Lipids: Structure and Function

Lipids: Structure and Function

The Biochemistry of Plants

1st Edition - September 28, 1980

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  • Editor: P. K. Stumpf
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220345

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The Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume 4: Lipids: Structure and Function provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of plant lipid biochemistry. This book covers a variety of topics, including oxidative enzymes, glyoxylate cycle, lipoxygenases, ethylene biosynthesis, phospholipids, and carotenoids. Organized into 19 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the different techniques for use in the analysis of plant lipids. This text then outlines the concepts of membrane lipid structure and discusses the relationship between membrane lipid structure and function. Other chapters consider the role that lipid structure plays in regulating physiological function. This book discusses as well the biochemical mechanism by which the double bond is introduced in the biosynthesis of ethylene. The final chapter deals with the results of studies on the biosynthesis of cyclopropanoid, cyclopropenoid, and cyclopentenyl fatty acids in higher plants. This book is a valuable resource for plant biochemists, neurobiochemists, molecular biologists, senior graduate students, and research workers.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors

    General Preface

    Preface to Volume 4

    1 Plant Acyl Lipids: Structure, Distribution, and Analysis

    I. Introduction

    II. Plant Fatty Acids

    III. Complex Acyl Lipids

    IV. Distribution of Acyl Lipids

    V. Age-Related Changes in the Lipid Composition of Plant Tissues

    VI. Methods for Lipid Analysis


    2 Membrane Lipids: Structure and Function

    I. Introduction

    II. Membrane Structure

    III. Lipid Dependency of Purified Membrane Proteins

    IV. Temperature Effects on Lipid Structure and Membrane Function

    V. Membrane Structure and Phytochrome Action

    VI. Conclusions


    3 Degradation of Acyl Lipids: Hydrolytic and Oxidative Enzymes

    I. Lipolytic Enzymes

    II. Oxidative Enzymes


    4 The Role of the Glyoxylate Cycle

    I. Introduction: The Problem Posed by the Conversion of Fat to Carbohydrate

    II. Elucidation of the Glyoxylate Cycle

    III. Enzymes of the Glyoxylate Cycle in Plants

    IV. Experiments with Labeled Acetate: Confirmation of the Pathway

    V. Compartmentation of the Glyoxylate Cycle: The Glyoxysome


    5 Lipoxygenases

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution of Lipoxygenases

    III. Characterization of Lipoxygenases

    IV. Assay Methods

    V. Mechanism of Lipoxygenase Reactions

    VI. Enzymatic Conversions of Lipoxygenase Products

    VII. Nonenzymatic Reactions of Hydroperoxides

    VIII. Physiological Aspects of Lipoxygenase


    6 Biosynthesis of Ethylene

    I. Introduction

    II. Olefin-Forming Biochemical Reactions

    III. Conversion of Methionine to Ethylene in Model Systems

    IV. Methionine as a Biochemical Precursor of Ethylene

    V. Regulation of Ethylene Biosynthesis


    7 Biosynthesis of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    I. Biosynthesis of Saturated Fatty Acids

    II. Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    III. Termination Mechanisms


    8 The Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure of Triacylglycerols

    III. Accumulation of Triacylglycerols in Plant Cells

    IV. The Storage of Oil in Plant Cells

    V. Pathways for the Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols in Plants

    VI. Future Trends


    9 Phospholipid Biosynthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Phospholipid Composition of Tissues and Organelles

    III. Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipids

    IV. Enzymatic Steps of Phospholipid Biosynthesis

    V. The Use of Intact Tissue and Labeled Precursors for the Study of Phospholipid Metabolism

    VI. Factor Effecting Changes in Phospholipids

    VII. Turnover of Phospholipids

    VIII. Conclusions


    10 Phospholipid-Exchange Systems

    I. Introduction

    II. Organelles Involved in Membrane Lipid Biosynthesis

    III. Phospholipid Exchange in Vitro

    IV. Phospholipid-Exchange Proteins (PLEP)

    V. Phospholipid Exchange in Vivo

    VI. Conclusions


    11 Sulfolipids

    I. Introduction

    II. Identification and Characterization of Diacylsulfoquinovosylglycerol

    III. Occurrence and Distribution of Diacylsulfoquinovosylglycerol

    IV. Metabolism of Diacylsulfoquinovosylglycerol

    V. Possible Functions of Diacylsulfoquinovosylglycerol

    VI. Other Sulfur-Containing Lipids


    12 Plant Galactolipids

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure

    III. Occurrence and Distribution

    IV. Biological Function

    V. Metabolism


    13 Biochemistry of Terpenoids

    I. Introduction

    II. Hemiterpenes (Isoprene) (C5)

    III. Monoterpenes (C10)

    IV. Sesquiterpenes (C15)

    V. Diterpenes (C20)

    VI. Sesterterpenes (C25)

    VII. Triterpenes (C30)

    VIII. Polyterpenes (C5)n

    IX. Prenols and Prenyl Side Chains

    X. Conclusions


    14 Carotenoids

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure and Nomenclature

    III. Chemistry

    IV. Distribution

    V. Biosynthesis

    VI. Function


    15 Biosynthesis of Sterols

    I. Introduction

    II. Cyclization of Squalene

    III. Alkylation Reactions

    IV. Opening of the Cyclopropane Ring

    V. Later Stages

    VI. Transformations Involving 24-Methylene Lophenol and 24-Ethylidene Lophenol

    VII. Conclusion


    16 Sterol Interconversions

    I. Introduction

    II. Analytical Data

    III. Metabolism

    IV. Physiological Observations

    V. Physical Properties

    VI. Function

    VII. Sterol Derivatives in Fungi

    VIII. Conclusions


    17 Biosynthesis of Acetate-Derived Phenols (Polyketides)

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Considerations

    III. Biosynthesis of Phenols in Fungi

    IV. Biosynthesis of Phenols in Higher Plants

    V. Modifications of Assembly

    VI. Regulation of Phenol Synthesis in Fungi

    VII. Assembly Patterns


    18 Cutin, Suberin, and Waxes

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemistry of Cutin, Suberin, Sporopollenin, and Waxes

    III. Biosynthesis of Waxes, Cutin, and Suberin

    IV. Degradation of Waxes, Cutin, and Suberin

    V. Function of Cellular Lipids

    VI. Conclusion


    19 Biosynthesis of Cyclic Fatty Acids

    I. Introduction

    II. Cyclopropanoid and Cyclopropenoid Fatty Acids

    III. Cyclopentenyl Fatty Acids

    IV. Other Cyclic Fatty Acids

    V. Conclusions



    Contents of Other Volumes

Product details

  • No. of pages: 710
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1980
  • Published: September 28, 1980
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483220345

About the Editor

P. K. Stumpf

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