Lon Implantation in Semiconductors

Lon Implantation in Semiconductors

Silicon and Germanium

1st Edition - January 28, 1970

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  • Author: James Mayer
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157216

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Ion Implantation in Semiconductors: Silicon and Germanium covers the developments in the major basic aspects in ion implantation in silicon and germanium. These aspects include dopant distribution and location, radiant damage, and electrical characteristics. This book is composed of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the factors affecting the electrical characteristics of implanted layers in silicon and germanium, such as range distributions of dopant species, lattice disorder, and location of dopant species on substitutional and interstitial sites in the lattice. The next chapters examine the basic principles of range distributions of implanted atoms and the problem of lattice disorder and radiation damage, which are vital in most implantation work. These topics are followed by an outline of the so-called channeling effect technique and its application in lattice location determination of implanted atoms. A chapter describes the dopant behavior in the layers where the majority of the implanted atoms are located, emphasizing the use of Hall-effect and sheet-resistivity measurements to determine the carrier concentration and mobility. The final chapter considers the primary characteristics of ion-implanted layers in semiconductors. This chapter also presents several rules of thumb, which allow first approximations to be made. This book is an ideal source for semiconductor specialists, researchers, and manufacturers.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    1. General Features of Ion Implantation

    1.1 Range Distributions

    1.2 Lattice Disorder

    1.3 Lattice Location and Electrical Properties

    1.4 Device Applications

    2. Ranges and Range Distributions of Implanted Atoms

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Experimental Techniques for Range Distributions

    2.2.1 The Radiotracer Method

    2.2.2 The Scattering Method

    2.2.3 Hall-Effect and Conductivity Measurements

    2.2.4 The Junction-Staining Method

    2.2.5 The Capacitance-Voltage Method

    2.3 Range Distributions in Amorphous Targets

    2.3.1 Experimental

    2.3.2 Theoretical Framework

    2.3.3 Correction Factors

    2.3.4 Rp Values—Experiment versus Theory

    2.3.5 Range Straggling

    2.3.6 Average Concentration of Implanted Atoms

    2.3.7 Ranges in Substrates with Oxide Layers

    2.3.8 Variable-Energy Implants

    2.3.9 Proton and Helium Ion Ranges

    2.4 Range Distributions in Single Crystals

    2.4.1 General Principles

    2.4.2 Range Distributions of Channeled Beams

    2.4.3 The Maximum Range Rmax

    2.4.4 Z1 Oscillations in Rmax

    2.4.5 Range Distributions in Silicon

    2.5 Enhanced Diffusion

    2.5.1 Radiation-Enhanced Diffusion

    2.5.2 Interstitial Diffusion

    2.5.3 Enhanced Diffusion during Post bombardment Anneal

    3. Lattice Disorder and Radiation Damage

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Theoretical Considerations

    3.2.1 Energy Available for Displacement Processes

    3.2.2 Average Number of Displaced Atoms

    3.2.3 Spatial Distribution of Displaced Atoms

    3.3 Experimental Techniques

    3.3.1 Optical Effects

    3.3.2 Electron-Diffraction and Electron Microscopy Studies

    3.3.3 X-Ray Transmission Techniques

    3.3.4 Ion Interactions and Electron Emission

    3.3.5 Channeling-Effect Measurements

    3.4 Results and Discussion

    3.4.1 Lattice Disorder Produced at Room Temperature

    3.4.2 Depth Distribution of Lattice Disorder

    3.4.3 Influence of Substrate Temperature on Lattice Disorder

    3.4.4 Anneal Behavior of Lattice Disorder

    3.5 Comparison with Fast-Neutron Irradiation

    3.5.1 Lattice Disorder

    3.5.2 Electrical and Optical Characteristics

    4. The Lattice Location of Implanted Atoms

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 The Channeling Effect Technique

    4.2.1 GeneralPrinciples

    4.2.2 Alignment of Single Crystals

    4.2.3 Backscattering Measurements

    4.2.4 Nuclear-Reaction Techniques

    4.3 Survey of Lattice-Location Experiments

    4.3.1 General Observations

    4.3.2 Summary of Observations

    4.3.3 Simple Picture of the Behavior of Implanted Atoms

    4.4 Lattice-Location Results in More Detail

    4.4.1 Group V Implants in Silicon

    4.4.2 Group III Implants in Silicon

    4.4.3 Implantation of Other Ion Species

    4.4.4 Implantations into Germanium

    4.4.5 Mixed Group III and Group V Implantations in Silicon and Germanium

    4.4.6 Postbombardment of Implanted Samples

    4.5 Discussion of Factors Influencing Lattice Location

    4.5.1 General Model

    4.5.2 Implantation Reactions

    4.5.3 Charge-State Effects

    5. Hall-Effect and Sheet-Resistivity Measurements in Silicon

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Interpretation of Hall-Effect Measurements

    5.3 Carrier Mobilities and Dopant Ionization Energies

    5.4 Anneal Characteristics

    5.4.1 General Considerations

    5.4.2 Temperature Zones in Anneal Characteristics

    5.4.3 Interstitial Components

    5.4.4 Influence of Implantation Temperature

    5.4.5 Influence of Channeling

    5.5 Diffusion Effects

    5.6 Limitations on Electrical Behavior

    5.7 Analysis of Unconventional Dopant Species

    6. Device Considerations and Applications

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Properties of Doped Layers Produced by Ion Implantation

    6.3 Applications to Planar Structures

    6.3.1 Discussion of Planar Processing

    6.3.2 Application of Ion-Implantation Doping to the Planar Process

    6.3.3 Gate-Masked Ion-Implanted MOSFET

    6.3.4 Application of the Gate-Masked Ion-Implantation MOS Technique to Integrated Circuits and Large-Scale Arrays

    6.3.5 Further Application of Ion-Implantation Techniques to the MOSFET

    6.3.6 Bipolar Transistors

    6.3.7 Applications of Ion-Implantation Doping to the Planar Integrated-Circuit Technology

    6.4 Application of Ion Implantation to Nonplanar-Process Devices

    6.4.1 Point-Contact Diodes

    6.4.2 Hyperabrupt Controlled Capacitance-Voltage Diodes

    6.4.3 p-n Junction IMPATT Diodes

    6.4.4 Semiconductor Nuclear-Particle Detectors

    6.5 Analysis of Ion-Implantation Device Applications

    6.6 Conclusion

    Appendix Channeling Behavior of Low-Z, MeV Particles in Diamond-Type Lattices

    A.1 General

    A.2 Experimental

    A.3 Theory

    A.4 Comparison between Experiment and Theory


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 296
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1970
  • Published: January 28, 1970
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323157216

About the Author

James Mayer

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