Light Emission By Plants and Bacteria - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122943102, 9780323143776

Light Emission By Plants and Bacteria

1st Edition

Editors: Jan Amesz
eBook ISBN: 9780323143776
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 22nd October 1986
Page Count: 660
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Light Emission by Plants and Bacteria deals mainly with light coming from plants and bacteria as a result of various different reactions. This book emphasizes the light emission from photosynthetic organisms. The major aim of this book is to give insight on light emission studies in plant and bacteria in terms of its physiological, biophysical, and biochemical relevance. The book is divided into six parts. Part I serves as an introduction and at the same time a historical review and development of different concepts of the emission phenomena. Part II tackles the relationship of light emission to the various photosynthetic reactions. Part III discusses the concept of bioluminescence, with a focus on bacteria and dinoflagellates. Part IV is a description of the light emission from bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin. Part V discusses the special light emission characteristics and their relationship to specialized pigment systems found in different bacteria and plant groups. It also reviews the fluorescence properties of photosynthetic bacteria. Lastly, Part VI basically shows the practical applications of light emission from algae as well as higher plants. This book contains not only relevant information about theories and concepts, but also experiments. Thus, it is a recommended reference to researchers and students alike in the field of cell biology, microbiology, plant physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, and agriculture.

Table of Contents



Warren Butler and Photosynthesis: The Early La Jolla Years

I Introduction

1 Introduction to (Bacterio)chlorophyll Emission: A Historical Perspective

I. Introduction

II. Stokes and Successors; Fluorescence Characteristics of Photosynthetic Pigments

III. Fluorescence Kinetics of Oxygen-Evolving Organisms: The Kautsky Effect, a Gordian Knot

IV. The Complementary Relationship between the Quantum Yields of Fluorescence and of the Photochemical Reaction

V. Transfer of Excitation Energy and Its Effect on Fluorescence Quenching

VI. Quenching of Emission in Purple Bacteria

VII. Quenching of Photosystem II Fluorescence by Electron Acceptors; Yield

VIII. The State I to State II Shift

IX. Fluorescence Quenching on Protonation of the Thylakoid Interior; Cation Effects

X. Interactions between Various Quenching and Other Processes Affecting the Fluorescence Yield; Methods for Analysis

XI. Quenching of Photosystem II Fluorescence by the Oxidized Primary Electron Donor and a Carotenoid Triplet State

XII. Concluding Remarks


2 Delayed Light, Glow Curves, and the Effects of Electric Fields

I. Delayed Light

II . Glow Curves

III . Effects of Electric Fields


3 Energy Trapping in Photosynthesis of Purple Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Energy Trapping in the Photosynthetic Process

III . Components of Chemical Trapping

IV. Studies of Chemical Trapping by Magnetic Resonance Techniques

V. Concluding Remarks


4 Methodological Principles of Measurement of Light Emitted by Photosynthetic Systems

I. Introduction

II . Fluorescence

III . Luminescence (Delayed Fluorescence)

IV. Resonance Raman Scattering


5 Fluorescence of Photosynthetic Pigments in Vitro

I. Introduction

II . Physical Processes and Their Significance

III . Fluorescence of Aggregated Systems


II Light Absorption, Prompt and Delayed Emission in Vivo

6 Absorption and Fluorescence Emission by Intact Cells, Chloroplasts, and Chlorophyll—Protein Complexes

I. Introduction

II. Absorption and Fluorescence Emission Spectra of Intact Cells, Isolated Chloroplasts, and Thylakoid Membranes

III . Absorption and Fluorescence Emission Spectra of Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes

IV. Fluorescence Yield

V. Conclusions


7 Lifetime of Excited States and Quantum Yield of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence In Vivo

I. Introduction

II. Early Measurements

III . Single-Photon Timing Experiments

IV. Wavelength-Resolved Lifetime Measurements

V. Lifetime Measurements in Subchloroplast Particles

VI. Fluorescence Lifetime of Photosynthetic Bacteria

VII. General Conclusions


8 Excitation Energy Transfer in Photosynthetic Systems

I. Introduction

II. Mechanisms of Energy Transfer

III . Energy Transfer Pathways in Photosynthetic Systems

IV. Excitation Annihilation

V. Concluding Remarks


9 Triplets: Phosphorescence and Magnetic Resonance

I. Introduction

II . Manifestation of the Triplet State in Photosynthesis

III . Triplet Absorbance Spectra

IV. Phosphorescence

V. Magnetic Resonance in High Magnetic Field

VI. Magnetic Resonance in Zero Magnetic Field

VII. Conclusions


10 Fluorescence Measurements in the Study of Photosystem II Electron Transport

I. Introduction

II . Methods of Measurement

III . Is the Variable Fluorescence Prompt or Delayed Emission?

IV. Quantitative Aspects

V. Kinetics of QA Photoreduction; Heterogeneity

VI. Reoxidation of QA; Binary Oscillations

VII. Excitation Sinks



11 Delayed Fluorescence: Current Concepts and Status

I. Introduction

II . Distinction of Delayed Fluorescence from Other Light Emission

III . Delayed Fluorescence in Higher Plants and Algae

IV. Delayed Fluorescence in Photosynthetic Bacteria

V. Concluding Remarks


12 Thermoluminescence from Photosynthetic Membranes

I. Introduction

II . The Early Work and a Historical Perspective

III . Methods Used for Measuring Thermoluminescence

IV. Nomenclature

V. Characterization and Identification of the Origins of the Thermoluminescence Peaks

VI. Relationship between Thermoluminescence and Delayed Fluorescence

VII. Physical Parameters Obtained from Thermoluminescence

VIII . Thermoluminescence as a Probe of PSII Photochemistry


Ill Bioluminescence

13 Bioluminescence in Bacteria and Dinoflagellates

I. Introduction

II. Bacterial Bioluminescence

III. Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence

IV. Concluding Remarks


IV Light Emission frOID Rhodopsins

14 Light Emission from Bacteriorhodopsin and Rhodopsin

I. Introduction

II. Fluorescence Emission and Excitation Spectra of Bacteriorhodopsin

III. Quantum Yield of Fluorescence of Bacteriorhodopsin

IV. Lifetime of the Fluorescence of Bacteriorhodopsin

V. Origin of the Fluorescence of Bacteriorhodopsin

VI. Fluorescence from Rhodopsin


V Special Features of Different Organisms: Relationship of Fluorescence to Biochemistry and Physiology

15 Fluorescence Properties of Photosynthetic Bacteria

I. Introduction

II. Light-Harvesting Systems and Energy Transfer

I I I . Physical Parameters of Fluorescence

IV. Conclusions


16 Fluorescence and Other Characteristics of Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria), Red Algae,

and Cryptomonads

I. Introduction

II. Occurrence and Habitat

III . Accessory Pigments: The Biliproteins

IV. The Phycobilisomes

V. Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes

VI. Absorption and Photosynthetic Action Spectra

VII. Fluorescence Emission and Excitation Spectra

VIII . Energy Partitioning

IX. Induction of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence

X. Delayed Light Emission

XI. Energy Distribution between Photosystems I and I I (State Changes)

XII. Specialized Adaptation

XIII. Concluding Remarks


17 Fluorescence Properties of Chlorophyll b- and Chlorophyll c-Containing Algae

I. Introduction

II . Light-Harvesting Systems

III . Physical Parameters of Fluorescence

IV. State I-State II Changes


Note Added in Proof

18 Chlorophyll a Fluorescence of Higher Plants: Chloroplasts and Leaves

I. Introduction

II. Fluorescence Phenomena of Isolated Chloroplasts

III . Fluorescence Phenomena of Intact Leaves

IV. Conclusions


VI Practical Applications

19 Practical Applications of Fluorometric Methods to Algae and Higher Plant Research

I. Introduction

II. Fluorescence Emission as an Indicator of the Physiological State of Plants

I I I . Fluorometers for Practical Use in Greenhouses and in the Field

IV. Application of Fluorometric Methods for Practical Use

V. Concluding Remarks




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© Academic Press 1986
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Jan Amesz

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