Lipids in Foods

Lipids in Foods

Chemistry, Biochemistry and Technology

1st Edition - January 1, 1983

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  • Authors: Frank D Gunstone, Frank A. Norris
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483148847

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Lipids in Foods: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Technology provides basic information on the biochemistry and technology of the fatty acids or lipids. This book notes that natural and processed fats and oils, whether of animal or vegetable origin, play a significant role in the economy of several countries including both oil-producers and oil-users. These materials are used extensively, but not exclusively, in the food industry. The first 10 chapters cover the basic chemistry and biochemistry of the fatty acids and their natural derivatives. These topics include an account of the chemical structure, separation, analysis, biochemistry, physical properties, chemical properties, and synthesis of these compounds. The remaining chapters include the recovery of fats and oils from their sources and the processes of refining, bleaching, hydrogenation, deodorization, fractionating, and interesterification. A segment is devoted to margarines and shortenings and to the problems of flavor stability and antioxidants. This text will be valuable to students wishing to know more about lipids and to those involved in this field of study.

Table of Contents

  • 1. The Structure of Fatty Acids and Lipids

    A. Fatty Acids

    1. Fatty Acid Nomenclature

    2. General Comments on Structure and Occurrence

    3. Saturated (Alkanoic) Acids

    4. Monoenoic (Alkenoic) Acids

    5. Methylene-Interrupted Polyenoic Acids

    6. Other Acids

    B. Lipids

    1. General Comments on Lipid Structure

    2. Acylglycerols (Glycerides)

    3. Acyl Derivatives of Alcohols Other than Glycerol

    4. Glycosyldiacylglycerols

    5. Phosphoglycerides (Phosphatidic Acids, Phosphatidylglycerols, Phosphatidylcholine, Phosphatidylethanolamine, Phosphatidylserine, Phosphatidylinositide)

    6. Ether Lipids

    7. Sphingolipids (Ceramides, Cerebrosides, Gangliosides, Phosphosphingolipids, Glycosphingolipids)

    2. The Separation and Isolation of Fatty Acids and Lipids

    A. Introduction

    B. Distillation

    C. Crystallization

    D. Urea Fractionation

    E. Adsorption Chromatography on Silica

    F. Adsorption Chromatography on Silica Impregnated with Silver Nitrate

    G. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    H. Gas-Liquid Chromatography

    I. Isolation of Some of the More Common Unsaturated Acids

    3. The Analysis of Fatty Acids and Lipids

    A. The Nature of the Problem

    B. Component Acids, Alcohols, and Aldehydes

    C. Component Lipids

    D. Enzymatic Deacylation of Lipids

    1. Hydrolysis with Pancreatic Lipase

    2. Regio- and Stereospecific Analysis of Triacylglycerols

    3. Stereospecific Analysis of Phosphoglycerides

    E. Attempts to Separate Individual Lipid Species

    4. The Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Fatty Acids and Lipids

    A. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    1. De Novo Synthesis of Palmitic and Other Saturated Acids

    2. Chain Elongation

    3. Monoene Biosynthesis

    4. Polyene Biosynthesis

    5. Essential Fatty Acids and Prostaglandins

    B. Lipid Biosynthesis

    1. General Comments

    2. Triacylglycerols

    3. Phosphoglycerides

    C. Fatty Acid and Lipid Metabolism

    1. The Digestion and Absorption of Fats

    2. Bio-Oxidation of Fatty Acids

    D. Possible Harmful Effects of Some Dietary Lipids

    1. Heart Disease

    2. Long-Chain Monoene Acids

    E. Membranes

    5. Physical Properties

    A. Polymorphism and Crystal Structure

    1. Introduction

    2. Acids

    3. Glycerides

    B. Spectroscopic Properties

    1. Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    2. Infrared Spectroscopy

    3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    4. Mass Spectrometry

    6. Catalytic Hydrogenation, Chemical Reduction, and Biohydrogenation

    A. Catalytic Hydrogenation

    1. Introduction

    2. Methyl Oleate

    3. Methyl Linoleate

    4. Methyl Linolenate

    5. Reaction Conditions

    B. Chemical Reduction

    C. Biohydrogenation

    7. Oxidation

    A. Oxidation by Oxygen

    1. Introduction

    2. Autoxidation

    3. Reaction with Singlet Oxygen

    4. Enzymic Oxidation

    5. Reactions of Hydroperoxides

    B. Epoxidation

    C. Hydroxylation

    D. Oxidative Fission

    8. Other Reactions of Double Bonds

    A. Halogenation

    B. Metathesis

    C. Stereomutation, Double Bond Migration, Cyclization

    D. Dimerization

    E. Other Double Bond Reactions

    9. Reactions of the Carboxyl Group

    A. Hydrolysis

    B. Esterification, Alcoholysis, Acidolysis, Interesterification

    1. Esterification

    2. Alcoholysis

    3. Acidolysis

    4. Interesterification

    C. Acid Chlorides and Anhydrides

    D. Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Derivatives

    E. α-Anions of Carboxylic Acids

    F. Peroxy Acids

    10. Synthesis

    A. Why Synthesis?

    B. Synthesis of Acids

    1. The Acetylenic Route to Cis-Mono- and Poly-Enoic Acids

    2. The Wittig Reaction

    3. Isotopically Labeled Acids

    C. Synthesis of Acylglycerols

    1. Introduction

    2. Acylation Procedures

    3. Protecting Groups

    4. Monoacylglycerols

    5. 1,3-Diacylglycerols

    6. 1,2-Diacylglycerols

    7. Triacylglycerols

    8. Optically Active Acylglycerols

    D. Synthesis of Phosphoglycerides

    1. Introduction

    2. Preparation from 1,2-Diacylglycerols

    3. Acylation of Glycerophosphocholine or Glycerophosphoethanolamine

    4. Preparation of Phosphatidic Acids and of Phosphatidyl Esters Therefrom

    11. Recovery of Fats and Oils from Their Sources

    A. Introduction

    B. Methods of Obtaining Crude Fats and Oils

    1. General

    2. Soybean and Cottonseed Preparation

    3. Recovery of Oil from Oilseeds

    4. Recovery of Oil from Fruit Pulps

    5. Rendering of Animal Fats

    12. Refining

    A. Introduction

    B. Alkali Refining Method

    1. Batch Refining

    2. Conventional Continuous Alkali Refining

    3. Zenith Process

    4. Miscella Refining

    5. Soapstock Handling

    C. Other Refining Methods

    1. Physical Refining

    2. Degumming

    3. Miscellaneous Refining Methods

    D. Measuring Refining Loss

    13. Bleaching

    A. Color Standards

    B. Methods of Bleaching

    1. Heat

    2. Chemical Oxidation

    3. Adsorption

    C. Bleaching by Adsorption

    1. Theory

    2. Bleaching Earths

    3. Bleaching Conditions

    D. Batch Bleaching

    E. Continuous Bleaching

    F. Bleaching in Solvent

    14. Hydrogenation

    A. The Reaction

    B. Selectivity

    C. Hydrogenation Requirements

    1. Hydrogen Gas

    2. Oil

    3. Catalyst

    D. Procedure

    E. Effect of Process Conditions

    F. Continuous Hydrogenation

    15. Deodorization

    A. Introduction

    B. Deodorization Theory

    C. Variables in Deodorizer Operations

    1. Vacuum

    2. Temperature

    3. Stripping Steam

    D. General Deodorizing Equipment

    1. Batch Deodorizers

    2. Continuous Deodorizers

    3. Semi-Continuous Deodorizers

    E. Important Factors in Deodorization

    1. Air Contact

    2. Stripping Steam

    3. Additives

    4. Temperature

    5. Vacuum

    6. Shut-Downs

    7. Nitrogen Blanketing

    16. Fractionation and Winterization of Edible Fats and Oils

    A. Principles of Fractionation

    B. Fractionation Processes

    1. Dry Fractionation

    2. Lanza Fractionation

    3. Solvent Fractionation

    C. Examples of Fractionation

    1. PHL Oil

    2. Fractionated Palm Oil

    3. Liquid Shortening

    4. Winterization of Cottonseed Oil and of Blends with Soybean

    D. Crystal Inhibitors

    E. Stabilizers

    17. Interesterification

    A. Introduction

    B. Types of Interesterification

    1. Random

    2. Directed

    C. Catalysts

    D. Procedure

    E. Examples

    18. Margarines and Shortenings

    A. Definitions

    B. History

    C. Structure of a Plastic Fat

    D. Production of Shortening

    E. Types of Shortening

    1. Plastic Shortenings

    2. Pourable Shortenings

    3. Solid (Dry) Shortenings

    F. Shortening Uses

    1. Baked Goods

    2. Fried Foods

    3. Icings and Cream Fillers

    4. Frozen Foods

    G. Production of Margarine

    1. Fat Phase

    2. Aqueous Phase

    3. Blending and Chilling

    4. Tempering

    H. Margarine Uses

    1. Table

    2. Bakery

    19. Flavor Stability and Antioxidants

    A. Introduction

    B. Analytical Methods of Studying Flavor Stability

    1. Peroxide Value

    2. Schaal Test

    3. Active Oxygen Method (A.O.M.) (Swift Stability Test)

    4. Anisidine Value

    5. TOTOX Value

    6. Volatiles

    C. Evaluation of Shelf Life

    1. Storage

    2. Accelerated Storage

    3. Room odor

    D. Flavor Evaluation

    1. Panel Training

    2. Uniform Presentation

    3. Scoring Scale

    4. Statistical Evaluation of Data

    E. Antioxidants

    1. Primary Antioxidants

    2. Synergistic Antioxidants

Product details

  • No. of pages: 184
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1983
  • Published: January 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483148847

About the Authors

Frank D Gunstone

Frank A. Norris

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