Lipids: Structure and Function - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126754049, 9781483220345

Lipids: Structure and Function

1st Edition

The Biochemistry of Plants

Editors: P. K. Stumpf
eBook ISBN: 9781483220345
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th September 1980
Page Count: 710
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The Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume 4: Lipids: Structure and Function provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of plant lipid biochemistry. This book covers a variety of topics, including oxidative enzymes, glyoxylate cycle, lipoxygenases, ethylene biosynthesis, phospholipids, and carotenoids.

Organized into 19 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the different techniques for use in the analysis of plant lipids. This text then outlines the concepts of membrane lipid structure and discusses the relationship between membrane lipid structure and function. Other chapters consider the role that lipid structure plays in regulating physiological function. This book discusses as well the biochemical mechanism by which the double bond is introduced in the biosynthesis of ethylene. The final chapter deals with the results of studies on the biosynthesis of cyclopropanoid, cyclopropenoid, and cyclopentenyl fatty acids in higher plants.

This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists, neurobiochemists, molecular biologists, senior graduate students, and research workers.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

General Preface

Preface to Volume 4

1 Plant Acyl Lipids: Structure, Distribution, and Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Plant Fatty Acids

III. Complex Acyl Lipids

IV. Distribution of Acyl Lipids

V. Age-Related Changes in the Lipid Composition of Plant Tissues

VI. Methods for Lipid Analysis


2 Membrane Lipids: Structure and Function

I. Introduction

II. Membrane Structure

III. Lipid Dependency of Purified Membrane Proteins

IV. Temperature Effects on Lipid Structure and Membrane Function

V. Membrane Structure and Phytochrome Action

VI. Conclusions


3 Degradation of Acyl Lipids: Hydrolytic and Oxidative Enzymes

I. Lipolytic Enzymes

II. Oxidative Enzymes


4 The Role of the Glyoxylate Cycle

I. Introduction: The Problem Posed by the Conversion of Fat to Carbohydrate

II. Elucidation of the Glyoxylate Cycle

III. Enzymes of the Glyoxylate Cycle in Plants

IV. Experiments with Labeled Acetate: Confirmation of the Pathway

V. Compartmentation of the Glyoxylate Cycle: The Glyoxysome


5 Lipoxygenases

I. Introduction

II. Distribution of Lipoxygenases

III. Characterization of Lipoxygenases

IV. Assay Methods

V. Mechanism of Lipoxygenase Reactions

VI. Enzymatic Conversions of Lipoxygenase Products

VII. Nonenzymatic Reactions of Hydroperoxides

VIII. Physiological Aspects of Lipoxygenase


6 Biosynthesis of Ethylene

I. Introduction

II. Olefin-Forming Biochemical Reactions

III. Conversion of Methionine to Ethylene in Model Systems

IV. Methionine as a Biochemical Precursor of Ethylene

V. Regulation of Ethylene Biosynthesis


7 Biosynthesis of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids

I. Biosynthesis of Saturated Fatty Acids

II. Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

III. Termination Mechanisms


8 The Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Triacylglycerols

III. Accumulation of Triacylglycerols in Plant Cells

IV. The Storage of Oil in Plant Cells

V. Pathways for the Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols in Plants

VI. Future Trends


9 Phospholipid Biosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. Phospholipid Composition of Tissues and Organelles

III. Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipids

IV. Enzymatic Steps of Phospholipid Biosynthesis

V. The Use of Intact Tissue and Labeled Precursors for the Study of Phospholipid Metabolism

VI. Factor Effecting Changes in Phospholipids

VII. Turnover of Phospholipids

VIII. Conclusions


10 Phospholipid-Exchange Systems

I. Introduction

II. Organelles Involved in Membrane Lipid Biosynthesis

III. Phospholipid Exchange in Vitro

IV. Phospholipid-Exchange Proteins (PLEP)

V. Phospholipid Exchange in Vivo

VI. Conclusions


11 Sulfolipids

I. Introduction

II. Identification and Characterization of Diacylsulfoquinovosylglycerol

III. Occurrence and Distribution of Diacylsulfoquinovosylglycerol

IV. Metabolism of Diacylsulfoquinovosylglycerol

V. Possible Functions of Diacylsulfoquinovosylglycerol

VI. Other Sulfur-Containing Lipids


12 Plant Galactolipids

I. Introduction

II. Structure

III. Occurrence and Distribution

IV. Biological Function

V. Metabolism


13 Biochemistry of Terpenoids

I. Introduction

II. Hemiterpenes (Isoprene) (C5)

III. Monoterpenes (C10)

IV. Sesquiterpenes (C15)

V. Diterpenes (C20)

VI. Sesterterpenes (C25)

VII. Triterpenes (C30)

VIII. Polyterpenes (C5)n

IX. Prenols and Prenyl Side Chains

X. Conclusions


14 Carotenoids

I. Introduction

II. Structure and Nomenclature

III. Chemistry

IV. Distribution

V. Biosynthesis

VI. Function


15 Biosynthesis of Sterols

I. Introduction

II. Cyclization of Squalene

III. Alkylation Reactions

IV. Opening of the Cyclopropane Ring

V. Later Stages

VI. Transformations Involving 24-Methylene Lophenol and 24-Ethylidene Lophenol

VII. Conclusion


16 Sterol Interconversions

I. Introduction

II. Analytical Data

III. Metabolism

IV. Physiological Observations

V. Physical Properties

VI. Function

VII. Sterol Derivatives in Fungi

VIII. Conclusions


17 Biosynthesis of Acetate-Derived Phenols (Polyketides)

I. Introduction

II. Early Considerations

III. Biosynthesis of Phenols in Fungi

IV. Biosynthesis of Phenols in Higher Plants

V. Modifications of Assembly

VI. Regulation of Phenol Synthesis in Fungi

VII. Assembly Patterns


18 Cutin, Suberin, and Waxes

I. Introduction

II. Chemistry of Cutin, Suberin, Sporopollenin, and Waxes

III. Biosynthesis of Waxes, Cutin, and Suberin

IV. Degradation of Waxes, Cutin, and Suberin

V. Function of Cellular Lipids

VI. Conclusion


19 Biosynthesis of Cyclic Fatty Acids

I. Introduction

II. Cyclopropanoid and Cyclopropenoid Fatty Acids

III. Cyclopentenyl Fatty Acids

IV. Other Cyclic Fatty Acids

V. Conclusions



Contents of Other Volumes


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© Academic Press 1980
Academic Press
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About the Editor

P. K. Stumpf

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