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Lithography for VLSI - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122341168, 9781483217826

Lithography for VLSI, Volume 16

1st Edition

VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science

Editors: Norman G. Einspruch R. K. Watts
eBook ISBN: 9781483217826
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 2nd September 1987
Page Count: 374
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1 Optical Lithography

I. Introduction

II. Optical Resists

III. Contact and Proximity Printing

IV. Projection Printing


Chapter 2 Lumped Parameter Model for Optical Lithography

I. Introduction

II. Background

III. Lumped Parameter Model

IV. Comparison with Experimental Data

V. Summary

Appendix A: Image Intensity Distribution

Appendix B: Theory and Mathematics of the Lumped Parameter Model


Chapter 3 The Evolution of Electron-Beam Pattern Generators for Integrated Circuit Masks at AT&T Bell Laboratories

I. Introduction

II. Integrated Circuit Masks

III. A New System: EBES4

IV. Overall System Description

V. Conclusions


Chapter 4 Electron Resist Process Modeling

I. Introduction

II. Electron-Beam Exposure Modeling

III. Electron Resist Development Modeling

IV. Electron Resist Profile Modeling

V. Conclusions


Chapter 5 Ion-Beam Lithography

I. Introduction

II. Processing with Ion Beams

III. Ion-Substrate Interactions

IV. Ion-Beam Lithography Systems and Instrumentation

V. Problems and Limitations in Ion-Beam Lithography

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 6 Alignment Techniques in Optical and X-Ray Lithography

I. Introduction

II. Review of Optical Principles

III. Methods of Alignment

IV. Measurement of Aligned Wafers

V. Summary


Chapter 7 Metrology in Microlithography

I. Introduction

II. Accuracy and Precision

III. Imaging in the Optical Microscope

IV. Imaging in the Scanning Electron Microscope

V. Dimensional Metrology

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 8 Electrical Measurements for Characterizing Lithography

I. Introduction

II. Lithographic Systems

III. Electrical Measurement

IV. Imagery Characterization

V. Overlay Characterization

VI. Conclusion

Appendix A




VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 16: Lithography for VLSI treats special topics from each branch of lithography, and also contains general discussion of some lithographic methods. This volume contains 8 chapters that discuss the various aspects of lithography. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to optical lithography. Chapter 3 covers electron lithography in general, and Chapter 4 discusses electron resist exposure modeling. Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of ion-beam lithography. Mask/wafer alignment for x-ray proximity printing and for optical lithography is tackled in Chapter 6. Chapters 7 and 8 on metrology deal with the characterization of lithography by measurements of various types. Engineers, scientists, and technical managers in the semiconductor industry, and engineering and applied physics faculty and graduate students will find the text very useful.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1987
2nd September 1987
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

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About the Editors

Norman G. Einspruch

R. K. Watts