Inductively coupled plasma atomic or mass spectrometry is one of the most common techniques for elemental analysis. Samples to be analyzed are usually in the form of solutions and need to be introduced into the plasma by means of a sample introduction system, so as to obtain a mist of very fine droplets. Because the sample introduction system can be a limiting factor in the analytical performance, it is crucial to optimize its design and its use. It is the purpose of this book to provide fundamental knowledge along with practical instructions to obtain the best out of the technique.

Key Features

- Fundamental as well as practical character - Troubleshooting section - Flow charts with optimum systems to be used for a given application


Practitioners, researchers, instrumentation company engineers

Table of Contents

1. History-Introduction 2. Specifications of a sample introduction system to be used with an ICP 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Physical properties of a plasma 2.3 Energy delivered by the plasma 2.4 Carrier gas flow rate and droplet velocity 2.5 Desolvation and vaporization 2.6 Plasma loading 2.7 Organic solvents 2.8 Ideal aerosol 2.9 Chemical resistance 2.10 Other constraints in sample introduction systems 3. Nebulizers. Pneumatic designs. 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Mechanisms involved in pneumatic aerosol generation 3.2.1 Wave generation 3.2.2 Wave growing and break – up 3.2.3 Need for a supersonic gas velocity 3.2.4 Main pneumatic nebulizer designs used in ICP spectrometry 3.2.5 Sample delivery 3.3 Pneumatic concentric nebulizers 3.3.1 Principle 3.3.2 Different designs 3.3.3 Possibility of free liquid uptake rate 3.3.4 Critical dimensions 3.3.5 Renebulization 3.3.6 Nebulizer tip blocking 3.3.7 Aerosol drop characteristics Influence of the gas and delivery rates on drop size distribution Spatial distribution and velocity 3.4 Cross flow nebulizers 3.5 High solids nebulizers 3.6 Parallel path nebulizer 3.6.1 Principle 3.6.2 Critical dimensions 3.7 Comparison of the different conventional pneumatic nebulizers 3.8 Pneumatic micronebulizers 3.8.1 High Efficiency Nebulizer (HEN) 3.8.2 Microconcentric Nebulizer (MCN) 3.8.3 MicroMist nebulizer (MMN) 3.8.4 PFA micronebulizer (PFAN) 3.8.5 Demountable concentric micronebul


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© 2008
Elsevier Science
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