Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780750685245, 9780080942421

Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants

4th Edition

Authors: A. Kayode Coker
eBook ISBN: 9780080942421
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750685245
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 29th November 2014
Page Count: 1296
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The fourth edition of Ludwig’s Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume Three is a core reference for chemical, plant, and process engineers and provides an unrivalled reference on methods, process fundamentals, and supporting design data.

New to this edition are expanded chapters on heat transfer plus additional chapters focused on the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers and air coolers. Heat tracer requirements for pipelines and heat loss from insulated pipelines are covered in this new edition, along with batch heating and cooling of process fluids, process integration, and industrial reactors. The book also looks at the troubleshooting of process equipment and corrosion and metallurgy.

Key Features

  • Assists engineers in rapidly analyzing problems and finding effective design methods and mechanical specifications
  • Definitive guide to the selection and design of various equipment types, including heat exchanger sizing and compressor sizing, with established design codes
  • Batch heating and cooling of process fluids supported by Excel programs


Process Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Petrochemical Engineers

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Preface to the Fourth Edition
  • Biography
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 15. Heat Transfer
    • Types of Heat Transfer Equipment Terminology
    • Details of Exchange Equipment
    • Tube Vibration
    • Nozzle Connections to Shell and Heads
    • Types of Heat Exchange Operations
    • Temperature Difference: Two Fluid Transfer
    • Temperature for Fluid Properties Evaluation – Caloric Temperature
    • Pressure Drop, Δp
    • Heat Balance
    • Transfer Area
    • Fouling of Tube Surface
    • Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Plain or Bare Tubes
    • Approximate Values for Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients
    • Film Coefficients with Fluids Outside Tubes Forced Convection
    • Design and Rating of Heat Exchangers
    • Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers
    • Spiral Heat Exchangers
    • Miscellaneous Special Application Heat Transfer Equipment
    • Heat Loss for Bare Process Pipe
    • Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
    • Rating Method for Air-Cooled Exchangers
    • Two-Phase Flow Patterns
    • Modes of Condensation
    • Boiling and Vaporization
    • Heat Transfer in Jacketed, Agitated Vessels/Kettles
    • Falling Film Liquid Flow in Tubes
    • Batch Heating and Cooling of Fluids
    • Heat Exchanger Design With Computers
    • Maintenance of Heat Exchangers
    • General Symptoms in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
    • Case Studies of Heat Exchangers Explosion Hazards Incidents
  • Chapter 16. Process Integration and Heat Exchanger Networks
    • Introduction
    • Heat Recovery Problem Identification
    • Energy Targets
    • The Heat Recovery Pinch and Its Significance
    • A Targeting Procedure: The Problem Table Algorithm
    • The Grand Composite Curve
    • Placing Utilities Using the Grand Composite Curve
    • Stream Matching at the Pinch
    • The Pinch Design Approach to Inventing a Network
    • Heat Exchanger Network Design (HEN)
    • Design for Threshold Problems
    • Heat Exchanger Area Targets
    • HEN Simplification
    • Number of Shells Target
    • Implications for HEN Design
    • Capital Cost Targets
    • Energy Targeting
    • Supertargeting or ΔTmin Optimization
    • Summary: New Heat Exchanger Network Design
    • Targeting and Design for Constrained Matches
    • Targeting by Linear Programming
    • Heat Engines and Heat Pumps for Optimum Integration
    • Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer In Process Integration
    • Total Site Analysis
    • Applications of Process Integration
    • Pitfalls in Process Integration
    • Conclusions
    • Industrial Applications, Case Studies and Examples
    • Glossary of Terms
    • Summary and Heuristics
    • Nomenclature
  • Chapter 17. Refrigeration Systems
    • Capacity of Refrigerator
    • The Carnot Refrigeration Cycle
    • Performance of a Carnot Refrigerator
    • Mechanical Refrigeration
    • Types of Refrigeration Systems
    • Terminology
    • Selection of a Refrigeration System for a Given Temperature Level and Heat Load
    • System Pressure Drop
    • Absorption Refrigeration
    • Mechanical Refrigeration
    • Process Performance
    • System Performance Comparison
    • Hydrocarbon Refrigerants
    • Refrigeration Stages
    • Hydrocarbon Mixtures and Refrigerants
    • Generalized Comments Regarding Refrigerants
    • System Design and Selection
    • Receiver
    • Economizers
    • Suction Gas Superheat
    • Cascade Systems
    • Compound Compression System
    • Comparison of Effect of System Cycle and Expansion Valves on Required Horsepower
    • Cryogenics
    • Simulation of a Propane Refrigeration Loop
    • Using Hysys Simulation Software Package
    • Glossary of Terms
    • Nomenclature
  • Chapter 18. Compression Equipment (Including Fans)
    • General Application Guide
    • Specification Guides
    • General Considerations for Any Type of Compressor Flow Conditions
    • Reciprocating Compression
    • Compressor Performance Characteristics
    • Solution of Compression Problems Using Mollier Diagrams
    • Cylinder Unloading
    • Air Compressor Selection
    • Energy Flow
    • Constant-T System
    • Polytropic System
    • Constant S System
    • Centrifugal Compressors
    • Compressor Equations in SI Units
    • Multicomponent Gas Streams
    • Treatment of Compressor Fluids
    • Centrifugal Compressor Performance in Process System
    • Expansion Turbines
    • Axial Compressor
    • Liquid Ring Compressors
    • Rotary Two-Impeller (Lobe) Blowers and Vacuum Pumps
    • Rotary Axial Screw Blower and Vacuum Pumps
    • Rotary Sliding Vane Compressor
    • Oil-Flooded Screw Compressors
    • Integrally Geared Compressors
    • Other Process-Related Compressors
    • Advances in Compressor Technology
    • Troubleshooting of Centrifugal and Reciprocating Compressors
    • Fans
    • Blowers and Exhausters
    • Nomenclature
    • Greek Symbols
    • Subscripts
  • Chapter 19. Reciprocating Compression Surge Drums
    • Pulsation Dampener or Surge Drum
    • Common Design Terminology
    • Applications
    • Internal Details
    • Design Method – Surge Drums (Nonacoustic)
    • Single-Compression Cylinder
    • Parallel Multicylinder Arrangement Using Common Surge Drum
    • Pipe Sizes for Surge Drum Systems
    • Frequency of Pulsations
    • Compressor Suction and Discharge Drums
    • Design Method – Modified NACA Method for the Design of Suction and Discharge Drums
    • Pipe Resonance
    • Mechanical Considerations: Drums/Bottles and Piping
    • Nomenclature
    • Greek
    • Subscripts
  • Chapter 20. Mechanical Drivers
    • Electric Motors
    • Mechanical Drive Steam Turbines
    • Gas and Gas-Diesel Engines
    • Combustion Gas Turbine
    • Nomenclature
  • Chapter 21. Industrial and Laboratory Reactors – Chemical Reaction Hazards and Process Integration of Reactors
    • Introduction
    • Batch Isothermal Perfectly Stirred Reactor
    • Semi-batch Reactors
    • Continuous Flow Isothermal Perfectly Stirred Tank Reactor
    • Continuous Isothermal Plug Flow (Tubular) Reactor
    • Continuous Multiphase Reactors
    • Fluidized Bed System
    • Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit
    • Deep Catalytic Cracking Unit
    • Bubble Column Reactor
    • Agitator Types for Different Reaction Systems
    • Catalysts and Catalytic Processes
    • Determining Laboratory Reactors
    • Recirculating Reactors
    • Guidelines for Selecting Batch Processes
    • Heat Transfer in Reactors
    • Chemical Reaction Hazardous Incidents
    • Chemical Reactivity Worksheet (CRW)
    • Protective Measures for Runaway Reactions
    • Safety in Emergency Relief Systems
    • Process Hazard Analysis (PHA)
    • Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)
    • Hazard Analysis (HAZAN)
    • Fault Tree Analysis
    • Key Findings by US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB)
    • Reactive System Screening Tool (RSST)
    • Energy Balances on Batch Reactors
    • The ϕ Factor Accounting for the Heat Capacities of the Bomb Calorimeter
    • Adiabatic Operation of a Batch Reactor
    • Relief Valve Sizing Calculations
    • Vent Sizing Equations
    • Discharge System
    • Hazardous Pyrophoric Reaction
    • Heat-Integrated Reactors
    • Appropriate Placement of Reactors
    • Reactor Design to Improve Heat Integration
    • Glossary
  • Chapter 22. Metallurgy – Corrosion
    • Introduction
    • Material Selection
    • Embrittlement
    • Environmental Cracking
    • Creep and Creep Rupture Life
    • Martensitic Stainless Steels in Refining and Petroleum Production
    • Corrosion
  • Index


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© Gulf Professional Publishing 2015
Gulf Professional Publishing
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About the Author

A. Kayode Coker

A. Kayode Coker, Ph.D., is an engineering Coordinator at Saudi Aramco Shell Refinery Company, in Jubail, Saudi Arabia and is a consultant for AKC Technology in the UK. Prior to this he was Chairman of the Chemical and Process Engineering Department at Jubail Industrial College. He has also been a chartered scientist and a chartered chemical engineer for over 30 years. Coker is a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers. UK, (C.Eng, CSci, FIChemE) and a senior member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). He holds a B.Sc. honors degree in Chemical Engineering, a Master of Science degree in Process Analysis and Development, and a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering, all from Aston University, Birmingham, UK. He also has a Teachers’ Certificate in Education from the University of London, UK. He has directed and conducted short courses in both the UK and for SABIC industries in Saudi Arabia. His articles have been published in several international journals, he is an author of four books in chemical engineering and a contributor to the Encyclopaedia of Chemical Processing and Design, Vol. 61. Coker was named as one of the International Biographical Centre's Leading Engineers of the World 2008.

Affiliations and Expertise

Engineering Coordinator, Saudi Aramco Shell Refinery Company, Saudi Arabia


"...updated with new methods and contain a wealth of useful data…an excellent job of bringing this book up to date and ensuring that it continues to treat the subject from the perspective of industrial practice...a worthwhile addition to the library of any engineer engaged in process design or plant operations." --Chemical Engineering

"The new version retains the original material...but augments this content...presents excellent discussions of design problems...improves on the original product in quantity as well as quality of information...relevant to today’s engineering needs and requirements." --CEP Magazine

"...a true application-driven book. It provides clarity and easy access to essential process plant data and design information...covers a complete range of basic day to day chemical operation main elements."--tce

"Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume 3, Fourth Edition is a true application-driven book. It provides clarity and easy access to essential process plant data and design information. It actually covers a complete range of basis day to day chemical operation main elements. The biggest part of the book focuses on heat transfer and energy process integration. Practical elements of refrigeration, compressions and mechanical drivers are also presented. Furthermore, it contains an important and interesting chapter on both industrial and laboratory hazards. There is also a short metallurgy and corrosion chapter. The methods and fundamentals of plant design are complemented with supplemental mechanical and related data, charts and heuristics. This fourth edition is significantly expanded and updated, with new topics that ensure readers can analyze problems and find practical design methods and solution to accomplish their process design tasks. The very large overview means that this reference manual can be well-used by both academics and those in industry. This manual is a guide for the engineer in applying chemical processes. This book does not develop or derive theoretical equations; instead, it provides direct application of sound theory to applied equations useful in the immediate design effort. Most of the recommended equations have been used in actual plant equipment design and can be handled by the inexperienced and the experienced engineer. The book can also be used as a classroom text for chemical plant design courses in universities." tce

"This book represents a considerable amount of present-day engineering data and design information that should not only be of extraordinary value to the process chemical engineer looking for excellent information on Unit Operations equipment but also serves as a detailed source of help for process design and equipment specifications." --Art Montemayor, Spring, Texas