Life-Cycle Assessment of Biorefineries

Life-Cycle Assessment of Biorefineries

1st Edition - December 20, 2016

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  • Editors: Edgard Gnansounou, Ashok Pandey
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444635853
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444635860

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Life-Cycle Assessment of Biorefineries, the sixth and last book in the series on biomass-biorefineries discusses the unprecedented growth and development in the emerging concept of a global bio-based economy in which biomass-based biorefineries have attained center stage for the production of fuels and chemicals. It is envisaged that by 2020 a majority of chemicals currently being produced through a chemical route will be produced via a bio-based route. Agro-industrial residues, municipal solid wastes, and forestry wastes have been considered as the most significant feedstocks for such bio-refineries. However, for the techno-economic success of such biorefineries, it is of prime and utmost importance to understand their lifecycle assessment for various aspects.

Key Features

  • Provides state-of-art information on the basics and fundamental principles of LCA for biorefineries
  • Contains key features for the education and understanding of integrated biorefineries
  • Presents models that are used to cope with land-use changes and their effects on biorefineries
  • Includes relevant case studies that illustrate main points


Primary readers are chemist and (bio) chemical engineering PG/PhD students; Postdoctorate researchers in academia and industry; Engineers (process engineers) in bio-industries; consultants and policy makers. The book is useful for students and researchers engaged in postgraduate or masters programs leading to MSc, MTech or MS degree in Biotechnology, Industrial Biotechnology, Biochemical Engineering, Biological Engineering, Biotechnology & Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Classification of Biorefineries Taking into Account Sustainability Potentials and Flexibility

    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Classification Systems
    • 1.3 Revisiting the Classification System—Goals and Scopes of Biorefineries
    • 1.4 Inclusion of Sustainability in the Classification System
    • 1.5 Inclusion of Flexibility
    • 1.6 The Rationale of Public and Private Incentives: The Role of Classification
    • 1.7 Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Life Cycle Assessment and Specificity of Biorefineries

    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Life Cycle Assessment: From Infancy to a Standardized Methodology
    • 2.2 Definition of the Goal and Scope
    • 2.3 Life Cycle Inventory
    • 2.4 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA)
    • 2.5 Interpretation
    • 2.6 Imprecision, Uncertainties and Meaningfulness in LCA
    • 2.7 Extension of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment
    • 2.8 Conclusion and Perspectives

    Chapter 3: Life-Cycle Assessment of Agricultural Feedstock for Biorefineries

    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Agricultural Residues
    • 3.3 Agricultural Crops
    • 3.4 Overall Comparison of Feedstocks and Land-Use Change Effects
    • 3.5 Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 4: Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Crops and Starch-Based Integrated Biorefineries

    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Objectives and Scope
    • 4.3 Process Design
    • 4.4 Comparative LCA
    • 4.5 Conclusions and Perspectives
    • Appendix Combustion performance of 1 MJ of lignocellulosic feedstock (bagasse)

    Chapter 5: Life Cycle Assessment of Vetiver-Based Biorefinery With Production of Bioethanol and Furfural

    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Process Description
    • 5.3 Experiments and Data Inventory
    • 5.4 Life Cycle Assessment
    • 5.5 Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 6: Life Cycle Assessment of Thermochemical Conversion of Empty Fruit Bunch of Oil Palm to Bio-Methane

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgments
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Hydrothermal Gasification: Process Design
    • 6.3 Life Cycle Inventory
    • 6.4 Impact Assessment
    • 6.5 Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 7: Life Cycle Assessment of Algal Biorefinery

    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Process Description
    • 7.3 Life Cycle Inventory
    • 7.4 Sensitivity Analysis
    • 7.5 Impact Assessment
    • 7.6 Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 8: Life Cycle Assessment and Land-Use Changes: Effectiveness and Limitations

    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 A Typology of LUCs
    • 8.3 Complexity of LUC Mechanisms
    • 8.4 Monitoring: Use of Historical Data and Statistical Analysis
    • 8.5 Expert-Based Opinions
    • 8.6 Economic Equilibrium Models
    • 8.7 Accuracy of Biofuels Chains’ LCAs: Importance of Accounting for LUC Effects
    • 8.8 Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 9: Modeling Land-Use Change Effects of Biofuel Policies: Coupling Economic Models and LCA

    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Main Economic Models
    • 9.3 Main Coupling Approaches
    • 9.4 Typical Implementation and Results
    • 9.5 Implementation in Biofuels Policy and Regulation
    • 9.6 Conclusions and Perspectives
    • Annex 9.1 Selected Model Applications to Assess the LUC Effects of Biofuel Policies

    Chapter 10: Towards an Integrated Sustainability Assessment of Biorefineries

    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Sustainability Definition
    • 10.3 Limitations of LCA
    • 10.4 Other Environmental Issues
    • 10.5 Economic Issues
    • 10.6 Social Issues
    • 10.7 Multicriteria and Multiactor Assessment
    • 10.8 Assessment Perspectives and Development
    • 10.9 Conclusions and Perspectives

Product details

  • No. of pages: 322
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: December 20, 2016
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444635853
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444635860

About the Editors

Edgard Gnansounou

Edgard Gnansounou is Professor of modelling and planning of Energy Systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) where he is Director of the Bioenergy and Energy Planning Research Group. His current research works comprise techno-economic and environmental assessment of bio-refinery schemes based on conversion of agricultural residues. He is leading research projects in that field in several countries including Brazil, Colombia and South Africa. Edgard Gnansounou is credited with numerous papers in high impact scientific journals. He is member of the editorial board of Bioresource Technology. He graduated with a M.S. in Civil Engineering and Ph.D. in Energy Systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne. He was a visiting researcher at the Thayer College, Dartmouth School of Engineering with Professor Charles Wyman (USA), at Polytech of Clermont-Ferrand, University Blaise Pascal (France) and at the Center of Biofuels, the National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum (India). He was also a visiting Professor of the African University of Science of Technology (Abuja, Nigeria). He is a citizen of Benin (Africa) and Switzerland. Professor Ashok Pandey is Deputy Director at CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology at Trivandrum and heading the Centre for Biofuels and Biotechnology Division there. Professor Pandey’s research interests are on bio-based economy development (biomass-based biorefinery) for the production of fuels and chemicals. He has >1000 publications/communications, which include 14 patents & design copyright, 34 books, 100 book chapters, 380 original and review papers, etc with h index of 62 and >16,800 citation (Goggle scholar).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Energy Systems Modeling, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland; Professor, Energy Supply Chain, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Ben Guerir, Morocco

Ashok Pandey

Ashok Pandey
Professor Ashok Pandey is currently Distinguished Scientist at the Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India and Executive Director (Honorary) at the Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability – India. Formerly, he was Eminent Scientist at the Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali and Chief Scientist & Head of Biotechnology Division and Centre for Biofuels at CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum. His major research and technological development interests are industrial & environmental biotechnology and energy biosciences, focusing on biomass to biofuels & chemicals, waste to wealth & energy, industrial enzymes, etc. Professor Pandey is Adjunct/Visiting Professor/Scientist in universities in France, Brazil, Canada, China, Korea, South Africa, and Switzerland and also in several universities several in India. He has ~1425 publications/communications, which include 16 patents, 90 books, >700 papers and book chapters, etc with h index of 105 and ~48,800 citations (Goggle scholar). He has transferred several technologies to industries and has done industrial consultancy for about a dozen projects for Indian/international industries. Professor Pandey is the recipient of many national and international awards and honours, which include Highest Cited Researcher (Top 1% in the world), Clarivate Analytics, Web of Science (2020, 2019 & 2018); Top scientist in Biotechnology (#1 in India and #8 in the world), Stanford University world ranking (2020); Fellow, World Society of Sustainable Energy Technologies (2020); Fellow, Indian Chemical Society (2020); Distinguished Scientist, VDGOOD Professional Association, India (2020); Distinguished Professor of Eminence with global impact in the area of Biotechnology, Precious Cornerstone University, Nigeria (2020); IconSWM Life-time Achievement Award 2019, International Society for Solid Waste Management, KIIT, Bhubaneshwar, India (2019); Yonsei Outstanding Scholar, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea (2019); Life-Time Achievement Award from the Biotech Research Society, India (2018); Life-Time Achievement Award from Venus International Research Awards (2018), Most Outstanding Researcher Award from Career360 (2018), Life-Time Achievement Award from the International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (2017); Fellow, Royal Society of Biology, UK (2016); Felow, International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (2016); Academician of European Academy of Sciences and Arts, Austria (2015); Fellow, National Academy of Sciences, India (2012); Fellow, Association of Microbiologists of India (2008); Honorary Doctorate degree from Univesite Blaise Pascal, France (2007); Fellow, International Organization of Biotechnology and Bioengineering (2007); Thomson Scientific India Citation Laureate Award, USA (2006); Fellow, the Biotech Research Society, India (2005); UNESCO Professor (2000); Raman Research Fellowship Award, CSIR (1995); GBF, Germany and CNRS, France Fellowships (1992) and Young Scientist Award (1989), etc. Professor Pandey is Founder President of the Biotech Research Society, India (; Founder & International Coordinator of International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses, France (, Chairman of the International Society for Energy, Environment & Sustainability (, Editor-in-chief of Bioresource Technology (, Honorary Executive Advisor of Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability (, Journal of Systems Microbiology and Biomanufacturing (, Journal of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (, Subject Editor, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, India ( and Associate Editor, Biologia – Section Cellular and Molecular Biology ( and editorial board member of several international and Indian journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Scientist, Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India

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  • Carlos F. Mon May 14 2018

    Book: Life-Cycle Assessment of Biorefineries

    Excellent book and highly recommended