The most frequently used words in English are highly ambiguous; for example, Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary lists 94 meanings for the word "run" as a verb alone. Yet people rarely notice this ambiguity. Solving this puzzle has commanded the efforts of cognitive scientists for many years. The solution most often identified is "context": we use the context of utterance to determine the proper meanings of words and sentences. The problem then becomes specifying the nature of context and how it interacts with the rest of an understanding system. The difficulty becomes especially apparent in the attempt to write a computer program to understand natural language. Lexical ambiguity resolution (LAR), then, is one of the central problems in natural language and computational semantics research.
A collection of the best research on LAR available, this volume offers eighteen original papers by leading scientists. Part I, Computer Models, describes nine attempts to discover the processes necessary for disambiguation by implementing programs to do the job. Part II, Empirical Studies, goes into the laboratory setting to examine the nature of the human disambiguation mechanism and the structure of ambiguity itself.
A primary goal of this volume is to propose a cognitive science perspective arising out of the conjunction of work and approaches from neuropsychology, psycholinguistics, and artificial intelligence--thereby encouraging a closer cooperation and collaboration among these fields.
Lexical Ambiguity Resolution is a valuable and accessible source book for students and cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.
Edited by Steven L. Small, Garrison W. Cottrell, and Michael K. Tanenhaus
Part I: Computer Models
- 1 Word Expert Parsing Revisited in a Cognitive Science Perspective, Geert Adriaens and Steven L. Small
2 Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in a Deterministic Parser, Robert Milne
3 Resolving Lexical Ambiguity Computationally with Spreading Activation and Polaroid Words, Graeme Hirst
4 Are Vague Words Ambiguous? Steven L. Lytinen
5 Disambiguation in a Lexically Based Sentence Understanding System, Domenico Parisi and Cristiano Castelfranchi
6 An Account of Coherence, Semantic Relations, Metonymy, and Lexical Ambiguity Resolution, Dan Fass
7 A Model of Lexical Access of Ambiguous Words, Garrison W. Cottrell
8 Distributed Representations of Ambiguous Words and Their Resolution in a Connectionist Network, Alan H. Kawamoto
9 Process Synchronization, Lexical Ambiguity Resolution, and Aphasia, Helen Gigley
Part II: Empirical Studies
- 10 Implications of Lexical Ambiguity Resolution for Word Recognition and Comprehension, Greg B. Simpson and Curt Burgess
11 Lexical Processing and Ambiguity Resolution: An Autonomous Process in an Interactive Box, P. A. Prather and David A. Swinney
12 Is Multiple Access an Artifact of Backward Priming? Michael K. Tanenhaus, Curt Burgess, and Mark Seidenberg
13 Sentential Context and Lexical Access, Patrizia Tabossi
14 The Verb Mutability Effect: Studies of the Combinatorial Semantics of Nouns and Verbs, Dedre Gentner and Ilene M. France
15 (Almost) Never Letting Go: Inference Retention during Text Understanding, Jennifer K. Holbrook, Kurt P. Eiselt, Richard H. Granger, Jr., and Edward H. Matthei
16 Neuropsychology of lexical Ambiguity Resolution: The Contribution of Divided Visual Field Studies, Curt Burgess and Greg B. Simpson
17 Tracking the Time Course of Meaning Activation, Cyma Van Petten and Marta Kutas
18 Cognitive Topology and Lexical Networks, Claudia Brugman and George Lakoff
- No. of pages:
- © Morgan Kaufmann 1988
- 22nd October 2013
- Morgan Kaufmann
- eBook ISBN:
Professor and Chair of Neurology at UC Irvine’s School of Medicine, Dr. Small’s research focuses on the neurobiology of language. He serves as EIC for the ELS journal Brain and Language founded the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, and has authored 109 journal publications (h-index 25)
Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA