Piping and Pipelines Assessment Guide

Piping and Pipelines Assessment Guide

1st Edition - March 3, 2006

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  • Author: Keith Escoe
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750678803
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080457116

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Whether it’s called “fixed equipment” (at ExxonMobil), “stationary equipment” (at Shell), or “static equipment” (in Europe), this type of equipment is the bread and butter of any process plant. Used in the petrochemical industry, pharmaceutical industry, food processing industry, paper industry, and the manufacturing process industries, stationary equipment must be kept operational and reliable for companies to maintain production and for employees to be safe from accidents. This series, the most comprehensive of its kind, uses real-life examples and time-tested rules of thumb to guide the mechanical engineer through issues of reliability and fitness-for-service. This volume on piping and pipeline assessment is the only handbook that the mechanical or pipeline engineer needs to assess pipes and pipelines for reliability and fitness-for-service.

Key Features

* Provides essential insight to make informed decisions on when to run, alter, repair, monitor, or replace equipment
* How to perform these type of assessments and calculations on pipelines is a ‘hot' issue in the petrochemical industry at this time
* There is very little information on the market right now for pipers and pipeliners with regard to pipe and pipeline fitness-for-service


Mechanical Engineers, Maintenance Engineers, Piping Engineers, Pipeline Engineers, Pipeline Maintenance engineers, Pipeline Operators, Plant Engineers, Plant Operators, Plant Maintenance Engineers, Pipeline Inspectors, Piping Inspectors, Materials Specialists

Table of Contents

  • Dedication


    Chapter 1: An Introduction to In-plant Piping and Pipeline Fitness-for-Service


    What Is Piping?

    Areas Where Corrosion Attacks Piping

    The Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP)

    Assessment Procedure

    Classification of Corroded Regions

    Corroded Pit Region Interaction Parameters


    Determining the Allowable Length of Corrosion

    Corrosion Allowance

    Assessing Type 3 Flaws

    Burst Tests Validation

    Circumferential Corrosion

    Corrosion in Pipe Bends

    Branch Connections and Fittings

    Determining a Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure

    Flaws in Heat-Affected Zones of Welds

    Chapter 2: An Introduction to Engineering Mechanics of Piping

    Piping Criteria

    Stress Categories

    Allowable Stress Range for Secondary Stresses

    Stresses Acting on Piping Elements

    Stress Calculations

    The Pipeline Codes—ASME B31.4 and B31.8

    Flexibility and Stiffness of Piping

    Stiffness and Large Piping

    Flexibility Method of Piping Mechanics

    Criteria for Flexibility Analysis

    Example Using the Empirical Flexibility Criterion

    Suggested Criteria for Level of Piping Flexibility Analysis


    Chapter 3: Fitness-for-Service Topics of Local Thin Areas, Plain Dents, Dents-Gouges, and Cracks for Piping

    Useful RSF Equations Using API 579

    Assessment Techniques and Acceptance Criteria

    Remaining Life Assessment


    In-Service Monitoring


    Damage Mechanisms

    Blisters and Laminations

    Assessment of Local Thin Areas

    General Metal Loss Assessment

    Local Metal Loss Assessment

    Performing the Remaining Life Assessment

    Material Property Data

    Crack-like Flaws

    Grooves, Plain Dents, and Dents with Gouges

    Plain Dents

    Dents and Gouge Combination Type Flaws

    Chapter 4: Fitness-for-Service for Brittle Fracture Concerns


    Brittle Fracture Concepts


    Safe Operation at Low Temperatures Existing Equipment

    Example 4-1 Determining the Basic MAT and Constructing the MAT Curve

    Determining the MAT Using Fracture Mechanics

    Variations to MAT

    Charpy Exemption Pitfalls—Words of Caution


    Considerations for Design Codes Other Than ASME

    Selecting Materials and Defining Impact Requirements—New Piping and Components

    Managing Potential CET Violations

    Cases of Brittle Fracture

    Transient Thermal Stresses

    Example 4-2 Thermal Transients in a Pressure Relief Piping System

    Chapter 5: Piping Support Systems for Process Plants

    Spring Supports

    Piping Nozzle Loads on Rotating Equipment

    Nozzle Stiffness and Elastic End Conditions

    Piping Systems Without Springs

    Fluid Forces Acting on Piping Systems

    Nozzle Movements and Thermal Displacement

    Residual Heat Transfer Through Pipe Shoes

    Chapter 6: Piping Maintenance and Repairs

    Leaking Pipe Flanges and Hot Bolting

    Leak Sealing by Banding Flange or Wire Seal Peripheral Seal Repair

    Bolted Pipe Clamps

    Flange Insert Clamps (Insert Ring or Tongue Clamps)

    Clamps with Thrust Loads


    Repairs Involving Hot Work

    Equipment Isolation Repairs—Stoppling

    Equipment Isolation Repairs by Freeze Sealing

    Closure—Threaded Connections

    Chapter 7: Hot Tapping (Pressure Tapping) and Freezing

    The Hot Tap Process

    Assessing the Feasibility of Hot Tapping

    Special Considerations for Welded-on (Hot Work) Hot Taps

    Hot Tap Design Considerations

    Wall Thickness of Header Pipe

    Test Pressure and Temperature

    The Hot Tap Package

    Freeze Sealing

    Chapter 8: Pipeline Fitness-for-Service, Repair, and Maintenance—Selected Topics

    Useful RSF Equations Using API 579 Methodologies

    API 579 Criteria Modified to Pipelines

    Grooves, Plain Dents, and Dents with Gouges and Crack-like Defects

    Repair Options for Pipelines

    Hydrogen Attack

    Soil-Structure Interaction Abnormality of Pipe Bowing

    Thermal Expansion of Buried Pipelines

    Restraining Bowing of Pipelines

    Appendix A: Properties of Pipe

    Appendix B: Weights of Pipe Materials

    Appendix C: Formulas for Pipe, Internal Fluid, and Insulation Weights


Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2006
  • Published: March 3, 2006
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750678803
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080457116

About the Author

Keith Escoe

A. Keith Escoe, P.E., has worked in the chemical process, oil refining, and pipeline industries for thirty two years all over the world. His experience includes South America, the North America, and the Middle East. He is retired from Saudi Aramco in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia where he was an engineering specialist. He is currently an international consultant. The author of many technical papers and books, Mr. Escoe has a B.S. in Mechanical engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington, an MBA from the University of Arkansas and is a licensed professional engineer in Texas.

Affiliations and Expertise

International Consultant, Houston, TX, USA

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