Liver Cell Cancer - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444415424, 9781483163888

Liver Cell Cancer

1st Edition

Editors: H.M. Cameron D.A. Linsell G.P. Warwick
eBook ISBN: 9781483163888
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1976
Page Count: 308
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Liver Cell Cancer focuses on liver cell cancer, which is considered one of the most aggressive malignant tumors, and in turn, one of the most intensively studied tumors in man and experimental animals. This book discusses the geographic pathology, alpha-fetoprotein, diagnosis, treatment, and background of liver cell cancer. The clinical problem of liver cell cancer in a high incidence area; primary hepatocellular carcinoma; induction of liver cell cancer by chemicals; cell proliferation and experimental liver cancer; and immunology and pathology of experimental liver cell cancer are also discussed in the chapters. This book aims to provide a ready reference for clinicians for research, present a clear and unambiguous picture to research workers of the problems inherent in the clinical situation, and introduce a reasoned assessment of the findings, both clinical and experimental.

Table of Contents

List of contributors


Chapter 1 The geographic pathology of liver cell cancer

1.1 The global pattern of liver cell cancer

1.2 Nomenclature and classification

1.3 Descriptive epidemiology — ratio studies

1.4 Incidence studies

1.4.1 Liver cell cancer in Africa

1.4.2 Liver cell cancer in South East Asia

1.4.3 Areas of low frequency of liver cell cancer

1.4.4 Liver cell cancer in migrants

1.5 The influence of sex and age on the incidence of liver cell cancer

1.6 Time trends

1.7 Associated diseases and their geography

1.7.1 Parasites and bile duct cancer

1.7.2 Cirrhosis and liver cancer

1.7.3 Other suspected etiological factors

Chapter 2 The pathology of liver cell cancer

2.1 Gross pathology

2.1.1 Regional variations

2.2 Microscopic pathology

2.2.1 Grading

2.3 Differential diagnosis

2.3.1 Dysplasia

2.3.2 Carcinoma of bile duct (cholangiocarcinoma)

2.3.3 Adenoma and nodular hyperplasia

2.3.4 Mesenchymal hamartoma

2.3.5 Hepatoblastoma

2.3.6 Metastatic tumor

2.4 Ultrastructure

2.5 Spread of tumor

2.6 Association of liver cell cancer with other diseases

2.6.1 Cirrhosis

2.6.2 Hemochromatosis

2.6.3 Peptic ulceration

2.6.4 Diabetes mellitus

2.7 Association of liver cell cancer with hormonal abnormalities (the 'ectopic hormone syndromes')

2.7.1 Erythrocytosis

2.7.2 Hypoglycemia

2.7.3 Hypercalcemia

2.7.4 Carcinoid syndrome

2.7.5 Gonadotrophins

2.8 Course and mode of death

Chapter 3 The clinical problem of liver cell cancer in a high incidence area

3.1 Age

3.2 Sex

3.3 Clinical features

3.4 Laboratory investigations

3.4.1 Liver biopsy

3.4.2 Alpha-fetoprotein

3.5 Special investigations

3.5.1 Radiology

3.5.2 Scintigraphy

3.5.3 Diagnostic ultrasound

3.5.4 Laparoscopy

3.6 Differential diagnosis

3.7 Management

Chapter 4 Alpha-fetoprotein and the diagnosis of liver cell cancer

4.1 The Physiology of alpha-fetoprotein

4.1.1 Embryo-specific proteins

4.1.2 Embryonic physiology of alpha-fetoprotein

4.1.3 The sites of synthesis of alpha-fetoprotein in the embryo

4.1.4 The isolation and properties of alpha-fetoprotein

4.1.5 Assay of alpha-fetoprotein

4.1.6 Function of alpha-fetoprotein

4.1.7 The occurrence of alpha-fetoprotein in normal adults

4.2 The significance of raised alpha-fetoprotein levels

4.2.1 Alpha-fetoprotein-positivity rates in established liver cell cancer

4.2.2 Alpha-fetoprotein levels in relation to established liver cell cancer cases

4.2.3 Correlations with treatment and tumor growth rates

4.2.4 The detection of alpha-fetoprotein in liver cell cancer cases

4.2.5 Alpha-fetoprotein in other neoplastic diseases

4.2.6 Alpha-fetoprotein levels in non-neoplastic diseases

4.3 Surveys for liver cell cancer detection

4.3.1 Southern African surveys

4.3.2 Surveys in other parts of Africa

4.3.3 Survey in China

Chapter 5 The treatment of liver cell cancer

5.1 Surgery: hepatic resection

5.2 Hepatic arterial catheterization

5.3 Radiotherapy: external irradiation

5.4 Radiotherapy and chemotherapy

5.5 Placebo

5.6 Cytostatics

5.6.1 Alkylating agents

5.6.2 Antimetabolites

5.6.3 Antitumor antibiotics

5.6.4 Diverse agents

5.6.5 Chemotherapy combinations

5.7 Hope for the future

Chapter 6 The background to liver cell cancer

6.1 The background to liver cell cancer

6.2 Race, sex and genetics

6.3 Malnutrition

6.4 Liver disease of the alcoholic

6.5 Iron overload

6.6 Parasites

6.7 Naturally occurring carcinogens

6.8 Drugs and chemicals

6.9 Viral hepatitis

Chapter 7 The induction of liver cell cancer by chemicals

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Naturally occurring liver carcinogens

7.2.1 Aflatoxins

7.2.2 Other mycotoxins

7.2.3 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

7.2.4 Cycasin

7.2.5 Other plant carcinogens

7.3 Synthetic liver carcinogens

7.3.1 Nitrosamines and nitrosamides

7.3.2 Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Chapter 8 Cell proliferation and experimental liver cancer

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Relation between hepatocyte proliferation and sensitivity to carcinogens in normal adult animals

8.3 Experiments with young animals

8.4 Stimulation of DNA synthesis and cell replication by carcinogens

8.4.1 Initial effects

8.4.2 Later effects

8.5 Stimulation of liver cell replication in relation to sensitivity to carcinogens

8.5.1 Replication of hepatocytes induced by partial hepatectomy

8.5.2 Replication of hepatocytes induced by acute chemical injury

8.5.3 Replication induced in liver cell cultures

8.6 Studies of the mechanisms by which cell proliferation influences carcinogenesis

8.6.1 Effects of cell replication on the metabolism of carcinogens

8.6.2 Effects of cell replication of the reactions of carcinogens with macromolecules

8.6.3 The effect of carcinogens on processes of cell replication

8.6.4 Possible explanation of the role of cell replication in hepatocarcinogenesis

8.7 Significance of the increased sensitivity of replicating cells to carcinogens

Chapter 9 Immunology of experimental liver cell cancer

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Tumor-associated rejection antigens

9.2.1 Identification

9.2.2 Expression and immunogenicity

9.3 Tumor-specific cell surface antigens

9.4 Tumor-associated embryonic antigens

9.4.1 α-Fetoprotein

9.4.2 Cell surface-expressed embryonic antigens

9.4.3 Tumor-associated embryonic antigens on rat hepatic neoplasms

9.5 Neoantigens associated with cells transformed in vitro by chemical carcinogens

9.6 'Abnormal' tumor antigens

9.7 Biochemical characterization of tumor-associated neoantigens

9.7.1 Aminoazo dye-induced rat hepatic tumors

9.7.2 Neoantigens associated with DENA-induced guinea-pig hepatic tumors

9.8 Conclusions and perspectives

9.8.1 Neoantigen expression

9.8.2 Immune responses in the tumor-bearing host

Chapter 10 The pathology of experimental liver cell cancer

10.1 Introduction

10.2 The initiation process

10.2.1 Interaction of carcinogens with cell organelles — acute liver injury

10.2.2 Interference with cell proliferation

10.3 The pathology of liver cell cancer

10.3.1 Classification: gross and microscopic pathology

10.3.2 Organizational pattern of hepatocytes

10.3.3 Expression of fetal and other genetic information

10.3.4 Origin of liver cell cancer

10.3.5 Chromosomal composition

10.3.6 Uniqueness of each cancer

10.3.7 Transplantation

10.3.8 Species differences

10.4 The pathology of liver carcinogenesis

10.4.1 Ductular cell proliferation

10.4.2 Changes in original hepatocytes

10.4.3 New liver cell populations — nodular hyperplasia, precursors and progeny

10.4.4 Common cellular alterations in hepatocarcinogenesis

10.4.5 Which changes are intimately involved in transformation to liver cancer?

10.4.6 What new important biological properties do cells acquire during liver carcinogenesis?

10.5 Some general considerations

10.5.1 Cirrhosis and liver cancer

10.5.2 Other modulating factors

10.5.3 Somatic mutation and altered differentiation

Chapter 11 Primary hepatocellular carcinoma — a résumé

Subject index


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© Elsevier 1976
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

H.M. Cameron

D.A. Linsell

G.P. Warwick