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Light and Heavy Vehicle Technology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780750604772, 9781483105079

Light and Heavy Vehicle Technology

2nd Edition

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Author: M.J. Nunney
eBook ISBN: 9781483105079
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 1st January 1992
Page Count: 618
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Light and Heavy Vehicle Technology, Second Edition deals with the theory and practice of vehicle maintenance, procedure, and diagnosis of vehicle trouble, including technological advances such as four-wheel drive, four-wheel steering, and anti-lock brakes. The book reviews the reciprocating piston petrol engine, the diesel engine, the combustion chambers, and the different means of combustion processes. To counter friction, heat and wear, lubrication to the different moving parts is important. To counter excessive heat which can cause breakdown of lubricating oil films and materials such as gaskets, O-rings, the engine is designed with a cooling system that uses air, water, or engine coolants. Petrol engines use the carburation or injection type of fuel delivery; diesel engines use a high pressure system of fuel injection owing to the higher pressures existing in the diesel combustion chamber. The text explains the operation of the other parts of the vehicle including the ignition and starter system, emission controls, layshaft gearboxes, drive lines, and suspension systems. Heavy vehicles need highly efficient air brakes to stop them compared to the hydraulic brake systems used in smaller and lighter vehicles. The book is suitable for mechanical engineers, engine designers, students, and instructors in mechanical and automotive engineering.

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition


1 The Reciprocating Piston Petrol Engine

1.1 Modern Requirements

1.2 Engine Nomenclature

1.3 Operating Principles

1.4 Basic Structure and Mechanism

1.5 Cylinder and Crankthrow Arrangements

1.6 Cylinder Block, Crankcase and Head

1.7 Pistons and Connecting Rods

1.8 Crankshaft Assembly and Main Bearings

1.9 Crankshaft Torsional Vibration Dampers

1.10 Valve Train

1.11 Timing Drive

1.12 The Principles of Valve Timing

2 The Diesel Engine

2.1 Suitability for Road Transport

2.2 Operating Principles

2.3 Cylinder Block, Crankcase and Head

2.4 Pistons and Connecting Rods

2.5 Crankshaft Assembly and Main Bearings

2.6 Valve Train and Timing Drive

3 Combustion Chambers and Processes

3.1 Basic Layouts of Combustion Chambers

3.2 Combustion in the Petrol Engine

3.3 Petrol Engine Combustion Chambers

3.4 Combustion in the Diesel Engine

3.5 Diesel Engine Combustion Chambers

3.6 Cylinder Charge Agitation

4 Engine Lubrication

4.1 Friction and Wear

4.2 The Lubrication Process

4.3 Engine Lubricating Oil

4.4 Engine Lubrication Systems

4.5 Oil Pumps and Pressure Relief Valves

4.6 Oil Filtration and Cooling

4.7 Oil Retention and Crankcase Ventilation

5 Engine Cooling and Vehicle Heating

5.1 Heat Transfer and Cooling Media

5.2 Engine Air-Cooling System

5.3 Engine Water-Cooling System

5.4 Engine Coolant

5.5 Interior Ventilation and Heating

6 Carburation and Fuel Injection

6.1 Fuel Supply System

6.2 Fixed-Choke Carburettors

6.3 Variable-Choke Carburettors

6.4 Multiple and Compound Carburettors

6.5 Electronically Controlled Carburettors

6.6 Petrol Engine Fuel Injection

6.7 Multipoint Fuel Injection (MPI)

6.8 Single-Point Fuel Injection (SPI)

7 Intake and Exhaust Systems

7.1 Air Cleaner and Silencer

7.2 Intake and Exhaust Manifolds

7.3 Exhaust System

7.4 Vacuum Gauge and Exhaust Gas Analyser

8 Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

8.1 Fuel Supply System

8.2 The In-Line Fuel Injection Pump

8.3 Governing the In-Line fuel Injection Pump

8.4 The Distributor Fuel Injection Pump

8.5 Governing the Distributor fuel Injection Pump

8.6 Timing In-Line and Distributor Fuel Injection Pumps

8.7 Fuel Injectors

8.8 Common-Rail Unit Injector System

8.9 Introduction to Electronic Diesel Control

8.10 Cold Starting Devices

9 Forced Induction

9.1 Natural Aspiration and Forced Induction

9.2 Methods of Pressure Charging

10 Ignition and Starter Systems

10.1 Coil Ignition Equipment

10.2 Ignition Coil and Capacitor

10.3 Ignition Distributor and Sparking Plugs

10.4 Introduction to Electronic Ignition Systems

10.5 Types of Electronic Ignition System

10.6 Ignition Timing

10.7 Damp Ignition in Service

10.8 The Starter System

11 Engine Emission Control

11.1 Petrol Engine Pollutants

11.2 Petrol Engine Emission Control

11.3 Diesel Engine Pollutants

12 Rotary Piston and Gas Turbine Engines

12.1 Rotary Piston Engine

12.2 Gas Turbine Engine

13 Friction Clutches

13.1 Types of Single-Plate Clutch

13.2 Clutch Control Systems

13.3 Clutch Centre Plate Construction

13.4 Direct-Release Clutch

13.5 Centrifugally Operated Clutches

13.6 Multiplate Clutches

13.7 Angle Spring Clutch

13.8 Clutch Misbehaviour in Service

13.9 Flywheel and Clutch Housing Alignment

14 Layshaft Gearboxes

14.1 Purpose and Elements of the Gearbox

14.2 Constant-Mesh Gearboxes

14.3 Synchromesh Gearboxes

14.4 Gear Selector Mechanisms

14.5 Heavy-Vehicle Gearboxes

14.6 Gearbox Lubrication and Sealing

14.7 Gearbox Misbehaviour in Service

15 Fluid Couplings and Torque Converters

15.1 Fluid Couplings

15.2 Improvements to Fluid Couplings

15.3 Torque Converters

15.4 Improvements to Torque Converters

15.5 Fluid Couplings and Torque Converters in Service

16 Epicyclic Gearboxes

16.1 Basic Epicyclic Gearing

16.2 Operation of Epicyclic Gear Trains

16.3 Friction Brakes for Epicyclic Gearboxes

17 Semi-Automatic and Automatic Transmissions

17.1 Semi-Automatic Transmissions for Passenger Cars

17.2 Semi-Automatic Transmissions for Heavy Vehicles

17.3 Automatic Transmissions for Passenger Cars

17.4 Hydraulic Control Systems

17.5 Electrohydraulic Control Systems

17.6 Automatic Transmission Fluid

17.7 Checking the Level and Changing the Fluid

17.8 Continuously Variable Transmissions

18 Overdrive Gears

18.1 Purpose and Position of an Overdrive Gear

18.2 Epicyclic Overdrive Gears

18.3 Layshaft Overdrive Gears

18.4 Automatic Transmission Overdrive Gears

19 Drive Lines

19.1 Universal Joints

19.2 Constant-Velocity Joints

19.3 Propeller Shaft Construction

19.4 Drive Line Arrangements

19.5 Front-Wheel Drive and Rear-Wheel Drive

19.6 Front-Wheel Drive Shafts

19.7 Tandem Axle Drives for Heavy Vehicles

19.8 Drive Lines for Public Service Vehicles

20 Final Drives and Rear Axles

20.1 Final Drive Gears and Bearings

20.2 Adjusting the Final Drive Gears

20.3 Differential Gears

20.4 Rear Axle Construction

20.5 Final Drive Lubrication and Sealing

20.6 Rear Axle Misbehaviour in Service

20.7 Heavy-Vehicle Rear Axles

21 Four-Wheel-Drive Systems

21.1 Types of Four-Wheel Drive

21.2 Basic Considerations of Four-Wheel Drive

21.3 Part-Time Four-Wheel Drive

21.4 Full-Time Four-Wheel Drive

22 Tyres, Road Wheels and Hubs

22.1 Tyre Requirements

22.2 Introduction to Tyre Characteristics

22.3 Tyre Construction

22.4 Road Wheels and Hubs

22.5 Wheel Balancing

22.6 Safety Precautions in Tyre Servicing

23 Suspension Systems

23.1 Basic Ride Considerations

23.2 Types of Suspension

23.3 Basic Handling Considerations

23.4 Types of Suspension Spring

23.5 Tandem Axle Suspension

23.6 Shock Dampers

23.7 Adaptive Suspension Systems

23.8 Suspension Misbehaviour in Service

24 Manual Steering

24.1 Steering Principles and Layout

24.2 Front End Geometry and Wheel Alignment

24.3 Steering and Suspension Ball Joints

24.4 Manual Steering Gears

24.5 Inspecting and Adjusting the Steering Mechanism

24.6 Conventionally Steered and Self-Steering Axles for Heavy Vehicles

25 Power-Assisted Steering

25.1 The Need for Power-Assisted Steering

25.2 Principles of Power-Assisted Steering

25.3 Power-Assisted Steering Components

25.4 Speed-Sensitive Power-Assisted Steering

25.5 Power-Assisted Steering Misbehaviour in Service

26 Four-Wheel-Steering Systems

26.1 The Need for Four-Wheel Steering

26.2 Types of Four-Wheel Steering

27 Hydraulic Brake Systems

27.1 Drum Brake Arrangements

27.2 Disc Brake Arrangements

27.3 Brake Friction Materials

27.4 Hydraulic Brake Systems and Components

27.5 Hydraulic Brake Fluids

27.6 Vacuum Servo-Assisted Braking

27.7 The Handbrake System

27.8 Hydraulic Power Brakes

27.9 Maintenance of Hydraulic Brakes

27.10 Brake Efficiency and Testing

28 Air Brakes and Auxiliary Retarders

28.1 Principles of Air Brakes

28.2 Compression and Storage

28.3 System Control

28.4 System Actuation

28.5 Hand-Operated Brake Valves and Other Equipment

28.6 Air Disc Brakes

28.7 Auxiliary Brake Retarders

29 Anti-Lock Brakes and Traction Control

29.1 Background to Anti-Lock Braking

29.2 Basic Components of Anti-Lock Brake Systems

29.3 Types of Anti-Lock Brake System

29.4 Output Control Channels for Anti-Lock Brakes

29.5 Anti-Lock Air Brakes for Heavy Vehicles

29.6 Traction Control Systems

30 Vehicle Structure

30.1 Integral Body Construction

30.2 Commercial Vehicle Chassis Frames

30.3 Trailer and Caravan Couplings



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© Newnes 1992
1st January 1992
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

M.J. Nunney

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