GAS ASSOCIATION (AGA) DRY GAS METHOD

4.59 COMPLEX PIPE SYSTEMS HANDLING NATURAL (OR SIMILAR) GAS

4.60 TWO-PHASE LIQUID AND GAS FLOW IN PROCESS PIPING

4.61 FLOW PATTERNS

4.62 FLOW REGIMES

4.63 PRESSURE DROP

4.64 EROSION-CORROSION

4.65 TOTAL SYSTEM PRESSURE DROP

4.66 PIPE SIZING RULES

Chapter 5: PUMPING OF LIQUIDS

5.1 PUMP DESIGN STANDARDIZATION

5.2 BASIC PARTS OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

5.3 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION

5.4 HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

Liquid Heads

5.5 SUCTION HEAD OR SUCTION LIFT, hs

5.6 DISCHARGE HEAD, hd

5.7 VELOCITY HEAD

5.8 FRICTION

5.9 NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH) AND PUMP SUCTION

5.10 SPECIFIC SPEED

5.11 ROTATIVE SPEED

5.12 PUMPING SYSTEMS AND PERFORMANCE

5.13 POWER REQUIREMENTS FOR PUMPING THROUGH PROCESS LINES

5.14 AFFINITY LAWS

Illustrating Static, Pressure, and Friction Effects

5.15 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP EFFICIENCY

5.16 EFFECTS OF VISCOSITY

5.17 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SPECIFICATIONS

5.18 ROTARY PUMPS

5.19 RECIPROCATING PUMPS

5.20 SELECTION RULES-OF-THUMB

Chapter 6: MECHANICAL SEPARATIONS

6.1 PARTICLE SIZE

6.2 PRELIMINARY SEPARATOR SELECTION

6.3 GUIDE TO DUST SEPARATOR APPLICATIONS

6.4 GUIDE TO LIQUID–SOLID PARTICLE SEPARATORS

6.5 GRAVITY SETTLERS

6.6 TERMINAL VELOCITY

6.7 ALTERNATE TERMINAL VELOCITY CALCULATION

6.8 AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE’S OIL FIELD SEPARATORS

6.9 MODIFIED METHOD OF HAPPEL AND JORDAN [22]

6.10 DECANTER [25]

6.11 IMPINGEMENT SEPARATORS

6.12 CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

Chapter 7: MIXING OF LIQUIDS

7.1 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS

7.2 IMPELLERS

7.3 EQUIPMENT FOR AGITATION

7.4 FLOW PATTERNS

7.5 FLOW VISUALIZATION

7.6 MIXING CONCEPTS, THEORY, FUNDAMENTALS

7.7 FLOW

7.8 POWER

7.9 SCALE OF AGITATION, SA

7.10 MIXING TIME CORRELATION

7.11 SHAFT

7.12 DRIVE AND GEARS

7.13 STEADY BEARINGS

7.14 DRAFT TUBES

7.15 ENTRAINMENT

7.16 BATCH OR CONTINUOUS MIXING

7.17 BAFFLES

7.18 BLENDING

7.19 EMULSIONS

7.20 EXTRACTION

7.21 GAS–LIQUID CONTACTING

7.22 GAS–LIQUID MIXING OR DISPERSION

7.23 HEAT TRANSFER: COILS IN TANK, LIQUID AGITATED

7.24 EFFECTS OF VISCOSITY ON PROCESS FLUID HEAT TRANSFER FILM COEFFICIENT

7.25 HEAT TRANSFER AREA

7.26 IN-LINE, STATIC, OR MOTIONLESS MIXING

Chapter 8: EJECTORS AND MECHANICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS

8.1 EJECTORS

8.2 VACUUM SAFETY

8.3 TYPICAL RANGE PERFORMANCE OF VACUUM PRODUCERS

8.4 FEATURES

8.5 TYPES

8.6 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

8.7 VACUUM RANGE GUIDE

8.8 PRESSURE TERMINOLOGY

8.9 PRESSURE DROP AT LOW ABSOLUTE PRESSURES

8.10 PERFORMANCE FACTORS

8.11 TYPES OF LOADS

Actual Capacity for Process Vapor Plus Non-Condensables

70°F Air Equivalent for Air-Water Vapor Mixture

8.12 LOAD VARIATION

8.13 STEAM AND WATER REQUIREMENTS

8.14 EJECTOR SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

8.15 EJECTOR SELECTION PROCEDURE

8.16 WATER JET EJECTORS

8.17 STEAM JET THERMOCOMPRESSORS

8.18 EJECTOR CONTROL

8.19 TIME REQUIRED FOR SYSTEM EVACUATION

8.20 ALTERNATE PUMPDOWN TO A VACUUM USING A MECHANICAL PUMP

8.21 EVALUATION WITH STEAM JETS

8.22 MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

8.23 LIQUID RING VACUUM PUMPS/COMPRESSOR

8.24 ROTARY VANE VACUUM PUMPS

8.25 ROTARY BLOWERS OR ROTARY LOBE-TYPE BLOWERS

8.26 ROTARY PISTON PUMPS

NOMENCLATURE

Chapter 9: PROCESS SAFETY AND PRESSURE-RELIEVING DEVICES

9.1 TYPES OF POSITIVE PRESSURE-RELIEVING DEVICES (SEE MANUFACTURERS’ CATALOGS FOR DESIGN DETAILS)

9.2 TYPES OF VALVES/RELIEF DEVICES

9.3 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

9.4 GENERAL CODE REQUIREMENTS [1]

9.5 RELIEF MECHANISMS

9.6 PRESSURE SETTINGS AND DESIGN BASIS

9.7 UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSELS ONLY, BUT NOT FIRED OR UNFIRED STEAM BOILERS

9.8 RELIEVING CAPACITY OF COMBINATIONS OF SAFETY RELIEF VALVES AND RUPTURE DISKS OR NON-RECLOSURE DEVICES (REFERENCE ASME CODE, PAR. UG-127, U-132).

9.9 ESTABLISHING RELIEVING OR SET PRESSURES

9.10 SELECTION AND APPLICATION

9.11 CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION FOR PROCESS OPERATION (NON-FIRE)

9.12 SELECTION FEATURES: SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES, AND RUPTURE DISKS

9.13 CALCULATIONS OF RELIEVING AREAS: SAFETY AND RELIEF VALVES

9.14 STANDARD PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVES–RELIEF AREA DISCHARGE OPENINGS

9.15 SIZING SAFETY RELIEF TYPE DEVICES FOR REQUIRED FLOW AREA AT TIME OF RELIEF*

9.16 EFFECTS OF TWO-PHASE VAPOR-LIQUID MIXTURE ON RELIEF VALVE CAPACITY

9.17 SIZING FOR GASES, VAPORS, OR LIQUIDS FOR CONVENTIONAL VALVES WITH CONSTANT BACK PRESSURE ONLY

9.18 ORIFICE AREA CALCULATIONS [42]

9.19 SIZING VALVES FOR LIQUID RELIEF: PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVES REQUIRING CAPACITY CERTIFICATION [5D]

9.20 SIZING VALVES FOR LIQUID RELIEF: PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVES NOT REQUIRING CAPACITY CERTIFICATION [5D]

9.21 REACTION FORCES

9.22 CALCULATIONS OF ORIFICE FLOW AREA USING PRESSURE RELIEVING BALANCED BELLOWS VALVES, WITH VARIABLE OR CONSTANT BACK PRESSURE

9.23 SIZING VALVES FOR LIQUID EXPANSION (HYDRAULIC EXPANSION OF LIQUID FILLED SYSTEMS/EQUIPMENT/PIPING)

9.24 SIZING VALVES FOR SUBCRITICAL FLOW: GAS OR VAPOR BUT NOT STEAM [5D]

9.25 EMERGENCY PRESSURE RELIEF: FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS RUPTURE DISKS

9.26 EXTERNAL FIRES

9.27 SET PRESSURES FOR EXTERNAL FIRES

9.28 HEAT ABSORBED

9.29 SURFACE AREA EXPOSED TO FIRE

9.30 RELIEF CAPACITY FOR FIRE EXPOSURE

9.31 CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERNAL FIRE CONDITIONS

9.32 DESIGN PROCEDURE

9.33 PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE ORIFICE AREAS ON VESSELS CONTAINING ONLY GAS, UNWETTED SURFACE

9.34 RUPTURE DISK SIZING DESIGN AND SPECIFICATION

9.35 SPECIFICATIONS TO MANUFACTURER

9.36 SIZE SELECTION

9.37 CALCULATION OF RELIEVING AREAS: RUPTURE DISKS FOR NON-EXPLOSIVE SERVICE

9.38 THE MANUFACTURING RANGE (MR)

9.39 SELECTION OF BURST PRESSURE FOR DISK, Pb (TABLE 9-3)

9.40 EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON DISK

9.41 RUPTURE DISK ASSEMBLY PRESSURE DROP

9.42 GASES AND VAPORS: RUPTURE DISKS [5a, PAR, 4.8]

9.43 API FOR SUBSONIC FLOW: GAS OR VAPOR (NOT STEAM)

9.44 LIQUIDS: RUPTURE DISK

9.45 SIZING FOR COMBINATION OF RUPTURE DISK AND PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE IN SERIES COMBINATION

9.46 PRESSURE-VACUUM RELIEF FOR LOW PRESSURE STORAGE TANKS

9.47 BASIC VENTING FOR LOW PRESSURE STORAGE VESSELS

9.141 STUDY CO-ORDINATION

9.142 HAZOP OF A BATCH PROCESS

9.143 LIMITATIONS OF HAZOP STUDIES

9.144 HAZARD ANALYSIS (HAZAN)

9.145 FAULT TREE ANALYSIS

9.146 INHERENTLY SAFER PLANT DESIGN

9.89 PREVENTING, MITIGATING, AND PROTECTION AGAINST DUST EXPLOSIONS

9.90 PREVENTIVE EXPLOSION PROTECTION

9.91 EXPLOSION SUPPRESSION

9.92 UNCONFINED VAPOR CLOUD EXPLOSIONS (UVCE)

9.93 EFFECTS OF VENTING DUCTS

9.94 MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN VENTS

9.95 RUNAWAY REACTIONS: DIERS

9.96 HAZARD EVALUATION IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES

9.97 HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES

9.98 EXOTHERMS

9.99 ACCUMULATION

9.100 THERMAL RUNAWAY CHEMICAL REACTION HAZARDS

9.101 HEAT CONSUMED HEATING THE VESSEL: THE φ-FACTOR

9.102 ONSET TEMPERATURE

9.103 TIME-TO-MAXIMUM RATE

9.104 MAXIMUM REACTION TEMPERATURE

9.105 VENT SIZING PACKAGE

9.106 VENT SIZING PACKAGE 2™(VSP2™)

9.107 ADVANCED REACTIVE SYSTEM SCREENING TOOL

9.108 TWO-PHASE FLOW RELIEF SIZING FOR RUNAWAY REACTION

9.109 RUNAWAY REACTIONS

9.110 VAPOR-PRESSURE SYSTEMS

9.111 GASSY SYSTEMS

9.112 HYBRID SYSTEMS

9.113 SIMPLIFIED NOMOGRAPH METHOD

9.114 VENT SIZING METHODS

9.115 VAPOR-PRESSURE SYSTEMS

9.116 FAUSKE’S METHOD

9.117 GASSY SYSTEMS

9.118 HOMOGENEOUS TWO-PHASE VENTING UNTIL DISENGAGEMENT

9.119 TWO-PHASE FLOW THROUGH AN ORIFICE

9.120 CONDITIONS OF USE

9.121 DISCHARGE SYSTEM

9.122 SAFE DISCHARGE

9.123 DIRECT DISCHARGE TO THE ATMOSPHERE

9.124 DIERS FINAL REPORTS

9.125 FLARES/FLARE STACKS

9.126 FLARES

9.127 SIZING

9.128 FLAME LENGTH [5C]

9.129 FLAME DISTORTION [5C] CAUSED BY WIND VELOCITY

9.130 FLARE STACK HEIGHT

9.131 PURGING OF FLARE STACKS AND VESSELS/PIPING

9.132 STATIC ELECTRICITY

9.133 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW FOR DISCHARGE PIPING

9.134 DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW FOR DISCHARGE PIPING

9.135 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR Z

9.136 DISCHARGE LINE SIZING

9.137 VENT PIPING

9.138 DISCHARGE REACTIVE FORCE

9.139 A RAPID SOLUTION FOR SIZING DEPRESSURING LINES [5C]

9.140 HAZARD AND OPERABILITY (HAZOP) STUDIES

9.48 NON-REFRIGERATED ABOVE GROUND TANKS; API-STD-2000

9.49 CORRECTIONS TO EXPRESS MISCELLANEOUS LIQUIDS VENTING IN TERMS OF FREE AIR (14.7 PSIA AND 60°F)

9.50 EMERGENCY VENT EQUIPMENT

9.51 REFRIGERATED ABOVE GROUND AND BELOW GROUND TANKS [48]

9.52 NORMAL CONDITIONS

9.53 EMERGENCY VENTING FOR FIRE EXPOSURE

9.54 FLAME ARRESTORS

9.55 PILOT-OPERATED VENT VALUES

9.56 EXPLOSIONS

9.57 FLAMMABILITY

9.58 TERMINOLOGY

9.59 MIXTURES OF FLAMMABLE GASES

9.60 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

9.61 IGNITION OF FLAMMABLE MIXTURES

9.62 AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS

9.63 BLAST PRESSURES

9.64 TRI-NITRO TOLUENE (TNT) EQUIVALENCE FOR EXPLOSIONS

9.65 PRESSURE PILING

9.66 BLAST SCALING

9.67 EXPLOSION VENTING FOR GASES/VAPORS (NOT DUSTS)

9.68 BLEVES (BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSIONS)

9.69 LIQUID MIST EXPLOSIONS

9.70 RELIEF SIZING: EXPLOSIONS OF GASES AND VAPORS

9.71 VENT OR RELIEF AREA CALCULATION [10] FOR VENTING OF DEFLAGRATIONS IN LOW-STRENGTH ENCLOSURES

9.72 HIGH-STRENGTH ENCLOSURES FOR DEFLAGRATIONS

9.73 DETERMINATION OF RELIEF AREAS FOR DEFLAGRATIONS OF GASES/VAPORS/MISTS IN HIGH-STRENGTH ENCLOSURES

9.74 DUST EXPLOSIONS

9.75 DUST EXPLOSION CHARACTERISTICS

9.76 EVALUATING THE HAZARD

9.77 SIZING OF VENTS METHODS

9.78 THE VDI NOMOGRAPH METHODS

Use of the Dust Nomographs

9.79 THE ST GROUP NOMOGRAPH METHOD

9.80 REGRESSION ANALYSIS FROM THE KST NOMOGRAPHS

9.81 EQUATIONS TO REPRESENT THE NOMOGRAPHS

9.82 THE VENT RATIO METHOD

9.83 EXTRAPOLATION/INTERPOLATION OF DUST NOMOGRAPHS

9.84 VENTING OF BINS, SILOS, AND HOPPERS

9.85 SIZING GUIDELINES (SEE [30] FOR DETAILS)

9.86 SECONDARY DUST EXPLOSIONS IN BUILDINGS

9.87 DUST CLOUDS

9.88 DUST EXPLOSION SEVERITY

Appendix A: A LIST OF ENGINEERING PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS AND PROCESS DATA SHEETS

A-1 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS USING VISIO 2002 SOFTWARE

A-2 PROCESS DATA SHEETS

Appendix B

ETHICS IN ENGINEERING PROFESSION

RULES OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT

Appendix C: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND GASES

TABLES OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND GASES

Appendix D

D-1 Alphabetical Conversion Factors

D-2 Physical Property Conversion Factors

D-3 Synchronous Speeds

D-4 Conversion Factors

D-5 Temperature Conversion

D-6 Altitude and Atmospheric Pressures

D-7 Vapor Pressure Curves. (Courtesy Ingersoll-Rand Co.)

D-8 Pressure Conversion Chart

D-9 Vacuum Conversion

D-10 Dacimal and millimeter Equivalent of Fractions

D-11 Particle Size Measurement

D-12 Viscosity Conversions. (by permission, Tube Turns Div., Chemetron Corp., Bull. TT 725.)

D-13 Viscosity Conversions. (Courtesy Kinney Vacuum Div., The New York Air Brake Co.)

D-14 Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data (Based on ANSI B36.10 wall thicknesses)

D-15 Stainless Steel Pipe Data (Based on ANSI B36.19 wall thicknesses)

D-16 Properties of Pipe

D-16 Equation of Pipes

D-18 Circumferences and Area of Circles (Advancing of eights)

D-17 Capacities of Cylinders and Spheres

D-20 Tank Capacities, Horizontal Cylindrical Contents of Tanks with Flat Ends When Filled to Various Depths

D-21 Tank Capacities, Horizontal Cylindrical Contents of Standards Dished Heads When Filled to Various Depths

D-22 Miscellaneous Formulas (Courtesy of Chicago Bridge and iron Co.)

D-23 Decimal Equivalent in Inches, Feet and Millimeters

D-24 (by permission of Buffalo Tank Div., Bethlehem Steel Corp.)

D-25 Wind Chill Equivalent Temperatures on Exposed Flesh at Varying Velocity

D-26 Impurities in Water

D-27 Water Analysis Conversions for Units Employed: Equivalents

D-28 Parts Per Million to Grains Per U.S. Gallon

D-29 Formulas, Molecular and Equivalent Weights, and Conversion Factors to CaCO3 of Substances Frequently Appearing in the Chemistry of Water Softening

D-30 Grains Per U.S. Gallons – Pounds Per 1000 Gallons

D-31 Parts Per Million – Pounds Per 1000 Gallons

D-32 Coagulant, Acid, and Sulfate–1 ppm Equivalents

D-33 Alkali and Lime – 1 ppm Equivalents

D-34 Sulfuric, Hydrochloric Acid Equivalent

D-35

Appendix E

E.1 FITTING EQUATIONS TO DATA

E.2 LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS

E.3 POLYNOMIAL REGRESSION

E.4 MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS

E.5 SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS USING THE MATRIX METHODS

E.6 SOLVING SIMULTANEOUS NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS IN EXCEL USING SOLVER

E.7 GAUSS-SEIDEL ITERATIVE METHOD

NOMENCLATURE

Appendix F

F.1 MICROSOFT EXCEL SOLVER FOR NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

F.2 SOLVING EQUATIONS USING GOAL SEEK IN EXCEL

Appendix G: ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES

G.1 USEFUL INTEGRALS

G.2 LIEBNITZ’S RULE–HIGHER DERIVATIVES OF PRODUCTS

G.3 DEFINITION OF A DERIVATIVE

G.4 PRODUCT RULE

G.5 QUOTIENT RULE

G.6 EXPONENTIAL/LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS

G.7 TAYLOR’S AND MACLAURIN’S SERIES

G.8 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

G.9 LINEAR EQUATIONS

EXAMPLE

G.10 EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

G.11 HOMOGENEOUS SECOND ORDER LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS

G.12 TABLE OF LAPLACE TRANSFORM

G.13 CUBIC EQUATIONS

Appendix G: NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES

H.1 SIMPSON’S RULE FOR AREA UNDER THE CURVE

H.2 NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

SOLUTION OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS

H.3 SOLUTION OF SIMULTANEOUS, FIRST-ORDER, ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

H.4 EXTENSION OF RUNGE-KUTTA METHODS

H.5 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

H.6 THE EXPLICIT METHOD

H.7 INITIAL VALUE METHODS

H.8 FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD FOR ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS

Appendix I: SCREENSHOT GUIDE TO ABSOFT COMPILER GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

Index

Details

No. of pages:
1024
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Gulf Professional Publishing 2007
Published:
Imprint:
Gulf Professional Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780080469706
Hardcover ISBN:
9780750677660

About the Author

A. Kayode Coker

A. Kayode Coker, Ph.D., is an engineering Coordinator at Saudi Aramco Shell Refinery Company, in Jubail, Saudi Arabia and is a consultant for AKC Technology in the UK. Prior to this he was Chairman of the Chemical and Process Engineering Department at Jubail Industrial College. He has also been a chartered scientist and a chartered chemical engineer for over 30 years. Coker is a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers. UK, (C.Eng, CSci, FIChemE) and a senior member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). He holds a B.Sc. honors degree in Chemical Engineering, a Master of Science degree in Process Analysis and Development, and a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering, all from Aston University, Birmingham, UK. He also has a Teachers’ Certificate in Education from the University of London, UK. He has directed and conducted short courses in both the UK and for SABIC industries in Saudi Arabia. His articles have been published in several international journals, he is an author of four books in chemical engineering and a contributor to the Encyclopaedia of Chemical Processing and Design, Vol. 61. Coker was named as one of the International Biographical Centre's Leading Engineers of the World 2008.

Affiliations and Expertise

Engineering Coordinator, Saudi Aramco Shell Refinery Company, Saudi Arabia