Lithography for VLSI

Lithography for VLSI

VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science

1st Edition - September 2, 1987

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  • Editors: Norman G. Einspruch, R. K. Watts
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483217826

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Description

VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 16: Lithography for VLSI treats special topics from each branch of lithography, and also contains general discussion of some lithographic methods. This volume contains 8 chapters that discuss the various aspects of lithography. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to optical lithography. Chapter 3 covers electron lithography in general, and Chapter 4 discusses electron resist exposure modeling. Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of ion-beam lithography. Mask/wafer alignment for x-ray proximity printing and for optical lithography is tackled in Chapter 6. Chapters 7 and 8 on metrology deal with the characterization of lithography by measurements of various types. Engineers, scientists, and technical managers in the semiconductor industry, and engineering and applied physics faculty and graduate students will find the text very useful.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Chapter 1 Optical Lithography

    I. Introduction

    II. Optical Resists

    III. Contact and Proximity Printing

    IV. Projection Printing

    References

    Chapter 2 Lumped Parameter Model for Optical Lithography

    I. Introduction

    II. Background

    III. Lumped Parameter Model

    IV. Comparison with Experimental Data

    V. Summary

    Appendix A: Image Intensity Distribution

    Appendix B: Theory and Mathematics of the Lumped Parameter Model

    References

    Chapter 3 The Evolution of Electron-Beam Pattern Generators for Integrated Circuit Masks at AT&T Bell Laboratories

    I. Introduction

    II. Integrated Circuit Masks

    III. A New System: EBES4

    IV. Overall System Description

    V. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4 Electron Resist Process Modeling

    I. Introduction

    II. Electron-Beam Exposure Modeling

    III. Electron Resist Development Modeling

    IV. Electron Resist Profile Modeling

    V. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5 Ion-Beam Lithography

    I. Introduction

    II. Processing with Ion Beams

    III. Ion-Substrate Interactions

    IV. Ion-Beam Lithography Systems and Instrumentation

    V. Problems and Limitations in Ion-Beam Lithography

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 6 Alignment Techniques in Optical and X-Ray Lithography

    I. Introduction

    II. Review of Optical Principles

    III. Methods of Alignment

    IV. Measurement of Aligned Wafers

    V. Summary

    References

    Chapter 7 Metrology in Microlithography

    I. Introduction

    II. Accuracy and Precision

    III. Imaging in the Optical Microscope

    IV. Imaging in the Scanning Electron Microscope

    V. Dimensional Metrology

    VI. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 8 Electrical Measurements for Characterizing Lithography

    I. Introduction

    II. Lithographic Systems

    III. Electrical Measurement

    IV. Imagery Characterization

    V. Overlay Characterization

    VI. Conclusion

    Appendix A

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 374
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1987
  • Published: September 2, 1987
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483217826

About the Editors

Norman G. Einspruch

R. K. Watts

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