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Liquid Acquisition Devices for Advanced In-Space Cryogenic Propulsion Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128039892, 9780128039908

Liquid Acquisition Devices for Advanced In-Space Cryogenic Propulsion Systems

1st Edition

Author: Jason William Hartwig
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128039892
eBook ISBN: 9780128039908
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 21st November 2015
Page Count: 488
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Liquid Acquisition Devices for Advanced In-Space Cryogenic Propulsion Systems discusses the importance of reliable cryogenic systems, a pivotal part of everything from engine propulsion to fuel deposits. As some of the most efficient systems involve advanced cryogenic fluid management systems that present challenging issues, the book tackles issues such as the difficulty in obtaining data, the lack of quality data and models, and the complexity in trying to model these systems.

The book presents models and experimental data based on rare and hard-to-obtain cryogenic data. Through clear descriptions of practical data and models, readers will explore the development of robust and flexible liquid acquisition devices (LAD) through component-level and full-scale ground experiments, as well as analytical tools.

This book presents new and rare experimental data, as well as analytical models, in a fundamental area to the aerospace and space-flight communities. With this data, the reader can consider new and improved ways to design, analyze, and build expensive flight systems.

Key Features

  • Presents a definitive reference for design ideas, analysis tools, and performance data on cryogenic liquid acquisition devices
  • Provides historical perspectives to present fundamental design models and performance data, which are applied to two practical examples throughout the book
  • Describes a series of models to optimize liquid acquisition device performance, which are confirmed through a variety of parametric component level tests
  • Includes video clips of experiments on a companion website


Industry/government and academic researchers in aerospace, mechanical, or chemical engineering (more specific applications to professionals specializing in surface chemistry, transport phenomena, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat and mass transfer)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 The Flexible Path
1.2 Fundamental Cryogenic Fluids
1.3 Motivation for Cryogenic Propulsion Technology Development
1.4 Existing Challenges with Cryogenic Propellants
1.5 Cryogenic Fluid Management Subsystems
1.6 Future Cryogenic Fluid Management Applications

Chapter 2: Background and Historical Review
2.1 Propellant Management Device Purpose
2.2 Other Types of Propellant Management Devices
2.3 Vanes
2.4 Sponges
2.5 Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Devices
2.6 Propellant Management Device Combinations
2.7 NASA’s Current Needs

Chapter 3: Influential Factors and Physics-Based Modeling of Liquid Acquisition Devices
3.1 1-g One Dimensional Simplified Pressure Drop Model
3.2 The Room Temperature Bubble Point Pressure
3.3 Hydrostatic Pressure Drop
3.4 Flow-through-Screen Pressure Drop
3.5 Frictional and Dynamic Pressure Drop
3.6 Wicking Rate
3.7 Screen Compliance
3.8 Material Compatibility
3.9 The Room Temperature Reseal Pressure Model
3.10 Pressurant Gas Type
3.11 Concluding Remarks and Implications for Cryogenic Propulsion Systems

Chapter 4: Room Temperature Liquid Acquisition Device Performance Experiments
4.1 Pure Fluid Tests
4.2 Binary Mixture Tests
4.3 Reseal Pressure Tests
4.4 Wicking Rate Tests
4.5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 5: Parametric Analysis on the Liquid Hydrogen and Nitrogen Bubble Point Pressure
5.1 Test Purpose and Motivation
5.2 Experimental Design
5.3 Experimental Methodology
5.4 Experimental Results and Discussion
5.5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 6: High Pressure Liquid Oxygen Bubble Point Experiments
6.1 Test Purpose and Motivation
6.2 Experimental Design
6.3 Experimental Methodology
6.4 Experimental Results and Discussion
6.5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 7: High Pressure Liquid Methane Bubble Point Experiments
7.1 Test Purpose and Motivation
7.2 Experimental Design
7.3 Experimental Results and Discussion
7.4 Thermal Analysis
7.5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 8: Warm Pressurant Gas Effects on the Static Bubble Point Pressure for Cryogenic Liquid Acquisition Devices
8.1 Test Purpose and Motivation
8.2 Design Modifications
8.3 Experimental Methodology
8.4 Test Matrix
8.5 Warm Pressurant Gas Liquid Hydrogen Experiments
8.6 Warm Pressurant Gas Liquid Nitrogen Experiments
8.7 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 9: Full Scale Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen
9.1 Test Purpose and Motivation
9.2 Test Plan
9.3 Facility and Test Article
9.4 Horizontal Liquid Acquisition Device Tests
9.5 Flow-Through-Screen Tests
9.6 1-g Inverted Vertical Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests
9.7 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 10: The Bubble Point Pressure Model for Cryogenic Propellants
10.1 Current Model Limitations
10.2 Summary of Data
10.3 Room Temperature Pore Diameter Model
10.4 Temperature Dependent Pore Diameter and Pressurant Gas Model
10.5 Liquid Subcooling Model
10.6 Warm Pressurant Gas Model
10.7 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 11: The Reseal Pressure Model for Cryogenic Propellants
11.1 Current Model Limitations
11.2 Summary of Data
11.3 Room Temperature Reseal Diameter Model
11.4 Temperature Dependent Reseal Diameter Model
11.5 Liquid Subcooling Model
11.6 Warm Pressurant Gas Model
11.7 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 12: Analytical Model for Steady Flow through a Porous Liquid Acquisition Device Channel
12.1 One Dimensional Pressure Drop Model Drawbacks
12.2 Evolution of the Solution Method
12.3 Analytical Model Formulation
12.4 Model Results, Sensitivities, and Comparison to One Dimensional Model
12.5 Dynamic Bubble Point Model
12.6 Convective Cooling of the Liquid Acquisition Device Screen
12.7 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 13: Optimal Liquid Acquisition Device Screen Weave for a Liquid Hydrogen Fuel Depot
13.1 Background and Mission Requirements
13.2 Bubble Point Pressure and Flow-through-Screen Pressure Drop
13.3 Critical Mass Flux
13.4 Minimum Bubble Point
13.5 Minimum Screen Area
13.6 Other Considerations
13.7 Channel Number and Size
13.8 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 14: Optimal Propellant Management Device for a Small Scale Liquid Hydrogen Propellant Tank
14.1 Background and Mission Requirements
14.2 Analytical Screen Channel Flow Model in Microgravity
14.3 Analytical Vane Model in Microgravity
14.4 Trade Study Variables
14.5 Trade Study Results
14.6 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 15: Conclusions
15.1 Summary
15.2 Future Work

Appendix A Historical Depot Demonstration Missions
Appendix B Summary of Previously Reported Bubble Point Data
Appendix C Langmuir Isotherm for the Liquid/Vapor Case
Appendix D Langmuir Isotherms for the Solid/Liquid and Solid/Vapor Case
Appendix E Historical Heated Pressurant Gas Liquid Acquisition Device Tests
Appendix F Previously Reported Porous Channel Solutions
Appendix G Summary of Cryogenic Screen Channel LAD Design Tools


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© Academic Press 2015
21st November 2015
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Jason William Hartwig

Dr. Jason Hartwig is a research aerospace engineer in the Propellants and Propulsion branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH and is the lead technologist for cryogenic propellant transfer for the Agency. Jason has a BS in Physics, an MS in Mechanical Engineering, and a Doctorate in Aerospace Engineering from Case Western Reserve University. He’s been the PI on multiple cryogenic propulsion test programs at Glenn (CFM, PCAD, CPST, eCryo). Jason has 10 years of experience in the areas of cryogenic engineering, laser diagnostics, combustion, and propulsion. Jason’s areas of expertise include design analysis and testing of cryogenic propellant management devices, line and tank chill and fill techniques, two phase cryogenic flow boiling and fluid mechanics, tank pressurization systems, and passive multi-layer insulation systems. Dr. Hartwig is also actively involved at NASA and Case in training and mentoring students through various programs.

Affiliations and Expertise

Propellants and Propulsion, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

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