Lees' Process Safety Essentials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856177764, 9780080962306

Lees' Process Safety Essentials

1st Edition

Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control

Authors: Sam Mannan
eBook ISBN: 9780080962306
Paperback ISBN: 9781856177764
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 6th December 2013
Page Count: 570
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Lees' Process Safety Essentials is a single-volume digest presenting the critical, practical content from Lees' Loss Prevention for day-to-day use and reference. It is portable, authoritative, affordable, and accessible — ideal for those on the move, students, and individuals without access to the full three volumes of Lees'.

This book provides a convenient summary of the main content of Lees', primarily drawn from the hazard identification, assessment, and control content of volumes one and two. Users can access Essentials for day-to-day reference on topics including plant location and layout; human factors and human error; fire, explosion and toxic release; engineering for sustainable development; and much more. This handy volume is a valuable reference, both for students or early-career professionals who may not need the full scope of Lees', and for more experienced professionals needing quick, convenient access to information.

Key Features

  • Boils down the essence of Lees'—the process safety encyclopedia trusted worldwide for over 30 years
  • Provides safety professionals with the core information they need to understand the most common safety and loss prevention challenges
  • Covers the latest standards and presents information, including recent incidents such as Texas City and Buncefield


Individual safety and loss prevention professionals; process and plant engineers; environmental and chemical safety professionals; in all chemical, petroleum and process industry sectors; students of chemical engineering

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Management Leadership

1.2 Industrial Safety and Loss Trends

1.3 Safety and Environmental Concerns

1.4 Historical Development of Loss Prevention

1.5 Loss Prevention Essentials

1.6 Environment and Sustainable Development

1.7 Responsible Care

1.8 Academic and Research Activities

1.9 Overview


Chapter 2. Incidents and Loss Statistics

2.1 The Incident Process

2.2 Injury Statistics

2.3 Major Disasters

2.4 Major Process Hazards

2.5 Major Hazard Control

2.6 Fire and Explosion Loss

2.7 Causes of Loss

2.8 Trend of Injuries and Losses

2.9 Economics of Loss Prevention

2.10 Insurance of Process Plant

2.11 Property Insurance

2.12 Individual Insurance

2.13 Business Interruption Insurance

2.14 Other Insurance Aspects


Chapter 3. Legislation, Law, and Standards

3.1 US Legislation

3.2 US Regulatory Agencies

3.3 Codes and Standards

3.4 Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970

3.5 US Environmental Legislation

3.6 US Toxic Substances Legislation

3.7 US Accidental Chemical Release Legislation

3.8 US Transport Legislation

3.9 US Security Legislation

3.10 US Developing Legislation

3.11 EU Legislations

3.12 US Chemical Safety Board

3.13 The Risk Management Program

3.14 The Process Safety Management Program


Chapter 4. Management Systems

4.1 Management Attitude

4.2 Management Commitment and Leadership

4.3 Management Organization and Competent People

4.4 Systems and Procedures

4.5 Project Safety Reviews

4.6 Management of Change

4.7 Standards and Codes of Practice

4.8 Pressure Systems

4.9 Major Hazards

4.10 Total Quality Management

4.11 Safety Management and Safety Policy

4.12 Organization

4.13 Planning

4.14 Measurement

4.15 Control

4.16 Audit System and Audit

4.17 Safety Management Systems

4.18 Process Safety Management

4.19 CCPS Management Guidelines

4.20 Safety Culture

4.21 Safety Organization

4.22 Safety Policy Statement

4.23 Safety Representatives and Safety Committees

4.24 Safety Adviser

4.25 Safety Training

4.26 Safety Communication

4.27 Safety Auditing

4.28 Management Procedure to Implement Required Changes to Establish Proper Safety

4.29 Need for Process Safety Metrics

4.30 Different Types of Metrics

4.31 Choosing Useful Metrics

4.32 Implementing the Selected Metrics

4.33 Future Efforts for Generating Industry-Wide Metrics

4.34 Conclusion


Chapter 5. Reliability

5.1 Reliability Engineering

5.2 Equipment Maintenance

5.3 Management of Changes and Modifications




Chapter 6. Hazard Identification

6.1 Safety Audits

6.2 Management System Audits

6.3 Checklists

6.4 Materials Properties

6.5 Pilot Plants

6.6 Hazard Indices

6.7 Hazard Studies

6.8 What-If Analysis

6.9 Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

6.10 Bow-Tie Method

6.11 Preliminary Hazard Analysis

6.12 Screening Analysis Techniques

6.13 Hazard and Operability Studies

6.14 Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis

6.15 Sneak Analysis

6.16 Computer HAZOP

6.17 Human Error Analysis

6.18 Scenario Development

6.19 Consequence Modeling

6.20 Process Safety Review System

6.21 Choice of Method

6.22 Filtering and Follow-Up

6.23 Safety Review Systems

6.24 Hazard Ranking Methods

6.25 Hazard Warning Analysis

6.26 Plant Safety Audits

6.27 Other Methods

6.28 Quality Assurance

6.29 Quality Assurance: Completeness

6.30 Quality Assurance: QUASA

6.31 Standards



Chapter 7. Plant Siting and Layout

7.1 Plant Siting

7.2 Plant Layout

7.3 Layout Generation

7.4 Layout Techniques and Aids

7.5 Layout Planning and Development

7.6 Site Layout Features

7.7 Plot Layout Considerations

7.8 Equipment Layout

7.9 Separation Distances

7.10 Hazardous Area Classification

7.11 Hazard Assessment

7.12 Hazard Models

7.13 Fire Protection

7.14 Effluents

7.15 Blast-Resistant Structures

7.16 Control Buildings

7.17 Toxics Protection

7.18 Modular Plants


Chapter 8. Process Design

8.1 Process Design

8.2 Integration of Safety into the Process Design

8.3 Pressure Systems

8.4 Control System Design



Chapter 9. Human Factors and Human Error

9.1 Concept of Human Factors

9.2 Role of the Process Operator

9.3 Allocation of Function

9.4 Human Information Processing

9.5 Case Studies in Human Error

9.6 Definition of Human Error

9.7 Human Factors Approaches to Assessing Human Error

9.8 Quantitative Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

9.9 Human Reliability Assessment Methods

9.10 Human Factors Approaches to Mitigating Human Error

9.11 Alarm Systems

9.12 Fault Administration

9.13 Malfunction Detection

9.14 Training

9.15 CCPS Guidelines for Preventing Human Error in Process Safety



Chapter 10. Safety Culture

10.1 Introduction of Safety Culture

10.2 Developments in Safety Culture

10.3 Evaluating and Implementing Safety Culture

10.4 Conclusion


Chapter 11. Emission, Dispersion, and Toxic Release

11.1 Emission

11.2 Two-Phase Flow

11.3 Vessel Depressurization

11.4 Pressure Relief Valves

11.5 Vessel Rupture

11.6 Pipeline Rupture

11.7 Vaporization

11.8 Dispersion

11.9 Dispersion Modeling

11.10 Passive Dispersion

11.11 Passive Dispersion: Models

11.12 Dispersion of Jets and Plumes

11.13 Dense Gas Dispersion

11.14 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Source Terms

11.15 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SLAB and FEM3

11.16 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DEGADIS

11.17 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Field Trials

11.18 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Particular Gases

11.18.1 Propane

11.19 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Plumes from Elevated Sources

11.20 Concentration and Concentration Fluctuations

11.21 Toxic Gas Clouds

11.22 Dispersion over Short Distances

11.23 Hazard Ranges for Dispersion

11.24 Source and Dispersion Modeling: CCPS Guidelines

11.25 Vapor Release Mitigation: Containment and Barriers

11.26 Vapor Cloud Mitigation: CCPS Guidelines

11.27 Fugitive Emissions

11.28 Classification of Models

11.29 Toxic Effects

11.30 Toxic Substances

11.31 Toxicity Assessment

11.32 Control of Toxic Hazard: Regulatory Controls

11.33 Hygiene Standards

11.34 Hygiene Standards: Occupational Exposure Limits

11.35 Dusts

11.36 Metals

11.37 Emergency Exposure Limits

11.38 Gas Toxicity

11.39 Plant Design for Toxic Substances

11.40 Toxic Gas Detection

11.41 Toxic Release Response

11.42 Toxic Release Risk

11.43 Hazard Assessment Methodology


Chapter 12. Fire

12.1 Fire

12.2 Flammability of Gases and Vapors

12.3 Flammability of Aerosols

12.4 Ignition

12.5 Fire in Process Plant

12.6 Effects of Fire: Damages and Injuries

12.7 Fire Protection of Process Plant

12.8 Fire Protection Applications

12.9 Fire Hazard


Chapter 13. Explosion

13.1 Explosions

13.2 Detonation

13.3 Explosion Energy

13.4 Deflagration Inside Plant

13.5 Detonation Inside Vessels and Pipes

13.6 Explosions in Closed Vessels

13.7 Explosions in Buildings and Large Enclosures

13.8 Explosion Prevention and Protection

13.9 Explosion Venting of Vessels

13.10 Explosion Venting of Ducts and Pipes

13.11 Explosion Relief of Buildings

13.12 Venting of Reactors

13.13 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: DIERS

13.14 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Vent Flow

13.15 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Vent Sizing

13.16 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Leung Model

13.17 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: ICI Scheme

13.18 Venting of Reactors: Relief Disposal

13.19 Venting of Storage Vessels

13.20 Explosive Shock in Air

13.21 Condensed Phase Explosions

13.22 Vessel Burst Explosions

13.23 Vapor Cloud Explosions

13.24 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosions

13.25 Explosions in Process Plant

13.26 Effects of Explosions

13.27 Explosion Damage to Structures

13.28 Explosion Damage to Housing

13.29 Explosion Damage by Missiles

13.30 Explosion

13.31 Explosion Injury

13.32 Dust Explosions

13.33 Explosion Hazard

13.34 Hazard Range of Explosions


Chapter 14. Plant Commissioning and Inspection

14.1 Plant Commissioning

14.2 Plant Inspection

14.3 Pressure Vessel Inspection

14.4 Pressure Piping Systems Inspection


Chapter 15. Plant Operation

15.1 Inherently Safer Design to Prevent or Minimize Operator Errors

15.2 Operating Discipline

15.3 Best Operating Practices

15.4 Operating Procedures and Instructions

15.5 Emergency Procedures

15.6 Handover and Permit Systems

15.7 Operator Training and Functions

15.8 Operation, Maintenance, and Modification

15.9 Start-Up and Shut-Down

15.10 Operation of Storage

15.11 Sampling

15.12 Trip Systems

15.13 Identification Measures

15.14 Exposure of Personnel

15.15 Security



Chapter 16. Storage and Transport

16.1 General Considerations for Storage

16.2 Storage Tanks and Vessels

16.3 Selection of Materials for Storage Tanks

16.4 Storage Layout

16.5 Venting and Relief

16.6 Fire Prevention and Protection

16.7 Transport Hazards

16.8 Size of Units for Transport

16.9 Transport Containers

16.10 Road Transport

16.11 Road Network and Vehicles

16.12 Waterway Transport

16.13 Pipeline Transport

16.14 Marine Transport: Shipping

16.15 Tank Farms


Chapter 17. Emergency Planning

17.1 Introduction

17.2 On-Site Emergency Planning

17.3 Resources and Capabilities

17.4 Developing an Emergency Plan

17.5 Training

17.6 Essential Functions and Nominated Personnel

17.7 Declaration and Communication of the Emergency

17.8 Evacuation

17.9 Cooperation and Drills

17.10 Public Relations

17.11 Off-Site Emergency Planning

17.12 Transport Emergency Planning

17.13 Emergency Planning for Disasters

17.14 Spectators

17.15 Recovery

17.16 Regulations and Standards


Chapter 18. Personal Safety

18.1 Human Factors

18.2 Occupational Health

18.3 Generation of Contaminants

18.4 COSHH Regulations 1988

18.5 Dust Hazards

18.6 Local Exhaust Ventilation

18.7 Skin Disease

18.8 Physico-chemical Hazards

18.9 Ionizing Radiation Hazards

18.10 Non-ionizing Radiation

18.11 Machinery Hazards

18.12 Electricity Hazards

18.13 Personal Protective Equipment

18.14 Rescue and First Aid

18.15 Ergonomics

18.16 Noise


Chapter 19. Accident Research and Investigation

19.1 Accident Research

19.2 General Incident Investigation Concepts

19.3 Evidence Issues

19.4 The Investigation Team

19.5 Identifying Root Causes

19.6 Reports

19.7 Databases


Chapter 20. Computer Aids and Expert Systems

20.1 Knowledge Representation

20.2 Structured Knowledge

20.3 Problem-Solving, Games, and Vision

20.4 Learning

20.5 Neural Networks

20.6 Graphs, Trees, and Networks

20.7 Databases, Bibliographies, and Indexes

20.8 Process Safety with Design and Optimization

20.9 Expert Systems

20.10 Qualitative Modeling

20.11 Engineering Design

20.12 Fault Propagation

20.13 Hazard Identification and Risk Evaluation

20.14 Fault Tree Analysis

20.15 Operating Procedure Synthesis

20.16 Process Monitoring

20.17 Advisory System

20.18 Information Feedback

20.19 Education and Teaching Aids



Chapter 21. Inherently Safer Design

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Definitions

21.3 History of Inherently Safer Design

21.4 Strategies for Process Risk Management

21.5 Inherently Safer Design Strategies

21.6 Inherently Safer Design Conflicts

21.7 Measuring Inherent Safety Characteristics of a Process

21.8 Inherently Safer Design and the Process Life Cycle

21.9 Implementing Inherently Safer Design

21.10 Inherent Safety and Chemical Plant Security


Chapter 22. Reactive Chemicals

22.1 Background

22.2 Strategies for Identifying and Characterizing Reactive Hazards

22.3 Identification of Reactive Hazards Scenarios

22.4 Reactive Hazards Risk Assessment

22.5 Batch Reactors: Basic Design

22.6 Likelihood Assessment

22.7 Prevention Measures

22.8 Mitigation Measures

22.9 Chemical Security


Chapter 23. Benchmarking in the Process Industry

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Benchmarking Outline

23.3 Possible Barriers and Resolutions for Benchmarking

23.4 Examples of Benchmarking Activities


Chapter 24. Liquefied Natural Gas

24.1 LNG Properties and Supply Chain

24.2 LNG Hazards

24.3 LNG Hazard Assessment

24.4 Safety Measures in LNG Facility


Chapter 25. Sustainable Development

25.1 Sustainable Development Concepts

25.2 Sustainable Development Principles for Engineering

25.3 Sustainability Measurement

25.4 Analytical Tools: LCA


Chapter 26. Case Histories

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Flixborough

26.3 Seveso

26.4 Mexico City

26.5 Bhopal

26.6 Pasadena

26.7 Canvey Reports

26.8 Rijnmond Report

26.9 San Carlos De La Rapita Disaster

26.10 Piper Alpha

26.11 Three Mile Island

26.12 Chernobyl

26.13 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

26.14 BP America Refinery Explosion, Texas City, Texas, USA

26.15 Buncefield

26.16 Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster

26.17 Deepwater Horizon



Chapter 27. Laboratories and Pilot Plants

27.1 Laboratories

27.2 Pilot Plants



Chapter 28. Earthquakes

28.1 Earthquake Geophysics

28.2 Earthquake Characterization

28.3 Earthquake Effects

28.4 Earthquake Incidents

28.5 Earthquake Damage

28.6 Ground Motion Characterization

28.7 Ground, Soils, and Foundations

28.8 Earthquake-Resistant Design

28.9 Earthquake Design Codes

28.10 Dynamic Analysis of Structures

28.11 Seismicity Assessment and Earthquake Prediction

28.12 Design Basis Earthquake

28.13 Nuclear Installations

28.14 Process Installations


Chapter 29. Offshore Process Safety

29.1 North Sea Offshore Regulatory Administration

29.2 Gulf of Mexico Offshore Regulatory Administration

29.3 Offshore Process Safety Management

29.4 Offshore Incidents

29.5 Inherently Safer Design

29.6 Offshore Emergency Planning

29.7 Offshore Event Data


Chapter 30. Nuclear Energy and Safety

30.1 Regulation and Control of Nuclear Industry

30.2 Nuclear Reactors

30.3 Nuclear Waste Treatment

30.4 Nuclear System Reliability

30.5 Nuclear Hazard Assessment

30.6 Nuclear Reactor Operation

30.7 Nuclear Incident Reporting

30.8 Nuclear Incidents

30.9 Rasmussen Report




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About the Author

Sam Mannan

M. Sam Mannan, PhD, PE, CSP, is a chemical engineering professor and director of the Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center at Texas A&M University. He is an internationally recognized expert on process safety and risk assessment. His research interests include hazard assessment and risk analysis, flammable and toxic gas cloud dispersion modeling, inherently safer design, reactive chemicals and run¬away reactions, aerosols, and abnormal situation management.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA


Praise for Lees' Loss Prevention "...this is still the most comprehensive treatise on process safety and loss prevention available... it should be in the process safety department library of any company involved with manufacturing handling, and processing hazardous chemicals. Also, process safety/loss prevention specialists and consultants will find it an invaluable source book on practically every subject in this field."--CCPS JOURNAL