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Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780123971890, 9780123977823

Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries

4th Edition

Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control

Author: Frank Lees
eBook ISBN: 9780123977823
eBook ISBN: 9780080962313
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123971890
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st June 2012
Page Count: 3776
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Safety in the process industries is critical for those who work with chemicals and hazardous substances or processes. The field of loss prevention is, and continues to be, of supreme importance to countless companies, municipalities and governments around the world, and Lees’ is a detailed reference to defending against hazards. Recognized as the standard work for chemical and process engineering safety professionals, it provides the most complete collection of information on the theory, practice, design elements, equipment, regulations and laws covering the field of process safety. An entire library of alternative books (and cross-referencing systems) would be needed to replace or improve upon it, but everything of importance to safety professionals, engineers and managers can be found in this all-encompassing three volume reference instead.

Key Features

  • The process safety encyclopedia, trusted worldwide for over 30 years
  • Now available in print and online, to aid searchability and portability
  • Over 3,600 print pages cover the full scope of process safety and loss prevention, compiling theory, practice, standards, legislation, case studies and lessons learned in one resource as opposed to multiple sources


Safety and loss prevention professionals; process and plant engineers; environmental and chemical safety professionals; in all chemical, petroleum and process industry sectors

Table of Contents


Preface to Fourth Edition

Preface to Third Edition

Preface to Second Edition

Preface to First Edition




Use of References

List of Contributors

Volume 1

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Management Leadership

1.2 Industrial Safety and Loss Trends

1.3 Safety and Environmental Concerns

1.4 Loss Prevention – 1

1.5 Large Single-Stream Plants

1.6 Loss Prevention – 2

1.7 Total Loss Control

1.8 Quality Assurance

1.9 Total Quality Management

1.10 Risk Management

1.11 Safety-Critical Systems

1.12 Environment and Sustainable Development

1.13 Responsible Care

1.14 Academic and Research Activities

1.15 Overview

Chapter 2. Incidents and Loss Statistics

2.1 The Incident Process

2.2 Standard Industrial Classification

2.3 Injury Statistics

2.4 Major Disasters

2.5 Major Process Hazards

2.6 Fire Loss Statistics

2.7 Fire and Explosion

2.8 Causes of Loss

2.9 Down-Time Losses

2.10 Trend of Injuries

2.11 Trend of Losses

2.12 Case Histories

Chapter 3. Legislation and Law

3.1 US Legislation

3.2 US Regulatory Agencies

3.3 Codes and Standards

3.4 Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970

3.5 US Environmental Legislation

3.6 US Toxic Substances Legislation

3.7 US Accidental Chemical Release Legislation

3.8 US Transport Legislation

3.9 US Security Legislation

3.10 US Developing Legislation

3.11 EU Legislations

3.12 Other Legislation

3.13 Regulatory Support

3.14 US Chemical Safety Board

Chapter 4. Major Hazard Control

Foreword by Jerry Havens

4.1 Superstar Technologies

4.2 Hazard Monitoring

4.3 Risk Issues

4.4 Risk Perception

4.5 Risk Management

4.6 Hazard Control Policy

4.7 Nuclear Hazard Control

4.8 Process Hazard Control: Background

4.9 Process Hazard Control: Advisory Committee on Major Hazards

4.10 Process Hazard Control: Major Hazards Arrangements

4.11 Process Hazard Control: Planning

4.12 Process Hazard Control: European Community

4.13 Process Hazard Control: USA

Chapter 5. Economics and Insurance

5.1 Economics of Loss Prevention

5.2 Cost of Losses

5.3 Cost of Prevention

5.4 Level of Loss Prevention Expenditure

5.5 Insurance of Process Plant

5.6 Property Insurance

5.7 Individual Insurance

5.8 Business Interruption Insurance

5.9 Other Insurance Aspects

5.10 Notation

Chapter 6. Management and Management Systems

6.1 Management Attitude

6.2 Management Commitment and Leadership

6.3 Management Organization

6.4 Competent People

6.5 Systems and Procedures

6.6 Project Safety Reviews

6.7 Management of Change

6.8 Standards and Codes of Practice

6.9 Pressure Systems

6.10 Documentation

6.11 Audit System

6.12 Independent Checks

6.13 Major Hazards

6.14 Quality Management

6.15 Safety Management

6.16 Policy

6.17 Organization

6.18 Planning

6.19 Measurement

6.20 Control

6.21 Audit

6.22 Process Knowledge

6.23 Safety Strategies

6.24 Human Factors

6.25 Contractors

6.26 Safety Management Systems

6.27 Process Safety Management

6.28 CCPS Management Guidelines

6.29 Regulatory Control


Chapter 7. Reliability Engineering

7.1 Development of Reliability Engineering

7.2 Reliability Engineering in the Process Industries

7.3 Definition of Reliability

7.4 Meanings of Probability

7.5 Some Probability Relationships

7.6 Some Reliability Relationships

7.7 Failure Distributions

7.8 Reliability of Some Standard Systems

7.9 Reliability of Complex Systems

7.10 Markov Models

7.11 Joint Density Functions

7.12 Monte Carlo Simulation

7.13 Availability

7.14 Bayes’ Theorem

7.15 Renewal Theory

7.16 Replacement Models

7.17 Models of Failure: Strength–Load Interaction

7.18 Models of Failure: Some Other Models

7.19 Failure Behavior and Regimes

7.20 Failure Data Analysis

7.21 Reliability in Design

7.22 Reliability Prediction

7.23 Reliability Growth, Testing, and Demonstration

7.24 Maintainability

7.25 Maintenance Activities and Policies

7.26 Reliability-Centered Maintenance

7.27 Life Cycle Costing

7.28 Notation

Chapter 8. Hazard Identification

8.1 Safety Audits

8.2 Management System Audits

8.3 Checklists

8.4 Materials Properties

8.5 Pilot Plants

8.6 Hazard Indices

8.7 Hazard Studies

8.8 What If? Analysis

8.9 Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

8.10 Bow-Tie Method

8.11 Preliminary Hazard Analysis

8.12 Screening Analysis Techniques

8.13 Hazard and Operability Studies

8.14 Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis

8.15 Sneak Analysis

8.16 Computer HAZOP

8.17 Human Error Analysis

8.18 Scenario Development

8.19 Consequence Modeling

8.20 Process Safety Review System

8.21 Choice of Method

8.22 Filtering and Follow-up

8.23 Safety Review Systems

8.24 Hazard Ranking Methods

8.25 Hazard Warning Analysis

8.26 Plant Safety Audits

8.27 Other Methods

8.28 Quality Assurance

8.29 Quality Assurance: Completeness

8.30 Quality Assurance: QUASA

8.31 Standards

8.32 Notation

Chapter 9. Hazard Assessment

9.1 Background

9.2 Hazard Analysis

9.3 Risk Assessment

9.4 Event Data

9.5 Fault Trees

9.6 Event Trees

9.7 Bow-Tie Diagrams

9.8 Cause–Consequence Diagrams

9.9 Dependent Failures

9.10 Expert Judgment

9.11 Rare Events and External Threats

9.12 Human Factors and Human Error

9.13 Management Aspects

9.14 Hazard Model Systems

9.15 Population Characteristics

9.16 Modification of Exposure

9.17 Injury Relations

9.18 Presentation of Results

9.19 Confidence in Results

9.20 Risk Criteria

9.21 Guide Assessments

9.22 Hazard Impact Model

9.23 Simplified Assessment Methods

9.24 Decay Relations

9.25 Hazard Warning

9.26 Computer Aids

9.27 Risk Assessment Debate

9.28 Overview

Chapter 10. Plant Siting and Layout

10.1 Plant Siting

10.2 Plant Layout

10.3 Layout Generation

10.4 Layout Techniques and Aids

10.5 Layout Planning and Development

10.6 Site Layout Features

10.7 Plot Layout Considerations

10.8 Equipment Layout

10.9 Piping Layout

10.10 Storage Layout

10.11 Separation Distances

10.12 Hazardous Area Classification

10.13 Hazard Assessment

10.14 Hazard Models

10.15 Fire Protection

10.16 Effluents

10.17 Drain Systems

10.18 Blast-Resistant Structures

10.19 Control Buildings

10.20 Portable Buildings

10.21 Toxics Protection

10.22 Modular Plants

10.23 Notation

Chapter 11. Process Design

11.1 The Design Process

11.2 Conceptual – Front End Design

11.3 Detailed Engineering

11.4 Design Assessments

11.5 Licensors, Vendors, and Contractors

11.6 Inherently Safer Design

11.7 Unit Processes

11.8 Unit Operations and Equipments

11.9 Operating Conditions

11.10 Utilities

11.11 Particular Chemicals

11.12 Particular Processes and Plants

11.13 Operational Deviations

11.14 Impurities

11.15 CCPS Engineering Design Guidelines

11.16 Integration of Safety into the Process Design

Chapter 12. Pressure System Design

12.1 Pressure Systems

12.2 Pressure System Components

12.3 Steels and Their Properties

12.4 Pressure Vessel Design

12.5 Joining, Fastening, and Welding

12.6 Pressure Vessel Standards and Codes

12.7 Pipework and Valves

12.8 Heat Exchangers

12.9 Fired Heaters and Furnaces

12.10 Process Machinery

12.11 Insulation

12.12 Overpressure Protection

12.13 Overpressure Protection: Pressure Relief Devices

12.14 Overpressure Protection: Relief System Design

12.15 Overpressure Protection: Fire Relief

12.16 Overpressure Protection: Vacuum and Thermal Relief

12.17 Overpressure Protection: Special Situations

12.18 Overpressure Protection: Disposal

12.19 Overpressure Protection: Pressure Relief Valves

12.20 Overpressure Protection: Bursting Discs

12.21 Overpressure Protection: Installation of Relief Devices

12.22 Flare and Vent Systems

12.23 Blowdown and Depressuring Systems

12.24 Pressure Containment

12.25 Containment of Toxic Materials

12.26 Pressure Systems for Chlorine

12.27 Failure in Pressure Systems

12.28 Fracture Mechanics

12.29 Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics

12.30 Failure of Vessels, Equipment, and Machinery

12.31 Computer-Aid Pressure and Pressure Protection System Design

Chapter 13. Control System Design

13.1 Process Characteristics

13.2 Control System Characteristics

13.3 Instrument System Design

13.4 Process Computer Control

13.5 Control of Batch Processes

13.6 Control of Particular Units

13.7 Computer Integrated Manufacturing

13.8 Instrument Failure

13.9 Trip Systems

13.10 Interlock Systems

13.11 Programmable Logic Systems

13.12 Programmable Electronic Systems

13.13 Software Engineering

13.14 Safety-Related Instrument Systems

13.15 CCPS Safe Automation Guidelines

13.16 Emergency Shut-Down Systems

13.17 Level of Automation

13.18 Toxic Storage Instrumentation

13.19 Notation

Chapter 14. Human Factors and Human Error

14.1 Aims of Human Factors

14.2 Role of the Process Operator

14.3 Human Factors in Process Control

14.4 Process Operator Functions

14.5 Process Operator Studies

14.6 Allocation of Function

14.7 Human Information Processing

14.8 Case Studies in Human Error

14.9 Definition of Human Error

14.10 Human Factor Approaches to Assessing Human Error

14.11 Quantitative Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

14.12 Success Likelihood Index Method (SLIM)

14.13 Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART)

14.14 Dougherty and Fragola Method (D&F)

14.15 CCPS Method

14.16 Other Methods

14.17 Human Factor Approaches to Mitigating Human Error

14.18 Alarm Systems

14.19 Human Error and Plant Design

14.20 Fault Administration

14.21 Malfunction Detection

14.22 Computer-Based Aids

14.23 Job Design

14.24 Personnel Selection

14.25 Training

14.26 CCPS Guidelines for Preventing Human Error in Process Safety

14.27 Notation

Chapter 15. Emission and Dispersion

15.1 Emission

15.2 Two-phase Flow

15.3 Two-phase Flow: Fauske Models

15.4 Two-phase Flow: Leung Models

15.5 Vessel Depressurization

15.6 Pressure Relief Valves

15.7 Vessel Blowdown

15.8 Vessel Rupture

15.9 Pipeline Rupture

15.10 Vaporization

15.11 Dispersion

15.12 Meteorology

15.13 Topography

15.14 Dispersion Modeling

15.15 Passive Dispersion

15.16 Passive Dispersion: Models

15.17 Passive Dispersion: Dispersion over Particular Surfaces

15.18 Passive Dispersion: Dispersion in Particular Conditions

15.19 Passive Dispersion: Dispersion Parameters

15.20 Dispersion of Jets and Plumes

15.21 Dispersion of Two-phase Flashing Jets

15.22 Dense Gas Dispersion

15.23 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Source Terms

15.24 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Models and Modeling

15.25 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Modified Conventional Models

15.26 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Van Ulden Model

15.27 Dispersion of Dense Gas: British Gas/Cremer and Warner Model

15.28 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DENZ and CRUNCH

15.29 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SIGMET

15.30 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SLAB and FEM3

15.31 Dispersion of Dense Gas: HEGADAS and Related Models

15.32 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DEGADIS

15.33 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SLUMP and HEAVYGAS

15.34 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Workbook Model

15.35 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DRIFT and Related Models

15.36 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Some Other Models and Reviews

15.37 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Field Trials

15.38 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Thorney Island Trials

15.39 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Physical Modeling

15.40 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Terrain, Obstructions, and Buildings

15.41 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Validation and Comparison

15.42 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Particular Gases

15.43 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Plumes from Elevated Sources

15.44 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Plumes from Elevated Sources – PLUME

15.45 Concentration and Concentration Fluctuations

15.46 Flammable Gas Clouds

15.47 Toxic Gas Clouds

15.48 Dispersion over Short Distances

15.49 Hazard Ranges for Dispersion

15.50 Transformation and Removal Processes

15.51 Infiltration into Buildings

15.52 Source and Dispersion Modeling: CCPS Guidelines

15.53 Vapor Release Mitigation: Containment and Barriers

15.54 Vapor Cloud Mitigation: CCPS Guidelines

15.55 Fugitive Emissions

15.56 Leaks and Spillages

15.57 Classification of Models

15.58 Notation

Chapter 16. Fire

16.1 Fire

16.2 Flammability of Gases and Vapors

16.3 Combustion Phenomena

16.4 Flammability of Aerosols

16.5 Ignition Sources

16.6 Self-Heating

16.7 Static Electricity

16.8 Electrical Equipment

16.9 Hazardous Area Classification

16.10 Ignition Models

16.11 Fire in Process Plant

16.12 Flames

16.13 Radiant Heat Transfer

16.14 Vapor Cloud Fires

16.15 Fireballs

16.16 Fireballs from Explosives

16.17 Pool Fires

16.18 Flares

16.19 Jet Flames

16.20 Engulfing Fires

16.21 Effects of Fire: Damage

16.22 Effects of Fire: Injury

16.23 Fire Protection of Process Plant

16.24 Passive Fire Protection

16.25 Fire Fighting Agents

16.26 Fire Protection Using Water: Extinguishment and Control

16.27 Fire Protection Using Water: Exposure Protection

16.28 Fire Protection Using Foam

16.29 Fire Protection Using Dry Chemicals

16.30 Fire Protection Using Vaporizing Liquids

16.31 Fire Protection Using Inert Gas

16.32 Fire Protection Using Special Methods

16.33 Fire Protection Using Portable Extinguishers

16.34 Fire Protection Applications

16.35 Firefighting in Process Plant

16.36 Fire and Fire Protection in Buildings

16.37 Fire Protection in Transport

16.38 Fire Hazard

16.39 Hazard Range of Fire

16.40 Notation

Volume 2

Chapter 17. Explosion

17.1 Explosion

17.2 Detonation

17.3 Explosives

17.4 Explosion Energy

17.5 Deflagration Inside Plant

17.6 Detonation Inside Vessels and Pipes

17.7 Explosions in Closed Vessels

17.8 Explosions in Buildings

17.9 Explosions in Large Enclosures

17.10 Explosion Prevention

17.11 Explosion Protection

17.12 Explosion Venting of Vessels

17.13 Explosion Venting of Ducts and Pipes

17.14 Explosion Relief of Buildings

17.15 Explosion Relief of Large Enclosures

17.16 Venting of Reactors

17.17 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: DIERS

17.18 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Vent Flow

17.19 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Vent Sizing

17.20 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Leung Model

17.21 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: ICI Scheme

17.22 Venting of Reactors: Relief Disposal

17.23 Venting of Reactors: CCPS Work

17.24 Venting of Storage Vessels

17.25 Explosive Shock in Air

17.26 Condensed Phase Explosions

17.27 Vessel Burst Explosions

17.28 Vapor Cloud Explosions

17.29 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosions

17.30 Explosions in Process Plant

17.31 Effects of Explosions

17.32 Explosion Damage to Structures

17.33 Explosion Damage to Housing

17.34 Explosion Damage by Missiles

17.35 Explosion Damage to Plant by Missiles

17.36 Explosion of a Cased Explosive

17.37 Explosion of an Explosive Load

17.38 Explosion Injury to Persons Outdoors

17.39 Explosion Injury to Persons Indoors

17.40 Explosion Injury from Flying Glass

17.41 Explosion Injury from Penetrating Fragments

17.42 Explosion Injury from Penetrating Fragments: Model of Gilbert, Lees, and Scilly

17.43 Dust Explosions

17.44 Dust Explosibility Characteristics

17.45 Dust Ignition Sources

17.46 Dust Explosion Prevention

17.47 Dust Explosion Protection

17.48 Dust Explosion Venting

17.49 Dust-Handling Plants

17.50 Dust Fires

17.51 Explosion Hazard

17.52 Hazard Range of Explosions

17.53 Notation

Chapter 18. Toxic Release

18.1 Toxic Effects

18.2 Toxic Substances

18.3 Toxicity Assessment

18.4 Control of Toxic Hazard: Regulatory Controls

18.5 Hygiene Standards

18.6 Hygiene Standards: Occupational Exposure Limits

18.7 Carcinogens

18.8 Dusts

18.9 Metals

18.10 Emergency Exposure Limits

18.11 Gas Toxicity

18.12 Gas Toxicity: Experimental Determination

18.13 Gas Toxicity: Physiological Factors

18.14 Gas Toxicity: Toxicity Data

18.15 Gas Toxicity: Vulnerability Model

18.16 Gas Toxicity: Major Industrial Gases

18.17 Gas Toxicity: MHAP Studies

18.18 Gas Toxicity: Chlorine

18.19 Gas Toxicity: Green Book Relations

18.20 Gas Toxicity: Probit Equations

18.21 Gas Toxicity: HSE Dangerous Dose

18.22 Gas Toxicity: Combustion Gases

18.23 Ultratoxic Substances

18.24 Plant Design for Toxic Substances

18.25 Toxic Gas Detection

18.26 Toxic Release Response

18.27 Toxic Release Case Histories

18.28 Toxic Release Risk

18.29 Chlorine Hazard Assessment

18.30 Other Chemicals Hazard Assessment

18.31 Hazard Assessment Methodology

18.32 Notation

Chapter 19. Plant Commissioning and Inspection

19.1 Plant Commissioning

19.2 Plant Inspection

19.3 Pressure Vessel Inspection

19.4 Pressure Piping Systems Inspection

19.5 Non-Destructive Testing

19.6 Materials Verification

19.7 Pressure Testing

19.8 Leak Testing and Detection

19.9 Plant Monitoring

19.10 Performance Monitoring

19.11 Condition Monitoring

19.12 Vibration Monitoring

19.13 Corrosion Monitoring

19.14 Acoustic Emission Monitoring

19.15 Plant Monitoring: Specific Equipment

19.16 Pipeline Inspection and Monitoring

19.17 Notation

Chapter 20. Plant Operation

20.1 Inherently Safer Design to Prevent or Minimize Operator Errors

20.2 Operating Discipline

20.3 Good Operating Practices

20.4 Operating Procedures and Instructions

20.5 Emergency Procedures

20.6 Handover and Permit Systems

20.7 Operator Training

20.8 Plant Patrols

20.9 Modifications to the Process

20.10 Operation and Maintenance

20.11 Start-up and Shut-Down

20.12 Start-up of Refinery Units

20.13 Shut-down of Refinery Units

20.14 Operation of Fired Heaters

20.15 Operation of Driers

20.16 Operation of Storage

20.17 Operational Activities and Hazards

20.18 Sampling

20.19 Trip Systems

20.20 Identification Measures

20.21 Exposure of Personnel

20.22 Security

20.23 Notation

Chapter 21. Equipment Maintenance and Modification

21.1 Management of Maintenance

21.2 Hazards of Maintenance

21.3 Preparation for Maintenance

21.4 Isolation

21.5 Purging

21.6 Cleaning

21.7 Confined Spaces

21.8 Permit Systems

21.9 Maintenance Equipment

21.10 Flanged Joints

21.11 Hot Work

21.12 Tank Cleaning, Repair and Demolition

21.13 On-Line Repairs

21.14 Maintenance of Particular Equipment

21.15 Equipment Removal

21.16 Deteriorated Equipment

21.17 Some Maintenance Problems

21.18 Major Shut-Downs

21.19 Maintenance Information Systems

21.20 Spares Inventory

21.21 Computer Systems

21.22 Modifications to Equipment

21.23 Software and Network Maintenance

21.24 Managing Change

21.25 Some Modification Problems

21.26 Major Plant Expansions

21.27 Maintenance Optimization

21.28 Maintenance Personnel Training

21.29 Notation

Chapter 22. Storage

22.1 General Considerations

22.2 API Standards

22.3 Petroleum Product Storage

22.4 Storage Tanks and Vessels

22.5 Selection of Materials for Storage Tanks

22.6 Storage Layout

22.7 Venting and Relief

22.8 Fire Prevention and Protection

22.9 LPG Storage

22.10 LPG Storage: Pressure Storage

22.11 LPG Storage: Refrigerated Storage

22.12 LNG Storage

22.13 LNG Storage: Refrigerated Storage

22.14 Hydrogen Storage

22.15 Toxics Storage

22.16 High Toxic Hazard Materials: CCPS Guidelines

22.17 Chlorine Storage

22.18 Ammonia Storage

22.19 Ammonia Storage: Pressure Storage

22.20 Ammonia Storage: Refrigerated Storage

22.21 Ammonia Storage: Stress Corrosion Cracking

22.22 Other Chemicals Storage

22.23 Bunds

22.24 Underground Storage Tanks

22.25 Glass Reinforced Plastic Storage

22.26 Filling Ratio

22.27 Loading and Unloading Facilities

22.28 Loading and Unloading Facilities: Particular Chemicals

22.29 Drum and Cylinder Storage

22.30 Warehouses

22.31 Warehouses: Particular Chemicals Storage

22.32 Storage Case Histories

22.33 Storage Risk

22.34 LPG Storage Hazard Assessment

22.35 LNG Storage Hazard Assessment

22.36 Ammonia Storage Hazard Assessment

22.37 Storage Tanks Protection from Terrorism

22.38 Notation

Chapter 23. Transport

23.1 General Considerations

23.2 International Codes

23.3 Classification, Packaging, and Labeling

23.4 Transport Containers

23.5 Road Transport

23.6 Road Transport Environment

23.7 Rail Transport

23.8 Rail Transport Environment

23.9 Road and Rail Tunnels

23.10 Waterway Transport

23.11 Pipeline Transport

23.12 Marine Transport: Shipping

23.13 Marine Transport: Regulatory Controls

23.14 Marine Transport: Ports and Harbors

23.15 Marine Transport: Shipboard Fire and Fire Protection

23.16 Marine Transport: Liquefied Flammable Gas

23.17 Marine Transport: Chemicals

23.18 Marine Transport Environment

23.19 Air Transport

23.20 Transport Emergency Planning and Spill Control

23.21 Transport Case Histories

23.22 Transport Risk

23.23 Transport Risk Assessment

23.24 Road Transport Risk Assessment

23.25 Rail Transport Risk Assessment

23.26 Tunnel Transport Risk Assessment

23.27 Pipeline Transport Risk Assessment

23.28 Marine Transport Risk Assessment

23.29 Transport Hazard Assessment: Comparative Risks

23.30 Security Issues

23.31 Notation

Chapter 24. Emergency Planning

24.1 Introduction

24.2 On-site Emergency Planning

24.3 Resources and Capabilities

24.4 Developing an Emergency Plan

24.5 Training

24.6 Essential Functions and Nominated Personnel

24.7 Declaration and Communication of the Emergency

24.8 Evacuation

24.9 Cooperation and Drills

24.10 Public Relations

24.11 Off-Site Emergency Planning

24.12 Transport Emergency Planning

24.13 Emergency Planning for Disasters

24.14 Spectators

24.15 Emergency Incidents

24.16 Recovery

24.17 Regulations and Standards

Appendix A NFPA Publications

Chapter 25. Personal Safety

25.1 Human Factors

25.2 Occupational Health

25.3 Occupational Hygiene

25.4 COSHH Regulations 1988

25.5 Dust Hazards

25.6 Asbestos Dust

25.7 Ventilation

25.8 Skin Disease

25.9 Physico-Chemical Hazards

25.10 Ionizing Radiation Hazards

25.11 Non-Ionizing Radiation Hazards

25.12 Machinery Hazards

25.13 Electricity Hazards

25.14 Other Activities and Hazards

25.15 Personal Protective Equipment

25.16 Respiratory Protective Equipment

25.17 Rescue and First Aid

25.18 Ergonomics

25.19 Notation

Chapter 26. Accident Research

26.1 Definition of Accidents

26.2 Classification of Accidents

26.3 Accident Causation

26.4 Accident Models

26.5 Accident Proneness

26.6 Human Error

26.7 Social Factors

26.8 Impact of Safety Culture

26.9 Safety Training

26.10 Major Hazards Research

Chapter 27. Information Feedback

27.1 The Learning Process

27.2 Incident Reporting

27.3 Operation Monitoring

27.4 Accident Models

27.5 Accident Investigation

27.6 Fire Investigation

27.7 Explosion Investigation

27.8 Accident Investigation: CCPS Guidelines

27.9 Public Accident Inquiries

27.10 Organizational Memory

27.11 Case Histories

27.12 Information Exchange

27.13 Accident Databases

27.14 Safety Performance Measurement

27.15 Safety Performance Monitoring

27.16 Near Miss Reporting

27.17 Education

27.18 Teaching Aids

27.19 Notation

Chapter 28. Safety Management Systems

28.1 Safety Culture

28.2 Safety Organization

28.3 Safety Policy Statement

28.4 Safety Representatives

28.5 Safety Committees

28.6 Safety Adviser

28.7 Safety Training

28.8 Safety Communication

28.9 Safety Auditing

28.10 Safety Rating

28.11 Management Procedure to Implement Required Changes to Establish Proper Safety

28.12 Use of Tools for Better Safety Management Systems

Chapter 29. Computer Aids

29.1 Expert Systems in Process Engineering

29.2 Combination of Process Safety with Design and Optimization

29.3 Computer Aided Process Engineering

29.4 Pipework and Fluid Flow

29.5 Unit Operation and Equipment

29.6 Databases, Bibliographies, and Indexes

29.7 Compliance Management

29.8 Computational Fluid Dynamics

29.9 Hazard Identification

29.10 Pressure Relief Devices Sizing

29.11 Hazard Assessment Systems

29.12 Virtual Training

29.13 Transport

Chapter 30. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems

30.1 Knowledge Representation

30.2 Databases

30.3 Prepositional Logic

30.4 Predicate Logic

30.5 Non-Deductive Inference

30.6 Production Rules

30.7 Non-classical Logics

30.8 Uncertainty and Inconsistency

30.9 Probabilistic Reasoning

30.10 Fuzzy Logic

30.11 Programming Languages

30.12 Structured Knowledge

30.13 Search

30.14 Matching and Pattern Recognition

30.15 Problem-Solving and Games

30.16 Vision

30.17 Natural Language

30.18 Planning

30.19 Learning

30.20 Inductive Learning

30.21 Neural Networks

30.22 Graphs, Trees, and Networks

30.23 Directed Graphs

30.24 Expert Systems

30.25 Expert Systems: Some Systems and Tools

30.26 Qualitative Modeling

30.27 Engineering Design

30.28 Process Applications

30.29 Project Aids

30.30 Process Modeling


30.32 Process Synthesis

30.33 Plant Design: Synthesis

30.34 Plant Design: Analysis

30.35 Expert Systems: Some Process Systems

30.36 Fault Propagation

30.37 Hazard Identification

30.38 Hazard Identification: HAZID

30.39 Hazard Identification: Enhancements

30.40 Fault Tree Analysis

30.41 Fault Tree Synthesis

30.42 Fault Tree Synthesis: FAULTFINDER

30.43 Operating Procedure Synthesis

30.44 Process Monitoring

30.45 Fault Administration

30.46 Malfunction Detection

30.47 Notation

Chapter 31. Incident Investigation

31.1 Preface

31.2 General Investigation Concepts

31.3 Evidence Issues

31.4 The Investigation Team

31.5 Identifying Root Causes

31.6 Recommendations, Reports, and Lessons Learned

31.7 Management System for Investigations

Chapter 32. Inherently Safer Design

32.1 Introduction

32.2 Definitions

32.3 History of Inherently Safer Design

32.4 Strategies for Process Risk Management

32.5 Inherently Safer Design Strategies

32.6 Inherently Safer Design Conflicts

32.7 Measuring Inherent Safety Characteristics of a Process

32.8 Inherently Safer Design and the Process Life Cycle

32.9 Implementing Inherently Safer Design

32.10 Inherent Safety and Chemical Plant Security

32.11 Inherently Safer Design References

Chapter 33. Reactive Chemicals

33.1 Background

33.2 Technical

33.3 Program Management

Chapter 34. Safety Instrumented Systems

34.1 Introduction

34.2 Examples of SIS

34.3 SIS Standards

34.4 Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA)

34.5 Level of Automation

34.6 Design

34.7 Verify

34.8 Operate

34.9 Maintain

34.10 Test

34.11 Special Applications

Chapter 35. Chemical Security

35.1 Introduction

35.2 Security Management System

35.3 Security Strategies

35.4 Countermeasures and Security Risk Management Concepts

35.5 SVA Methodologies

35.6 Defining the Risk to be Managed

35.7 Overview of an SVA Methodology

35.8 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

35.9 Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)

35.10 Inherently Safer Technology (IST)

Chapter 36. Safety Culture

36.1 Introduction

36.2 Definition of Safety Culture

36.3 Developments in Safety Culture

36.4 Evaluating Safety Culture

36.5 Implementing Safety Culture

36.6 Conclusion

Chapter 37. Metrics and Performance Measurements

37.1 Introduction

37.2 Different Types of Metrics

37.3 Choosing Useful Metrics

37.4 Implementing the Selected Metrics

37.5 Application of Metrics with Examples

37.6 Future Efforts for Generating Industry-Wide Metrics

37.7 Conclusion

Chapter 38. Benchmarking in the Process Industry

38.1 Introduction

38.2 Benchmarking Outline

38.3 Possible Barriers and Resolutions for Benchmarking

38.4 Examples of Benchmarking Activities

Chapter 39. Liquefied Natural Gas

39.1 LNG Properties

39.2 LNG Industry

39.3 LNG Hazards

39.4 LNG Spills Experiments and Modeling

39.5 Safety Measures in LNG Facilities

39.6 Regulatory Authorities and Regulations

Chapter 40. Sustainable Development

40.1 Sustainable Development Concepts

40.2 Sustainable Development Principles for Engineering

40.3 Sustainability Measurement

40.4 Analytical Tools: LCA

Appendix 1: Case Histories

A1.1 Incident Sources

A1.2 Incident Databases

A1.3 Reporting of Incidents

A1.4 Reporting of Injuries in Incidents

A1.5 Reporting of Injuries at National Level

A1.6 Incident Diagrams, Plans, and Maps

A1.7 Incidents Involving Fire Fighting

A1.8 Incidents Involving Condensed Phase Explosives

A1.9 Incidents Involving Spontaneously Combustible Substances

A1.10 Case Histories: Some Principal Incidents

A1.11 Case Histories: A Series

A1.12 Case Histories: B Series

A1.13 Some Other Incidents and Problems

A1.14 Notation

Appendix 2: Flixborough

A2.1 The Company and the Management

A2.2 The Site and the Works

A2.3 The Process and the Plant

A2.4 Events Prior to the Explosion

A2.5 The Explosion −1

A2.6 The Investigation

A2.7 The Explosion − 2

A2.8 Some Lessons of Flixborough

A2.9 Critiques

A2.10 Recent CFD Reports About Flixborough

Appendix 3: Seveso

A3.1 The Company and the Management

A3.2 The Site and the Works

A3.3 The Process and the Plant

A3.4 TCDD and its Properties

A3.5 Previous Incidents Involving TCP and TCDD

A3.6 Events Prior to the Release

A3.7 The Release – 1

A3.8 The Emergency and the Immediate Aftermath

A3.9 The Investigation

A3.10 The Release – 2

A3.11 The Later Aftermath, Contamination, and Decontamination

A3.12 Some Lessons from Seveso

Appendix 4: Mexico City

A4.1 The Site and the Plant

A4.2 The Fire and Explosion – 1

A4.3 The Emergency

A4.4 The Fire and Explosion − 2

A4.5 Some Lessons of Mexico City

Appendix 5: Bhopal

A5.1 The Company and the Management

A5.2 The Site and the Works

A5.3 The Process and the Plant

A5.4 MIC and its Properties

A5.5 Events Prior to the Release

A5.6 The Release

A5.7 The Emergency and the Immediate Aftermath

A5.8 The Investigations

A5.9 The Late Aftermath

A5.10 Some Lessons of Bhopal

Appendix 6: Pasadena

A6.1 The Site and the Plant

A6.2 Events Prior to the Explosion

A6.3 The Explosion

A6.4 The Emergency and the Aftermath

A6.5 Some Lessons of Pasadena

Appendix 7: Canvey Reports

A7.1 First Canvey Report

A7.2 First Canvey Report: Installations and Activities

A7.3 First Canvey Report: Identified Hazards

A7.4 First Canvey Report: Failure and Event Data

A7.5 First Canvey Report: Hazard Models and Risk Estimates

A7.6 First Canvey Report: Assessed Risks and Actions

A7.7 First Canvey Report: Responses to Report

A7.8 Second Canvey Report

A7.9 Second Canvey Report: Reassessed Risks and Actions

A7.10 Second Canvey Report: Technical Aspects

A7.11 Notation

Appendix 8: Rijnmond Report

A8.1 The Investigation

A8.2 Installations and Activities

A8.3 Event Data

A8.4 Hazard Models

A8.5 Injury Relations

A8.6 Population Characteristics

A8.7 Mitigation of Exposure

A8.8 Individual Assessments

A8.9 Assessed Risks

A8.10 Remedial Measures

A8.11 Critiques

A8.12 Notation

Appendix 9: Laboratories

A9.1 Legal Requirements

A9.2 Laboratory Management Systems

A9.3 Laboratory Personnel

A9.4 Laboratory Codes

A9.5 Laboratory Hazards

A9.6 Laboratory Design

A9.7 Laboratory Equipment

A9.8 Laboratory Services

A9.9 Laboratory Storage and Waste Disposal

A9.10 Laboratory Operation

A9.11 Laboratory Fire and Explosion Protection

A9.12 Emergency Planning

Appendix 10: Pilot Plants

A10.1 Pilot Plant Uses, Types, and Strategies

A10.2 Pilot Plant Features and Hazards

A10.3 Pilot Plant Scale-up

A10.4 Pilot Plant Design

A10.5 Pilot Plant Operation

A10.6 Pilot Plant Safety

A10.7 Pilot Plant Programs

A10.8 Cost Estimating for Pilot Plants

Appendix 11: Safety, Health, and the Environment

Safety, Health, and the Environment

Pollution of the Environment

Appendix 12: Noise

A12.1 Regulatory Controls

A12.2 Process Plant Noise

A12.3 Noise Control Terminology

A12.4 Noise Monitoring

A12.5 Noise Control

A12.6 PPE

A12.7 Training

A12.8 Notation

Appendix 13: Safety Factors for Simple Relief Systems

A13.1 Comments on Safety Factors to be Applied When Sizing a Simple Relief System

Appendix 14: Failure and Event Data

A14.1 Types of Data

A14.2 Definition and Regimes of Failure

A14.3 Influence Factors

A14.4 Collection of Data

A14.5 Sources of Data

A14.6 Status of Data

A14.7 Processing of Data

A14.8 Uncertainty of Data

A14.9 Databases

A14.10 Inventory

A14.11 Inventory of Equipment in Plants

A14.12 Vessel and Tanks

A14.13 Pipework

A14.14 Heat Exchangers

A14.15 Rotating Machinery

A14.16 Valves

A14.17 Instruments

A14.18 Process Computers

A14.19 Relief Systems

A14.20 Fire and Gas Detection Systems

A14.21 Fire Protection Systems

A14.22 Emergency Shut-Down Systems

A14.23 Utility Systems

A14.24 LNG Plants

A14.25 Leaks

A14.26 Ignition

A14.27 Explosion Following Ignition

A14.28 Fires

A14.29 Explosions

A14.30 Transport

A14.31 External Events

A14.32 Notation

Appendix 15: Earthquakes

A15.1 Earthquake Geophysics

A15.2 Earthquake Characterization

A15.3 Earthquake Effects

A15.4 Earthquake Incidents

A15.5 Earthquake Damage

A15.6 Ground Motion Characterization

A15.7 Ground, Soils, and Foundations

A15.8 Earthquake-resistant Design

A15.9 Earthquake Design Codes

A15.10 Dynamic Analysis of Structures

A15.11 Seismicity Assessment and Earthquake Prediction

A15.12 Design Basis Earthquake

A15.13 Nuclear Installations

A15.14 Process Installations

A15.15 Notation

Appendix 16: San Carlos De La Rapita Disaster

A16.1 The Camp Site

A16.2 The Road Tanker

A16.3 The Fire and Explosions – 1

A16.4 The Emergency and the Aftermath

A16.5 The Fire and Explosions – 2

A16.6 Judgment of the Court

A16.7 Lessons of San Carlos De La Rapita Disaster

Appendix 17: ACDS Transport Hazards Report

A17.1 The Investigation

A17.2 Substances and Activities

A17.3 Event Data

A17.4 Hazard Models

A17.5 Injury Relations

A17.6 Population Characteristics

A17.7 Rail Transport

A17.8 Road Transport

A17.9 Marine Transport: Ports

A17.10 Transport of Explosives

A17.11 Risk Criteria

A17.12 Assessed Risks

A17.13 Risk Evaluation and Remedial Measures

A17.14 Notation

Appendix 18: Offshore Process Safety

A18.1 North Sea Offshore Regulatory Administration

A18.2 Gulf of Mexico Offshore Regulatory Administration

A18.3 Offshore Process Safety Management

A18.4 Offshore Incidents

A18.5 Inherently Safer Design

A18.6 Offshore Emergency Planning

A18.7 Offshore Event Data

Appendix 19: Piper Alpha

A19.1 The Company, the Management, and the Personnel

A19.2 The Field and the Platform

A19.3 The Process and the Plant

A19.4 Events Prior to the Explosion

A19.5 The Explosion, the Escalation, and the Rescue

A19.6 The Investigation

A19.7 Some Lessons of Piper Alpha

A19.8 Recommendations on the Offshore Safety Regime

Appendix 20: Nuclear Energy

A20.1 Radioactivity

A20.2 Nuclear Industry

A20.3 Nuclear Reactors

A20.4 Nuclear Waste Treatment

A20.5 Nuclear System Reliability

A20.6 Nuclear Hazard Assessment

A20.7 Nuclear Pressure Systems

A20.8 Nuclear Reactor Operation

A20.9 Nuclear Emergency Planning

A20.10 Nuclear Incident Reporting

A20.11 Nuclear Incidents

A20.12 Notation

Appendix 21: Three Mile Island

A21.1 The Company and the Management

A21.2 The Site and the Works

A21.3 The Process and the Plant

A21.4 Events Prior to the Excursion

A21.5 The Excursion – 1

A21.6 The Emergency and the Aftermath

A21.7 The Excursion – 2

A21.8 The Investigations

A21.9 Some Lessons of Three Mile Island

Appendix 22: Chernobyl

A22.1 The Operating Organization and the Management

A22.2 The Site and the Works

A22.3 The Process and the Plant

A22.4 Events Prior to the Release

A22.5 The Release – 1

A22.6 The Emergency and the Immediate Aftermath

A22.7 The Investigations

A22.8 The Release – 2

A22.9 The Later Aftermath

A22.10 Some Lessons of Chernobyl

Appendix 23: Rasmussen Report

A23.1 Earlier Studies

A23.2 Risk Assessment Methodology

A23.3 Event Data

A23.4 Fault Trees

A23.5 Event Trees

A23.6 Common Mode Failure

A23.7 Human Error

A23.8 Rare Events

A23.9 External Threats

A23.10 Release Scenarios

A23.11 Population Characteristics

A23.12 Mitigation of Exposure

A23.13 Injury Relations

A23.14 Uncertainty in Results

A23.15 Presentation of Results

A23.16 Evaluation of Results

A23.17 Browns Ferry Incident

A23.18 Critical Assumptions

A23.19 Critiques

A23.20 Notation

Appendix 24: ACMH Model License Conditions

A24.1 Model Conditions for a Possible Licensing Scheme for Selected High Hazard Notifiable Installations

Appendix 25: HSE and HSL Guidelines

A25.1 The Siting of Developments in the Vicinities of Major Hazards: HSE’s Draft Guidelines to Planning Authorities (by the Health and Safety Executive – Major Hazards Assessment Unit)

A25.2 HSE Guidelines on LNG Facility

A25.3 HSE Guidelines on Chemical Industries

A25.4 HSL Guidelines on Explosion Modeling and Deficiencies

Appendix 26: Public Planning Inquiries

A26.1 Mossmorran

A26.2 Pheasant Wood

A26.3 Canvey

A26.4 Sizewell

A26.5 Expert Evidence

Appendix 27: Standards and Codes

A27.1 Globalization of Standards

A27.2 Where to Find Information on Standards

Appendix 28: Institutional Publications

Appendix 29: Information Sources

A29.1 Selected Organizations Relevant to Safety and Loss Prevention

Appendix 30: Units and Unit Conversions

A30.1 Absolute and Gauge Pressures

A30.2 Other Units and Conversions

Appendix 31: Process Safety Management (PSM) Regulation in the United States

A31.1 The Process Safety Management Program

A31.2 Summary Comparison of OSHA Elements with CCPS Elements

A31.3 National Emphasis Program

Appendix 32: Risk Management Program Regulation in the United States

A32.1 The Risk Management Program

Appendix 33: Incident Databases

A33.1 Incident Databases

A33.2 Injury and Fatality Databases (Not Tied to Specific Incidents)

A33.3 Incident Investigation Reports

Appendix 34: Web Links

A34.1 General Information

A34.2 Technical Information

A34.3 University Academic Programs

A34.4 Government Organizations

A34.5 Societies, Councils, Institutes

A34.6 Security and Vulnerability Assessment

Appendix 35: Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

A35.1 Introduction

A35.2 Hurricane Katrina

A35.3 Hurricane Rita

A35.4 Effect on the Industry

A35.5 Lessons Learned

A35.6 Recommendations

Appendix 36: BP America Refinery Explosion, Texas City, Texas, USA

A36.1 Introduction

A36.2 Overview of BP Management Framework and Organizational Structure

A36.3 Incident Description

A36.4 Root and Contributing Causes

A36.5 Recommendations

Appendix 37: Buncefield Incident

A37.1 Description of the Incident

A37.2 Causes of the Incident

A37.3 Lessons Learned from the Incident

A37.4 Regulations and Standards in the Industry after the Incident

Appendix 38: Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster

A38.1 Development of the Space Shuttle Program

A38.2 Columbia’s Final Flight

A38.3 Accident Analysis

A38.4 Other Factors Considered

A38.5 From Challenger to Columbia

A38.6 Decision Making at NASA

A38.7 The Accident’s Organizational Causes

A38.8 History as Cause: Columbia and Challenger

A38.9 Implications for the Future of Human Space Flight

A38.10 Other Significant Observations

A38.11 Recommendations

Appendix 39: Tank Farm Incidents

A39.1 Tank Farms

A39.2 Hazards in Tank Farms

A39.3 Prevention of Tank Farm Incidents

A39.4 Related Regulations about Tanks and Tank Farms

A39.5 Tank Farm Incidents

A39.6 Incident Statistics

A39.7 Case Study Material and Examples

A39.8 Tank Farm Spacing Study: Optimization Model

A39.9 Optimization Model Formulations

A39.10 Modeling Case Study

A39.11 Conclusions

Appendix 40: Deepwater Horizon

A40.1 Lessons from the Deepwater Horizon Incident

A40.2 The Companies and the Management

A40.3 The Site and the Works

A40.4 Deepwater Horizon and Drilling Operations

A40.5 Events Prior to the Explosions

A40.6 The Emergency and Evacuation

A40.7 Containment

A40.8 The Investigations

A40.9 Impact

Appendix 41: Safety Characteristics Database CHEMSAFE®

A41.1 Introduction

A41.2 The Database CHEMSAFE®

A41.3 Content of CHEMSAFE®

A41.4 Classifying Hazardous Substances and Dangerous Goods Using CHEMSAFE®

A41.5 Access to CHEMSAFE®

A41.6 Summary


Loss Prevention Bulletin (Institution of Chemical Engineers)



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1st June 2012
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About the Author

Frank Lees

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Loughborough, UK

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