Liver Pathophysiology

Liver Pathophysiology

Therapies and Antioxidants

1st Edition - March 2, 2017

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  • Editor: Pablo Muriel
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128042748
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128043219

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Liver Pathophysiology: Therapies and Antioxidants is a complete volume on morphology, physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology and treatment of liver diseases. It uses an integral approach towards the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of hepatic injury, and how their deleterious effects may be abrogated by the use of antioxidants. Written by the most prominent authors in the field, this book will be of use to basic and clinical scientists and clinicians working in the biological sciences, especially those dedicated to the study and treatment of liver pathologies.

Key Features

  • Presents the most recent advances in hepatology, with a special focus on the role of oxidative stress in liver injury.
  • Provides in vivo and in vitro models to study human liver pathology.
  • Explains the beneficial effects of antioxidants on liver diseases.
  • Contains the most recent and modern treatments of hepatic pathologies, including, but not limited to, stem cells repopulation, gene therapy and liver transplantation.


Basic and clinical scientists and clinicians working in the biological sciences, especially those dedicated to the study and treatment of liver diseases

Table of Contents

  • Section I. Introduction

    Chapter 1. The Liver: General Aspects and Epidemiology

    • Abbreviated History of Hepatology
    • Liver Anatomy and Physiology
    • Liver Cells
    • Liver Zonation Allows Functional Plasticity
    • Global Liver Epidemiology

    Chapter 2. Structure and Ultrastructure of the Normal and Diseased Liver

    • Introduction
    • Normal Liver Cell Types
    • Pathology of the Diseased Liver
    • Concluding Remarks

    Section II. Liver Pathophysiology

    Chapter 3. Hepatic Apoptosis and Necrosis: Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance

    • Introduction of Hepatic Injury
    • Apoptosis and Necrosis
    • Mechanism of Liver Injury and Disease Relevance
    • Therapeutic Strategies for Liver Injury
    • Summary

    Chapter 4. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    • Selection and Presentation of Indigenous Foreign Antigens
    • Breaking Immune Tolerance of Self-Antigens
    • Neoantigens and Epitope Spread
    • Implicated Self-Antigens
    • Cell Mediators of Liver Injury
    • Molecular Mechanisms of Immune-Mediated Liver Injury
    • Overview

    Chapter 5. Pathogenesis of Idiosyncratic Drug Induced Liver Injury

    • Epidemiology of Idiosyncratic Drug Induced Liver Injury
    • Factors Contributing to the Development of Idiosyncratic Drug Induced Liver Injury
    • Individual Host Factors
    • Expression and Polymorphisms of Hepatocyte Transporters
    • Adaptive Immune System
    • Genetic Variations and Polymorphisms in Human Leukocyte Antigen
    • Defective Adaptation
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 6. Acetaminophen

    • Introduction
    • Acetaminophen Metabolism
    • Mitochondrial Protein Adducts and Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity
    • Mitochondrial Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress
    • Amplification of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress: Role of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase
    • Mitochondrial Permeability Transition and DNA Damage
    • Mode of Hepatocyte Cell Death After Acetaminophen Toxicity
    • Sterile Inflammation and Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity
    • Clinical Biomarkers in Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity

    Chapter 7. Liver Regeneration

    • Introduction
    • Normal Turnover (Homeostasis) of the Liver
    • Liver Regeneration After Partial Hepatectomy
    • Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Regeneration After Partial Hepatectomy
    • Liver Regeneration After Different Models of Hepatic Injury
    • Nomenclature and Niche of Hepatic Progenitor Cells
    • Hepatic Progenitor Cells Activation in Human Liver Diseases
    • Oval Cells/Hepatic Progenitor Cells Contribution to Liver Regeneration
    • Signaling Pathways Regulating Hepatic Progenitor Cells Activation and Differentiation
    • TWEAK/Fn14 Signaling
    • Fibroblast Growth Factor 7
    • Stromal-Cell–Derived Factor 1
    • Hedgehog Signaling
    • Wnt and Notch Signaling
    • Contribution of Bone Marrow Cells to Liver Regeneration

    Chapter 8. Nitric Oxide in Liver Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury

    • Introduction
    • Mechanisms of Liver Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury
    • Mechanisms of Nitric Oxide on Liver Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury
    • Potential Therapeutic Effect of Nitric Oxide on Liver Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury
    • Summary

    Chapter 9. The Immune System and Viral Hepatitis

    • Introduction
    • Immune Response and Viral Hepatitis
    • Immune Response to Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus
    • Immune Response to Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis B Virus
    • Lipid Metabolism and Hepatitis C Virus: Immune Control
    • Heme Metabolism and Immune Modulation During Viral Hepatitis
    • Final Remarks

    Chapter 10. The Pathophysiology of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    • Highlights
    • Introduction
    • Steatosis
    • Oxidative Stress
    • Inflammasomes
    • Macrophages
    • Neutrophilic Infiltration of the Liver
    • Role of Complement in Alcoholic Hepatitis Pathogenesis
    • Role of Hypoxia
    • The Effect of Nutrition on Alcoholic Liver Disease
    • Epigenetic Changes in Gene Expression in Alcoholic Liver Disease
    • Histone Acetylation and Methylation in Experimental Alcoholic Liver Disease
    • Microarray Analysis
    • Lipopolysaccharides and Toll-Like Receptor 4 and the Blood Alcohol Cycle
    • Balloon Cell Change and Mallory-Denk Body Formation
    • Cell Cycle Arrest in Alcoholic Hepatitis
    • Liver Fibrosis in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Chapter 11. Cytokines in Steatohepatitis

    • Introduction
    • Tumor Necrosis Factor
    • Interleukins
    • Interferons
    • Conclusive Remarks

    Chapter 12. Redox Signaling in NASH

    • Introduction
    • Characteristics of the Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 13. Amebic Liver Abscess

    • Introduction
    • Prevalence of Amebic Liver Abscess
    • Clinical Manifestations
    • Pathology
    • Experimental Hepatic Amebiasis
    • Humoral Response
    • Cellular Response
    • Diagnosis
    • Chemotherapy
    • Surgical Treatment
    • Vaccination

    Chapter 14. Role of Cytokines and Reactive Oxygen Species in the Amebic Liver Abscess Produced by Entamoeba histolytica

    • Introduction
    • Animal Models of Amebiasis
    • Role of Cytokines in the Amebic Liver Abscess
    • Reactive Oxygen Species in the Pathogenesis of the Amebic Liver Abscess
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 15. Epigenetics in Liver Disease: Involvement of Oxidative Stress

    • Introduction
    • Oxidative Stress, Alcohol, and Epigenetics
    • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 16. Role of Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Hepatic Fibrosis

    • Introduction
    • Oxidative Stress: Concept and Formation
    • Oxidative Stress and Redox Signaling in Liver Fibrosis
    • Nitrosative Stress in Liver Fibrosis
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 17. Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Chronic Cholestasis

    • Introduction
    • Liver Injury
    • Oxidative Stress
    • Nitrosative Stress
    • Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress: An Interplay?
    • Mitochondrial Oxidative Changes
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 18. Cholestasis, Contraceptives, and Free Radicals

    • Cholestasis
    • Liver Effects of Contraceptives: Cholestasis and Oxidative Stress
    • Other Hepatic Effects by Contraceptives
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 19. Is Human Cirrhosis a Reversible Disease?

    • Introduction
    • Chronic Liver Disease
    • Fibrosis and Cirrhosis
    • Fibrosis and Cirrhosis Regression
    • Cirrhotic Hepatitis B
    • Cirrhotic Hepatitis C
    • Alcohol Cirrhosis
    • Reversibility of Fibrosis and Cirrhosis
    • Alcohol Cirrhosis
    • Nonalcoholic Liver Disease and Fibrosis
    • Autoimmune Cirrhosis
    • Antifibrotic Therapy

    Chapter 20. Obesity and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    • Introduction
    • Obesity and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence
    • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence
    • Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Noncirrhotic Liver With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    • Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatocarcinogenesis in Obesity-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Adiponectin and Leptin
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
    • Oxidative Stress
    • Genetic Factor (Patatin-Like Phospholipase Domain–Containing 3)
    • Epigenetic Changes (HDAC8, MicroRNAs)
    • Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Alpha
    • Farnesoid X receptor
    • Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog and P-Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex Pathway
    • Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-6
    • Insulin-Like Growth Factors
    • C-Jun Amino Acid-Terminal Kinases
    • Gut Microbiome
    • Toll-Like Receptor 4
    • Obesity-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prevention and Therapy
    • Exercise
    • Statins
    • Metformin
    • Probiotics
    • Summary
    • Disclosure Statement

    Chapter 21. Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    • Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Oxidative Stress

    Chapter 22. Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Actions During the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    • Introduction
    • Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activation and Function
    • Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activation and Liver Carcinogenesis
    • Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activation During Hepatocarcinogenesis in Animal Models
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 23. The Role of Senescence in Hepatic Diseases

    • Introduction
    • Pathways of Senescence
    • Oxidative Stress and Liver Cell Senescence
    • Hepatic Diseases and Senescence
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 24. Exercise, Liver Steatosis, and Free Radicals

    • The Role of Oxidative Stress in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    • Hepatic Redox Modulation Induced by Acute and Chronic Exercise
    • Exercise Mitigates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Induced Liver Oxidative Stress
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 25. The Metabolic Syndrome, Oxidative Stress, and the Liver

    • Introduction
    • Definition of Metabolic Syndrome
    • Epidemiology of Metabolic Syndrome and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    • Oxidative Stress
    • The Metabolic Syndrome and Oxidative Stress
    • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Insulin Resistance, and Oxidative Stress
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 26. Liver Diseases in the Elderly

    • Changes Found in the Aged Liver
    • Liver Diseases in the Elderly
    • Summary

    Chapter 27. Cytokines in Hepatic Injury

    • Macrophage Heterogeneity, Cytokines, and Liver Injury
    • Cytokines and Basic Liver Pathophysiology
    • Cytokines in Various Hepatic Injuries
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 28. Nrf2: A Key Regulator of Redox Signaling in Liver Diseases

    • Introduction
    • General Principles of Nrf2 Signaling
    • Role of Nrf2 in Liver Diseases
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 29. Redox Regulation by HGF/c-Met in Liver Disease

    • Introduction
    • Hepatocyte Growth Factor/c-Met Redox Regulation and Liver Diseases
    • Conclusion

    Section III. Liver Metabolism

    Chapter 30. Hepatic Metabolism in Liver Health and Disease

    • Introduction
    • Hepatic Carbohydrates Metabolism
    • Hepatic Lipid Metabolism
    • Hepatic Protein Metabolism
    • Hepatic Drug Metabolism

    Chapter 31. Cytochrome P450 and Oxidative Stress in the Liver

    • Introduction
    • Microsomal Mixed Function Oxidase and Cytochrome P450 Metabolism
    • Mixed Function Oxidase Activity
    • CYP2E1-Reactive Oxygen Species and Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury
    • Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 32. Drug Hepatic Clearance in Spinal Cord Injury

    • Background: Clinical and Experimental Observations on Pharmacokinetic Alterations Due to Spinal Cord Injury
    • Effects of Experimental Spinal Cord Injury on Phenacetin and Naproxen Clearance in Rats
    • What Do We Know About Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Changes in Liver Function and Drug Disposition

    Section IV. Cirrhosis and Its Complications

    Chapter 33. Complications of Cirrhosis: Introduction

    • Introduction
    • Complications of Cirrhosis
    • Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 34. Portal Hypertension—Molecular Mechanisms

    • Introduction
    • Physiology of Portal Pressure
    • Pathophysiology of Portal Hypertension
    • Molecular Mechanisms of Portal Hypertension
    • Summary

    Chapter 35. Gastroesophageal Varices

    • Definition and Clinical Significance
    • Pathophysiology of Portosystemic Collateral Circulation
    • Development of Portosystemic Collaterals: Preexistent and De Novo
    • Assessment of Varices
    • Rationale for the Management of Varices
    • Clinical Scenarios for the Treatment of Portal Hypertension

    Chapter 36. Ascites

    • Pathogenesis
    • Pathophysiological Bases for the Treatment of Ascites
    • Management of Cirrhotic Ascites
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 37. Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Species in Hepatic Encephalopathy

    • Introduction
    • Hepatic Encephalopathy
    • Manganese
    • Ammonia
    • Other Pathogenic Mechanisms Generating Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Species in the Brain
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 38. Hepatorenal Syndrome

    • Introduction
    • Pathophisiology of HRS
    • Diagnosis
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Precipitating Factors
    • Treatment of HRS

    Chapter 39. Hepatopulmonary Syndrome and Portopulmonary Hypertension

    • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
    • Portopulmonary Hypertension
    • Summary

    Section V. Methods in Liver Disease

    Chapter 40. Experimental Models of Liver Damage Mediated by Oxidative Stress

    • Introduction
    • Carbon Tetrachloride Is a Useful Model to Induce Acute and Chronic Liver Damage
    • Acetaminophen Intoxication as Model of Acute Liver Injury
    • Models of Cholestasis
    • Ischemia/Reperfusion Liver Injury Models Serve to Improve Liver Transplantation Surgery
    • Concanavalin A Is a Good Model That Mimics Autoimmune Hepatitis
    • Liver Damage Induced by Alcohol in Rats
    • d-Galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharides Induce Liver Damage Through Activating the Immune System
    • Thioacetamide Produces Chronic Liver Injury Through Free Radical Attack to Macromolecules
    • Dimethyl or Diethyl Nitrosamine Produces Necrosis, Fibrosis, and Cancer
    • Dietary Models Used to Acquire a Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Phenotype
    • Gold Thioglucose+High-Fat Diet
    • Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 41. Monitoring of Liver Fibrogenesis and Biochemical Diagnosis of Fibrosis

    • Introduction
    • Current Biomarkers of Hepatic Fibrogenesis
    • Class I Fibrosis Biomarkers
    • Class II Fibrosis Biomarkers
    • Development of Innovative Biomarkers
    • NX-Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 42. In Vitro Models of HCC

    • Introduction
    • General Overview and Traits of a Multistage Malignant Process
    • Cell Models for the Study of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Initiation Stage
    • Cell Models for the Study of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Promotion Stage
    • Cell Models for the Study of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression Stage
    • Comparative Analysis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines
    • Frequency of Use for Research Purposes
    • Pharmacological Studies in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines
    • Studies With Antioxidants
    • Combination of Antioxidants With Different Drugs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines
    • Conclusions

    Section VI. Therapies in Liver Disease

    Chapter 43. The Liver, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants

    • Introduction
    • Oxidative Stress
    • The Overproduction of Free Radicals in Biological Systems
    • Antioxidants
    • Nuclear Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2/Antioxidant Response Element Pathway in Liver Diseases
    • Antioxidants From Natural Sources and Some of Its Hepatoprotective Effects
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 44. Herbal Drugs on the Liver

    • Introduction
    • Plants as Hepatoprotective Agents
    • Polyherbal (Multiingredient) Formulations as Hepatoprotective Agents
    • Problems With Polyherbal Formulations
    • Chemistry of Hepatoprotective Herbal Drugs
    • The Mechanism(s) of Action
    • Active Phytochemicals as Hepatoprotective Agents
    • Development of Hepatoprotective Herbal Drugs

    Chapter 45. Silymarin for Liver Disease

    • The History of Milk Thistle
    • Biochemistry
    • Pharmacokinetics
    • Pharmacological Studies
    • Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease
    • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    • Viral Hepatitis
    • Toxic and Iatrogenic Liver Disease
    • Mushroom Poisoning
    • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 46. Naringenin and the Liver

    • Introduction
    • Knowing Naringenin
    • Pharmacokinetics of Naringenin
    • The Naringenin in Fibrogenic Signaling Pathways
    • Beneficial Effects of Naringenin in Liver Diseases
    • Pharmaceutical Technology of Naringenin
    • Safety and Toxicity of Naringenin
    • Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 47. Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory, and Antifibrotic Properties of Quercetin in the Liver

    • Introduction
    • Structure-Activity Relationship of Quercetin
    • Metal-Chelating Activity of Quercetin
    • Pharmacokinetics of Quercetin
    • Hepatoprotective Effects of Quercetin
    • Quercetin and Inflammation
    • Quercetin in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Pharmaceutical Technology of Quercetin
    • Toxicological Effects
    • Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 48. Coffee and the Liver

    • Introduction
    • Chemical Composition of Coffee
    • Beneficial Effects of Coffee on Liver Disease

    Chapter 49. Hepatoprotective Properties of Curcumin

    • Introduction
    • Antiinflammatory Properties of Curcumin in the Liver
    • Antifibrotic Properties of Curcumin in the Liver
    • Anticancer Properties of Curcumin in the Liver
    • Antiviral Properties of Curcumin in the Liver
    • Antiheavy Metal Properties of Curcumin in the Liver
    • Antisteatosis Properties of Curcumin in the Liver
    • Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 50. Retinoids in Liver Function

    • What Is a Retinoid?
    • Dietary Intake and Intestinal Absorption of Retinoids
    • Cellular Formation of Retinal and Retinoic Acid
    • Hepatic Retinoids and Liver Diseases
    • Effect of Retinoids on Iron Metabolism
    • Effect of Retinoids on Insulin Resistance in Liver
    • Activation of AMPK by Retinoids
    • Identification of the Responsive Genes of All-trans Retinoic Acid
    • Retinoid Metabolism in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Chapter 51. Stevia as a Putative Hepatoprotector

    • Introduction
    • Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 52. Are N-Acetylcysteine and Resveratrol Effective Treatments for Liver Disease?

    • Introduction
    • Overview of NAC and Resveratrol: Chemical Properties and Pharmacokinetic Aspects
    • Pharmacodynamic Properties and Clinical Applications
    • Effects of NAC and Resveratrol in Liver Diseases
    • Side-Effects and Toxicology of NAC and Resveratrol
    • NAC and Resveratrol Formulations
    • Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 53. Does Nutrition Matter in Liver Disease?

    • Introduction
    • Malnutrition as a Consequence of Liver Disease
    • Evaluation of Nutrition Status in Liver Disease
    • Nutritional Treatment of Liver Disorders
    • Conclusion and Perspectives

    Chapter 54. One-Carbon Metabolism in Liver Health and Disease

    • Introduction
    • Hepatic One-Carbon Metabolism
    • S-Adenosylmethionine Treatment in Liver Disease

    Chapter 55. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Liver Diseases

    • History of Ursodeoxycholic Acid
    • Physicochemical Properties and Pharmacokinetics of UDCA
    • Pharmacological Activities of UDCA
    • Mechanisms of UDCA Action
    • Clinical Use and Efficacy of UDCA

    Chapter 56. Current Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C

    • Interferon-Free Treatment Regimens
    • Unresolved Issues
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 57. An Adenosine Derivative Compound as a Hepatoprotective Agent

    • Introduction
    • Concluding Remarks and Perspectives

    Chapter 58. Nitric Oxide and the Liver

    • Introduction
    • Sources and Regulation of NO in the Liver
    • NO Signaling in Liver
    • Pathophysiology
    • Conclusion: NO and the Liver

    Chapter 59. Repopulation of Cirrhotic Liver by Hepatic Stem/Progenitor Cells: A Promising Strategy Alternative to Liver Transplantation

    • Introduction
    • Emergence of Cell Therapy for Liver Diseases
    • Hepatocytes Transplantation
    • Stem Cell–Based Therapy for Liver Cirrhosis
    • Stem Cells Repopulation in Cirrhotic Liver Through Different Routes/Sites
    • Immunobiology of hHSPCs Transplantation
    • Alternative Strategies for the Development of Bioartificial Liver Using hHSPCs Repopulation
    • Stem Cells Imaging and Tracking: From Bench to Bedside
    • Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 60. Gene Therapy for Liver Disease

    • Introduction
    • Mechanisms of Liver-Directed Gene Therapy
    • Delivery Systems for Gene Therapy
    • Viral Vectors
    • Nonviral Vectors
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 61. Role of Oxidative Stress in Liver Transplantation

    • Introduction
    • Role of Oxidative Stress in Ischemia-Reperfusion Associated With Liver Transplantation
    • Strategies to Decrease Oxidative Stress in I/R Associated With Liver Transplantation
    • Future Directions in Researching on Oxidative Stress in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Associated With Liver Transplantation

Product details

  • No. of pages: 914
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2017
  • Published: March 2, 2017
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128042748
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128043219

About the Editor

Pablo Muriel

Pablo Muriel
Dr. Muriel PhD has research experience in the pathophysiology and pharmacology of liver diseases including necrosis, fibrosis and cholestasis; the role of cytokines in liver diseases; and oxidative stress and its relation to liver disease. He has published over 100 articles (original and reviews) in addition to 7 book chapters in the area of the liver and has also directed the thesis on dozens of postgraduate students in the same area over the last 30 years. The majority of his work has been in the Medicine and Pharmacology areas. He shows strong and growing citation counts from 2010-2017.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher and Professor, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico City, Mexico

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  • CarlosCastro B. Wed Oct 10 2018

    Liver Pathophysiology

    Excellent book!

  • Hiroshi F. Mon May 14 2018

    Liver Pathophysiology

    An interesting book consisting of excellent reviews on various topics on liver pathophysiology. Every authors have worked very hard to make their chapters comprehensive and fine. The book surely introduces the readers the evolving science in from basic and clinical standpoint.