Liver Regeneration - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124201286, 9780128004319

Liver Regeneration

1st Edition

Basic Mechanisms, Relevant Models and Clinical Applications

Editors: Udayan M. Apte
eBook ISBN: 9780128004319
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124201286
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 17th August 2015
Page Count: 326
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Description

Liver Regeneration: Basic Mechanisms, Relevant Models and Clinical Applications presents cutting-edge information on liver regeneration research through an integrated, systems-wide perspective. The book addresses discoveries on hepatic progenitor cells, liver regeneration after chemical damage, and liver regeneration as a prime therapy for liver failure and disease.

By addressing the urgent need for translating basic research findings into clinically relevant modalities and potential therapeutic applications, the book provides the data needed to improve liver patient management.

Hundreds of full-color, graphic photographs and illustrations underline key elements and show researchers and students important aspects of liver transplantation, immunofluorescence, and other techniques used in liver regeneration.

Key Features

  • Summarizes current liver regeneration studies and discussions on expected discoveries
  • Provides an overview of standard scientific and cutting-edge technologies to study liver regeneration
  • Presents details on the molecular mechanisms that affect liver regeneration
  • Highly illustrated, with hundreds of full-color, graphic photographs and illustrations to enhance the learning process

Readership

Researchers in the area of liver biology

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • I: Introduction
    • Chapter 1: Liver Regeneration: An Introduction
      • Abstract
      • 1.1 History
      • 1.2 Models of Liver Regeneration
      • 1.3 Mechanisms of Liver Regeneration
      • 1.4 Regeneration Using Progenitor Cells
      • 1.5 Mitogen-Induced Hepatocyte Proliferation
      • 1.6 Frontiers
  • II: Methods to Assess Liver Regeneration
    • Chapter 2: Models to Study Liver Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Main Models
      • 2.3 Alternate Models of Liver Growth
      • 2.4 Models to Study HPCs
      • 2.5 Assays Used to Assess Liver Regeneration
      • 2.6 Additional Methods
    • Chapter 3: Liver Regeneration in Zebrafish
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 The Therapeutic Impact of Zebrafish Research
      • 3.3 Adult Liver Anatomy and Physiology
      • 3.4 Liver Regeneration Following Partial Hepatectomy
      • 3.5 Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity
      • 3.6 Genetic Hepatocyte Ablation
      • 3.7 Summary
  • III: Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Regeneration
    • Chapter 4: The Priming and Progression Theory of Liver Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 4.1 Overview of Studies of Liver Regeneration
      • 4.2 Salient Features of Liver Regeneration Prior to 1970
      • 4.3 Identifying Hepatomitogens in the 1970s-1980s
      • 4.4 1990s: Development of the Priming and Progression Model, with a Focus on Inflammatory Stimuli During Regeneration
      • 4.5 Priming Alone Versus Priming and Progression: 1/3 Versus 2/3 Hepatectomy
      • 4.6 Controversies Regarding the Importance of Priming in Regeneration
      • 4.7 Recent Insight into Cell-Cycle “Competency”
      • 4.8 The Role of NPCs in Priming and Progression
      • 4.9 Future Directions
    • Chapter 5: Extracellular Signals Involved in Liver Regeneration: Direct and Auxiliary Mitogens
      • Abstract
      • 5.1 Hepatocyte Growth Assay
      • 5.2 Complete Versus Auxiliary Mitogens
      • 5.3 Complete or Direct Mitogens
      • 5.4 Auxiliary Mitogens
      • 5.5 TNFα
      • 5.6 IL6
      • 5.7 Norepinephrine
      • 5.8 Insulin
      • 5.9 Summary
    • Chapter 6: Developmental Pathways in Liver Regeneration-I
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling
      • 6.3 Notch Signaling
      • 6.4 Hippo Signaling
      • 6.5 NF-κB Signaling
      • 6.6 Conclusions
    • Chapter 7: Mechanisms of Termination of Liver Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 Transforming Growth Factor β
      • 7.3 Extracellular Matrix and Integrin-Linked Kinase
      • 7.4 Glypican-3
      • 7.5 Activin
      • 7.6 C/EBPα
      • 7.7 Cyclin E1 and E2
      • 7.8 Nuclear Receptors
      • 7.9 Hippo/Yap Signaling Pathway
      • 7.10 MicroRNAs 34a and 23b
      • 7.11 Conclusions
    • Chapter 8: Role of CXC Chemokines in Liver Repair and Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Clinical Scenarios and Their Analogous Injury Models
      • 8.3 General Principles of Liver Regeneration
      • 8.4 Chemokines and Their Receptors
      • 8.5 Roles for CXC Chemokines in Liver Regeneration
      • 8.6 CXC Chemokines and Hepatocyte Exosomes
      • 8.7 Conclusion
    • Chapter 9: Bile Acid Receptors and Liver Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Metabolic Signals and Liver Regeneration
      • 9.3 BA Signaling and Liver Regeneration
      • 9.4 FXR and Liver Regeneration
      • 9.5 Intestine-FXR and Liver Regeneration
      • 9.6 TGR5 and Liver Regeneration
      • 9.7 FXR and HCC Development
      • 9.8 Conclusions and Perspective
    • Chapter 10: Role of Developmental Morphogens in Liver Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Overview of the Hedgehog Pathway
      • 10.3 Hedgehog Pathway After Partial Hepatectomy—Feeding Prometheus’ Liver
      • 10.4 Regenerating the Sick Liver
      • 10.5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 11: Regulation of Cell Cycle During Liver Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Rb and E2F1
      • 11.3 Cyclin D-Cdk4/Cdk6
      • 11.4 Cyclin E-Cdk2
      • 11.5 Cyclin A
      • 11.6 Cyclin B
      • 11.7 Cdk1
      • 11.8 Cell-Cycle Inhibitors
      • 11.9 Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 12: Changes in Hepatocyte Ploidy During Liver Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Polyploidy in the Liver
      • 12.3 Genetic Diversity in the Liver
      • 12.4 An Integrated Model for Polyploidy, Ploidy Reversal, and Aneuploidy in the Liver
      • 12.5 Conclusion
    • Chapter 13: Computational Modeling as an Approach to Study the Cellular and Molecular Regulatory Networks Driving Liver Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Extended Computational Model of Liver Regeneration Including Cell Growth
      • 13.3 Modes of Regeneration Identified by Sampling Computational Model Parameter Space
      • 13.4 Dynamic Regulation of the Regenerating Liver Revealed Using Sensitivity Analyses
      • 13.5 Model Limitations, Future Directions, and Experimental Insights
      • 13.6 Conclusions
    • Chapter 14: Mitogen-Induced Cell Proliferation and Cancer Promotion in the Liver
      • Abstract
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Cancer Promotion
      • 14.3 Cytokine-Activating Mitogens
      • 14.4 Drug-Induced Hyperplasia
      • 14.5 PPAR-Induced Proliferation
      • 14.6 CAR-Induced Proliferation
      • 14.7 THR-Induced Proliferation
      • 14.8 Minor Proliferative Responses Induced by Nuclear Receptors
      • 14.9 Human Proliferative Responses
      • 14.10 Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: Metabolic Regulation of Liver Regeneration
      • Abstract
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 The Metabolic Response to Hepatic Insufficiency
      • 15.3 Evidence for the Metabolic Regulation of Liver Regeneration
      • 15.4 Candidate Mechanisms Linking Metabolism to Regeneration
      • 15.5 Clinical Implications
      • 15.6 Summary and Conclusions
    • Chapter 16: Liver Regeneration: The Biliary Perspective
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Characteristics of Biliary Regeneration
      • 16.3 Conclusions and Human Perspectives
  • IV: Role of Hepatic Progenitor Cells in Liver Regeneration
    • Chapter 17: Introduction to Hepatic Progenitor Cells
      • Abstract
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Animal Models
      • 17.3 Origins
      • 17.4 Characteristics
      • 17.5 Molecular Signaling Factors Involved in Oval Cells-Mediated Liver Regeneration
      • 17.6 Hepatic Progenitor Cell Activation and Associated with Liver Fibrosis During Chronic Liver Disease
    • Chapter 18: Hepatocyte to Biliary Transdifferentiation: To Be(come) or Not to Be(come)?
      • Abstract
      • 18.1 What is Transdifferentiation?
      • 18.2 Transdifferentiation in the Liver
      • 18.3 When Does Transdifferentiation Occur?
      • 18.4 Evidence for HBT in Human Disease
      • 18.5 Animal Models for Studying HBT
      • 18.6 What are the Different Sources of the New Biliary Cells?
      • 18.7 Which Hepatocytes in the Liver Transdifferentiate into Biliary Cells?
      • 18.8 What is the Extent of HBT?
      • 18.9 Mechanisms, Drivers, and Signaling for HBT
      • 18.10 Progenitor Cell Derived or HBT?
      • 18.11 Impact of HBT in Liver Disease and Therapy
      • 18.12 Future Direction
    • Chapter 19: Hepatocyte-Like Cells Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Pluripotent Stem Cells for Disease Modeling and Regenerative Medicine
      • 19.3 Generating iPSCs
      • 19.4 Differentiation of iPSs into Hepatocyte-Like Cells (iHep)
      • 19.5 Use of iHeps as Cellular Models of Liver Diseases and in Liver Repopulation
      • 19.6 iHeps for Transplantation
      • 19.7 Summary
    • Chapter 20: Hepatic Progenitor Cell Transplantation: Relevant Models and Mechanisms
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 20.1 Overview
      • 20.2 Liver Repopulation by Transplanted Hepatocytes
      • 20.3 Special Animal Models to Augment Repopulate the Liver by Transplanted Hepatocytes
      • 20.4 Liver Repopulation by Endogenous Hepatic Progenitor Cells
      • 20.5 Transplantation of Hepatic Epithelial Progenitor Cells
      • 20.6 Liver Repopulation with Epithelial Progenitor Cells from the Fetal Liver
      • 20.7 Liver Repopulation by Epithelial Progenitor Cells from Human Fetal Liver
      • 20.8 Liver Repopulation by Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
      • 20.9 Future Perspective
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
326
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128004319
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124201286

About the Editor

Udayan M. Apte

Udayan M. Apte

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, The University of Kansas Medical Center