Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries

Lees' Loss Prevention in the Process Industries

Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control

4th Edition - August 3, 2012

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  • Author: Frank Lees
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123977823
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123971890

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Safety in the process industries is critical for those who work with chemicals and hazardous substances or processes. The field of loss prevention is, and continues to be, of supreme importance to countless companies, municipalities and governments around the world, and Lees’ is a detailed reference to defending against hazards. Recognized as the standard work for chemical and process engineering safety professionals, it provides the most complete collection of information on the theory, practice, design elements, equipment, regulations and laws covering the field of process safety. An entire library of alternative books (and cross-referencing systems) would be needed to replace or improve upon it, but everything of importance to safety professionals, engineers and managers can be found in this all-encompassing three volume reference instead.

Key Features

  • The process safety encyclopedia, trusted worldwide for over 30 years
  • Now available in print and online, to aid searchability and portability
  • Over 3,600 print pages cover the full scope of process safety and loss prevention, compiling theory, practice, standards, legislation, case studies and lessons learned in one resource as opposed to multiple sources


Safety and loss prevention professionals; process and plant engineers; environmental and chemical safety professionals; in all chemical, petroleum and process industry sectors

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface to Fourth Edition

    Preface to Third Edition

    Preface to Second Edition

    Preface to First Edition




    Use of References

    List of Contributors

    Volume 1

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    1.1 Management Leadership

    1.2 Industrial Safety and Loss Trends

    1.3 Safety and Environmental Concerns

    1.4 Loss Prevention – 1

    1.5 Large Single-Stream Plants

    1.6 Loss Prevention – 2

    1.7 Total Loss Control

    1.8 Quality Assurance

    1.9 Total Quality Management

    1.10 Risk Management

    1.11 Safety-Critical Systems

    1.12 Environment and Sustainable Development

    1.13 Responsible Care

    1.14 Academic and Research Activities

    1.15 Overview

    Chapter 2. Incidents and Loss Statistics

    2.1 The Incident Process

    2.2 Standard Industrial Classification

    2.3 Injury Statistics

    2.4 Major Disasters

    2.5 Major Process Hazards

    2.6 Fire Loss Statistics

    2.7 Fire and Explosion

    2.8 Causes of Loss

    2.9 Down-Time Losses

    2.10 Trend of Injuries

    2.11 Trend of Losses

    2.12 Case Histories

    Chapter 3. Legislation and Law

    3.1 US Legislation

    3.2 US Regulatory Agencies

    3.3 Codes and Standards

    3.4 Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970

    3.5 US Environmental Legislation

    3.6 US Toxic Substances Legislation

    3.7 US Accidental Chemical Release Legislation

    3.8 US Transport Legislation

    3.9 US Security Legislation

    3.10 US Developing Legislation

    3.11 EU Legislations

    3.12 Other Legislation

    3.13 Regulatory Support

    3.14 US Chemical Safety Board

    Chapter 4. Major Hazard Control

    Foreword by Jerry Havens

    4.1 Superstar Technologies

    4.2 Hazard Monitoring

    4.3 Risk Issues

    4.4 Risk Perception

    4.5 Risk Management

    4.6 Hazard Control Policy

    4.7 Nuclear Hazard Control

    4.8 Process Hazard Control: Background

    4.9 Process Hazard Control: Advisory Committee on Major Hazards

    4.10 Process Hazard Control: Major Hazards Arrangements

    4.11 Process Hazard Control: Planning

    4.12 Process Hazard Control: European Community

    4.13 Process Hazard Control: USA

    Chapter 5. Economics and Insurance

    5.1 Economics of Loss Prevention

    5.2 Cost of Losses

    5.3 Cost of Prevention

    5.4 Level of Loss Prevention Expenditure

    5.5 Insurance of Process Plant

    5.6 Property Insurance

    5.7 Individual Insurance

    5.8 Business Interruption Insurance

    5.9 Other Insurance Aspects

    5.10 Notation

    Chapter 6. Management and Management Systems

    6.1 Management Attitude

    6.2 Management Commitment and Leadership

    6.3 Management Organization

    6.4 Competent People

    6.5 Systems and Procedures

    6.6 Project Safety Reviews

    6.7 Management of Change

    6.8 Standards and Codes of Practice

    6.9 Pressure Systems

    6.10 Documentation

    6.11 Audit System

    6.12 Independent Checks

    6.13 Major Hazards

    6.14 Quality Management

    6.15 Safety Management

    6.16 Policy

    6.17 Organization

    6.18 Planning

    6.19 Measurement

    6.20 Control

    6.21 Audit

    6.22 Process Knowledge

    6.23 Safety Strategies

    6.24 Human Factors

    6.25 Contractors

    6.26 Safety Management Systems

    6.27 Process Safety Management

    6.28 CCPS Management Guidelines

    6.29 Regulatory Control

    6.30 STATAS

    Chapter 7. Reliability Engineering

    7.1 Development of Reliability Engineering

    7.2 Reliability Engineering in the Process Industries

    7.3 Definition of Reliability

    7.4 Meanings of Probability

    7.5 Some Probability Relationships

    7.6 Some Reliability Relationships

    7.7 Failure Distributions

    7.8 Reliability of Some Standard Systems

    7.9 Reliability of Complex Systems

    7.10 Markov Models

    7.11 Joint Density Functions

    7.12 Monte Carlo Simulation

    7.13 Availability

    7.14 Bayes’ Theorem

    7.15 Renewal Theory

    7.16 Replacement Models

    7.17 Models of Failure: Strength–Load Interaction

    7.18 Models of Failure: Some Other Models

    7.19 Failure Behavior and Regimes

    7.20 Failure Data Analysis

    7.21 Reliability in Design

    7.22 Reliability Prediction

    7.23 Reliability Growth, Testing, and Demonstration

    7.24 Maintainability

    7.25 Maintenance Activities and Policies

    7.26 Reliability-Centered Maintenance

    7.27 Life Cycle Costing

    7.28 Notation

    Chapter 8. Hazard Identification

    8.1 Safety Audits

    8.2 Management System Audits

    8.3 Checklists

    8.4 Materials Properties

    8.5 Pilot Plants

    8.6 Hazard Indices

    8.7 Hazard Studies

    8.8 What If? Analysis

    8.9 Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    8.10 Bow-Tie Method

    8.11 Preliminary Hazard Analysis

    8.12 Screening Analysis Techniques

    8.13 Hazard and Operability Studies

    8.14 Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis

    8.15 Sneak Analysis

    8.16 Computer HAZOP

    8.17 Human Error Analysis

    8.18 Scenario Development

    8.19 Consequence Modeling

    8.20 Process Safety Review System

    8.21 Choice of Method

    8.22 Filtering and Follow-up

    8.23 Safety Review Systems

    8.24 Hazard Ranking Methods

    8.25 Hazard Warning Analysis

    8.26 Plant Safety Audits

    8.27 Other Methods

    8.28 Quality Assurance

    8.29 Quality Assurance: Completeness

    8.30 Quality Assurance: QUASA

    8.31 Standards

    8.32 Notation

    Chapter 9. Hazard Assessment

    9.1 Background

    9.2 Hazard Analysis

    9.3 Risk Assessment

    9.4 Event Data

    9.5 Fault Trees

    9.6 Event Trees

    9.7 Bow-Tie Diagrams

    9.8 Cause–Consequence Diagrams

    9.9 Dependent Failures

    9.10 Expert Judgment

    9.11 Rare Events and External Threats

    9.12 Human Factors and Human Error

    9.13 Management Aspects

    9.14 Hazard Model Systems

    9.15 Population Characteristics

    9.16 Modification of Exposure

    9.17 Injury Relations

    9.18 Presentation of Results

    9.19 Confidence in Results

    9.20 Risk Criteria

    9.21 Guide Assessments

    9.22 Hazard Impact Model

    9.23 Simplified Assessment Methods

    9.24 Decay Relations

    9.25 Hazard Warning

    9.26 Computer Aids

    9.27 Risk Assessment Debate

    9.28 Overview

    Chapter 10. Plant Siting and Layout

    10.1 Plant Siting

    10.2 Plant Layout

    10.3 Layout Generation

    10.4 Layout Techniques and Aids

    10.5 Layout Planning and Development

    10.6 Site Layout Features

    10.7 Plot Layout Considerations

    10.8 Equipment Layout

    10.9 Piping Layout

    10.10 Storage Layout

    10.11 Separation Distances

    10.12 Hazardous Area Classification

    10.13 Hazard Assessment

    10.14 Hazard Models

    10.15 Fire Protection

    10.16 Effluents

    10.17 Drain Systems

    10.18 Blast-Resistant Structures

    10.19 Control Buildings

    10.20 Portable Buildings

    10.21 Toxics Protection

    10.22 Modular Plants

    10.23 Notation

    Chapter 11. Process Design

    11.1 The Design Process

    11.2 Conceptual – Front End Design

    11.3 Detailed Engineering

    11.4 Design Assessments

    11.5 Licensors, Vendors, and Contractors

    11.6 Inherently Safer Design

    11.7 Unit Processes

    11.8 Unit Operations and Equipments

    11.9 Operating Conditions

    11.10 Utilities

    11.11 Particular Chemicals

    11.12 Particular Processes and Plants

    11.13 Operational Deviations

    11.14 Impurities

    11.15 CCPS Engineering Design Guidelines

    11.16 Integration of Safety into the Process Design

    Chapter 12. Pressure System Design

    12.1 Pressure Systems

    12.2 Pressure System Components

    12.3 Steels and Their Properties

    12.4 Pressure Vessel Design

    12.5 Joining, Fastening, and Welding

    12.6 Pressure Vessel Standards and Codes

    12.7 Pipework and Valves

    12.8 Heat Exchangers

    12.9 Fired Heaters and Furnaces

    12.10 Process Machinery

    12.11 Insulation

    12.12 Overpressure Protection

    12.13 Overpressure Protection: Pressure Relief Devices

    12.14 Overpressure Protection: Relief System Design

    12.15 Overpressure Protection: Fire Relief

    12.16 Overpressure Protection: Vacuum and Thermal Relief

    12.17 Overpressure Protection: Special Situations

    12.18 Overpressure Protection: Disposal

    12.19 Overpressure Protection: Pressure Relief Valves

    12.20 Overpressure Protection: Bursting Discs

    12.21 Overpressure Protection: Installation of Relief Devices

    12.22 Flare and Vent Systems

    12.23 Blowdown and Depressuring Systems

    12.24 Pressure Containment

    12.25 Containment of Toxic Materials

    12.26 Pressure Systems for Chlorine

    12.27 Failure in Pressure Systems

    12.28 Fracture Mechanics

    12.29 Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics

    12.30 Failure of Vessels, Equipment, and Machinery

    12.31 Computer-Aid Pressure and Pressure Protection System Design

    Chapter 13. Control System Design

    13.1 Process Characteristics

    13.2 Control System Characteristics

    13.3 Instrument System Design

    13.4 Process Computer Control

    13.5 Control of Batch Processes

    13.6 Control of Particular Units

    13.7 Computer Integrated Manufacturing

    13.8 Instrument Failure

    13.9 Trip Systems

    13.10 Interlock Systems

    13.11 Programmable Logic Systems

    13.12 Programmable Electronic Systems

    13.13 Software Engineering

    13.14 Safety-Related Instrument Systems

    13.15 CCPS Safe Automation Guidelines

    13.16 Emergency Shut-Down Systems

    13.17 Level of Automation

    13.18 Toxic Storage Instrumentation

    13.19 Notation

    Chapter 14. Human Factors and Human Error

    14.1 Aims of Human Factors

    14.2 Role of the Process Operator

    14.3 Human Factors in Process Control

    14.4 Process Operator Functions

    14.5 Process Operator Studies

    14.6 Allocation of Function

    14.7 Human Information Processing

    14.8 Case Studies in Human Error

    14.9 Definition of Human Error

    14.10 Human Factor Approaches to Assessing Human Error

    14.11 Quantitative Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    14.12 Success Likelihood Index Method (SLIM)

    14.13 Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART)

    14.14 Dougherty and Fragola Method (D&F)

    14.15 CCPS Method

    14.16 Other Methods

    14.17 Human Factor Approaches to Mitigating Human Error

    14.18 Alarm Systems

    14.19 Human Error and Plant Design

    14.20 Fault Administration

    14.21 Malfunction Detection

    14.22 Computer-Based Aids

    14.23 Job Design

    14.24 Personnel Selection

    14.25 Training

    14.26 CCPS Guidelines for Preventing Human Error in Process Safety

    14.27 Notation

    Chapter 15. Emission and Dispersion

    15.1 Emission

    15.2 Two-phase Flow

    15.3 Two-phase Flow: Fauske Models

    15.4 Two-phase Flow: Leung Models

    15.5 Vessel Depressurization

    15.6 Pressure Relief Valves

    15.7 Vessel Blowdown

    15.8 Vessel Rupture

    15.9 Pipeline Rupture

    15.10 Vaporization

    15.11 Dispersion

    15.12 Meteorology

    15.13 Topography

    15.14 Dispersion Modeling

    15.15 Passive Dispersion

    15.16 Passive Dispersion: Models

    15.17 Passive Dispersion: Dispersion over Particular Surfaces

    15.18 Passive Dispersion: Dispersion in Particular Conditions

    15.19 Passive Dispersion: Dispersion Parameters

    15.20 Dispersion of Jets and Plumes

    15.21 Dispersion of Two-phase Flashing Jets

    15.22 Dense Gas Dispersion

    15.23 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Source Terms

    15.24 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Models and Modeling

    15.25 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Modified Conventional Models

    15.26 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Van Ulden Model

    15.27 Dispersion of Dense Gas: British Gas/Cremer and Warner Model

    15.28 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DENZ and CRUNCH

    15.29 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SIGMET

    15.30 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SLAB and FEM3

    15.31 Dispersion of Dense Gas: HEGADAS and Related Models

    15.32 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DEGADIS

    15.33 Dispersion of Dense Gas: SLUMP and HEAVYGAS

    15.34 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Workbook Model

    15.35 Dispersion of Dense Gas: DRIFT and Related Models

    15.36 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Some Other Models and Reviews

    15.37 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Field Trials

    15.38 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Thorney Island Trials

    15.39 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Physical Modeling

    15.40 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Terrain, Obstructions, and Buildings

    15.41 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Validation and Comparison

    15.42 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Particular Gases

    15.43 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Plumes from Elevated Sources

    15.44 Dispersion of Dense Gas: Plumes from Elevated Sources – PLUME

    15.45 Concentration and Concentration Fluctuations

    15.46 Flammable Gas Clouds

    15.47 Toxic Gas Clouds

    15.48 Dispersion over Short Distances

    15.49 Hazard Ranges for Dispersion

    15.50 Transformation and Removal Processes

    15.51 Infiltration into Buildings

    15.52 Source and Dispersion Modeling: CCPS Guidelines

    15.53 Vapor Release Mitigation: Containment and Barriers

    15.54 Vapor Cloud Mitigation: CCPS Guidelines

    15.55 Fugitive Emissions

    15.56 Leaks and Spillages

    15.57 Classification of Models

    15.58 Notation

    Chapter 16. Fire

    16.1 Fire

    16.2 Flammability of Gases and Vapors

    16.3 Combustion Phenomena

    16.4 Flammability of Aerosols

    16.5 Ignition Sources

    16.6 Self-Heating

    16.7 Static Electricity

    16.8 Electrical Equipment

    16.9 Hazardous Area Classification

    16.10 Ignition Models

    16.11 Fire in Process Plant

    16.12 Flames

    16.13 Radiant Heat Transfer

    16.14 Vapor Cloud Fires

    16.15 Fireballs

    16.16 Fireballs from Explosives

    16.17 Pool Fires

    16.18 Flares

    16.19 Jet Flames

    16.20 Engulfing Fires

    16.21 Effects of Fire: Damage

    16.22 Effects of Fire: Injury

    16.23 Fire Protection of Process Plant

    16.24 Passive Fire Protection

    16.25 Fire Fighting Agents

    16.26 Fire Protection Using Water: Extinguishment and Control

    16.27 Fire Protection Using Water: Exposure Protection

    16.28 Fire Protection Using Foam

    16.29 Fire Protection Using Dry Chemicals

    16.30 Fire Protection Using Vaporizing Liquids

    16.31 Fire Protection Using Inert Gas

    16.32 Fire Protection Using Special Methods

    16.33 Fire Protection Using Portable Extinguishers

    16.34 Fire Protection Applications

    16.35 Firefighting in Process Plant

    16.36 Fire and Fire Protection in Buildings

    16.37 Fire Protection in Transport

    16.38 Fire Hazard

    16.39 Hazard Range of Fire

    16.40 Notation

    Volume 2

    Chapter 17. Explosion

    17.1 Explosion

    17.2 Detonation

    17.3 Explosives

    17.4 Explosion Energy

    17.5 Deflagration Inside Plant

    17.6 Detonation Inside Vessels and Pipes

    17.7 Explosions in Closed Vessels

    17.8 Explosions in Buildings

    17.9 Explosions in Large Enclosures

    17.10 Explosion Prevention

    17.11 Explosion Protection

    17.12 Explosion Venting of Vessels

    17.13 Explosion Venting of Ducts and Pipes

    17.14 Explosion Relief of Buildings

    17.15 Explosion Relief of Large Enclosures

    17.16 Venting of Reactors

    17.17 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: DIERS

    17.18 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Vent Flow

    17.19 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Vent Sizing

    17.20 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: Leung Model

    17.21 Venting of Reactors and Vessels: ICI Scheme

    17.22 Venting of Reactors: Relief Disposal

    17.23 Venting of Reactors: CCPS Work

    17.24 Venting of Storage Vessels

    17.25 Explosive Shock in Air

    17.26 Condensed Phase Explosions

    17.27 Vessel Burst Explosions

    17.28 Vapor Cloud Explosions

    17.29 Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosions

    17.30 Explosions in Process Plant

    17.31 Effects of Explosions

    17.32 Explosion Damage to Structures

    17.33 Explosion Damage to Housing

    17.34 Explosion Damage by Missiles

    17.35 Explosion Damage to Plant by Missiles

    17.36 Explosion of a Cased Explosive

    17.37 Explosion of an Explosive Load

    17.38 Explosion Injury to Persons Outdoors

    17.39 Explosion Injury to Persons Indoors

    17.40 Explosion Injury from Flying Glass

    17.41 Explosion Injury from Penetrating Fragments

    17.42 Explosion Injury from Penetrating Fragments: Model of Gilbert, Lees, and Scilly

    17.43 Dust Explosions

    17.44 Dust Explosibility Characteristics

    17.45 Dust Ignition Sources

    17.46 Dust Explosion Prevention

    17.47 Dust Explosion Protection

    17.48 Dust Explosion Venting

    17.49 Dust-Handling Plants

    17.50 Dust Fires

    17.51 Explosion Hazard

    17.52 Hazard Range of Explosions

    17.53 Notation

    Chapter 18. Toxic Release

    18.1 Toxic Effects

    18.2 Toxic Substances

    18.3 Toxicity Assessment

    18.4 Control of Toxic Hazard: Regulatory Controls

    18.5 Hygiene Standards

    18.6 Hygiene Standards: Occupational Exposure Limits

    18.7 Carcinogens

    18.8 Dusts

    18.9 Metals

    18.10 Emergency Exposure Limits

    18.11 Gas Toxicity

    18.12 Gas Toxicity: Experimental Determination

    18.13 Gas Toxicity: Physiological Factors

    18.14 Gas Toxicity: Toxicity Data

    18.15 Gas Toxicity: Vulnerability Model

    18.16 Gas Toxicity: Major Industrial Gases

    18.17 Gas Toxicity: MHAP Studies

    18.18 Gas Toxicity: Chlorine

    18.19 Gas Toxicity: Green Book Relations

    18.20 Gas Toxicity: Probit Equations

    18.21 Gas Toxicity: HSE Dangerous Dose

    18.22 Gas Toxicity: Combustion Gases

    18.23 Ultratoxic Substances

    18.24 Plant Design for Toxic Substances

    18.25 Toxic Gas Detection

    18.26 Toxic Release Response

    18.27 Toxic Release Case Histories

    18.28 Toxic Release Risk

    18.29 Chlorine Hazard Assessment

    18.30 Other Chemicals Hazard Assessment

    18.31 Hazard Assessment Methodology

    18.32 Notation

    Chapter 19. Plant Commissioning and Inspection

    19.1 Plant Commissioning

    19.2 Plant Inspection

    19.3 Pressure Vessel Inspection

    19.4 Pressure Piping Systems Inspection

    19.5 Non-Destructive Testing

    19.6 Materials Verification

    19.7 Pressure Testing

    19.8 Leak Testing and Detection

    19.9 Plant Monitoring

    19.10 Performance Monitoring

    19.11 Condition Monitoring

    19.12 Vibration Monitoring

    19.13 Corrosion Monitoring

    19.14 Acoustic Emission Monitoring

    19.15 Plant Monitoring: Specific Equipment

    19.16 Pipeline Inspection and Monitoring

    19.17 Notation

    Chapter 20. Plant Operation

    20.1 Inherently Safer Design to Prevent or Minimize Operator Errors

    20.2 Operating Discipline

    20.3 Good Operating Practices

    20.4 Operating Procedures and Instructions

    20.5 Emergency Procedures

    20.6 Handover and Permit Systems

    20.7 Operator Training

    20.8 Plant Patrols

    20.9 Modifications to the Process

    20.10 Operation and Maintenance

    20.11 Start-up and Shut-Down

    20.12 Start-up of Refinery Units

    20.13 Shut-down of Refinery Units

    20.14 Operation of Fired Heaters

    20.15 Operation of Driers

    20.16 Operation of Storage

    20.17 Operational Activities and Hazards

    20.18 Sampling

    20.19 Trip Systems

    20.20 Identification Measures

    20.21 Exposure of Personnel

    20.22 Security

    20.23 Notation

    Chapter 21. Equipment Maintenance and Modification

    21.1 Management of Maintenance

    21.2 Hazards of Maintenance

    21.3 Preparation for Maintenance

    21.4 Isolation

    21.5 Purging

    21.6 Cleaning

    21.7 Confined Spaces

    21.8 Permit Systems

    21.9 Maintenance Equipment

    21.10 Flanged Joints

    21.11 Hot Work

    21.12 Tank Cleaning, Repair and Demolition

    21.13 On-Line Repairs

    21.14 Maintenance of Particular Equipment

    21.15 Equipment Removal

    21.16 Deteriorated Equipment

    21.17 Some Maintenance Problems

    21.18 Major Shut-Downs

    21.19 Maintenance Information Systems

    21.20 Spares Inventory

    21.21 Computer Systems

    21.22 Modifications to Equipment

    21.23 Software and Network Maintenance

    21.24 Managing Change

    21.25 Some Modification Problems

    21.26 Major Plant Expansions

    21.27 Maintenance Optimization

    21.28 Maintenance Personnel Training

    21.29 Notation

    Chapter 22. Storage

    22.1 General Considerations

    22.2 API Standards

    22.3 Petroleum Product Storage

    22.4 Storage Tanks and Vessels

    22.5 Selection of Materials for Storage Tanks

    22.6 Storage Layout

    22.7 Venting and Relief

    22.8 Fire Prevention and Protection

    22.9 LPG Storage

    22.10 LPG Storage: Pressure Storage

    22.11 LPG Storage: Refrigerated Storage

    22.12 LNG Storage

    22.13 LNG Storage: Refrigerated Storage

    22.14 Hydrogen Storage

    22.15 Toxics Storage

    22.16 High Toxic Hazard Materials: CCPS Guidelines

    22.17 Chlorine Storage

    22.18 Ammonia Storage

    22.19 Ammonia Storage: Pressure Storage

    22.20 Ammonia Storage: Refrigerated Storage

    22.21 Ammonia Storage: Stress Corrosion Cracking

    22.22 Other Chemicals Storage

    22.23 Bunds

    22.24 Underground Storage Tanks

    22.25 Glass Reinforced Plastic Storage

    22.26 Filling Ratio

    22.27 Loading and Unloading Facilities

    22.28 Loading and Unloading Facilities: Particular Chemicals

    22.29 Drum and Cylinder Storage

    22.30 Warehouses

    22.31 Warehouses: Particular Chemicals Storage

    22.32 Storage Case Histories

    22.33 Storage Risk

    22.34 LPG Storage Hazard Assessment

    22.35 LNG Storage Hazard Assessment

    22.36 Ammonia Storage Hazard Assessment

    22.37 Storage Tanks Protection from Terrorism

    22.38 Notation

    Chapter 23. Transport

    23.1 General Considerations

    23.2 International Codes

    23.3 Classification, Packaging, and Labeling

    23.4 Transport Containers

    23.5 Road Transport

    23.6 Road Transport Environment

    23.7 Rail Transport

    23.8 Rail Transport Environment

    23.9 Road and Rail Tunnels

    23.10 Waterway Transport

    23.11 Pipeline Transport

    23.12 Marine Transport: Shipping

    23.13 Marine Transport: Regulatory Controls

    23.14 Marine Transport: Ports and Harbors

    23.15 Marine Transport: Shipboard Fire and Fire Protection

    23.16 Marine Transport: Liquefied Flammable Gas

    23.17 Marine Transport: Chemicals

    23.18 Marine Transport Environment

    23.19 Air Transport

    23.20 Transport Emergency Planning and Spill Control

    23.21 Transport Case Histories

    23.22 Transport Risk

    23.23 Transport Risk Assessment

    23.24 Road Transport Risk Assessment

    23.25 Rail Transport Risk Assessment

    23.26 Tunnel Transport Risk Assessment

    23.27 Pipeline Transport Risk Assessment

    23.28 Marine Transport Risk Assessment

    23.29 Transport Hazard Assessment: Comparative Risks

    23.30 Security Issues

    23.31 Notation

    Chapter 24. Emergency Planning

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 On-site Emergency Planning

    24.3 Resources and Capabilities

    24.4 Developing an Emergency Plan

    24.5 Training

    24.6 Essential Functions and Nominated Personnel

    24.7 Declaration and Communication of the Emergency

    24.8 Evacuation

    24.9 Cooperation and Drills

    24.10 Public Relations

    24.11 Off-Site Emergency Planning

    24.12 Transport Emergency Planning

    24.13 Emergency Planning for Disasters

    24.14 Spectators

    24.15 Emergency Incidents

    24.16 Recovery

    24.17 Regulations and Standards

    Appendix A NFPA Publications

    Chapter 25. Personal Safety

    25.1 Human Factors

    25.2 Occupational Health

    25.3 Occupational Hygiene

    25.4 COSHH Regulations 1988

    25.5 Dust Hazards

    25.6 Asbestos Dust

    25.7 Ventilation

    25.8 Skin Disease

    25.9 Physico-Chemical Hazards

    25.10 Ionizing Radiation Hazards

    25.11 Non-Ionizing Radiation Hazards

    25.12 Machinery Hazards

    25.13 Electricity Hazards

    25.14 Other Activities and Hazards

    25.15 Personal Protective Equipment

    25.16 Respiratory Protective Equipment

    25.17 Rescue and First Aid

    25.18 Ergonomics

    25.19 Notation

    Chapter 26. Accident Research

    26.1 Definition of Accidents

    26.2 Classification of Accidents

    26.3 Accident Causation

    26.4 Accident Models

    26.5 Accident Proneness

    26.6 Human Error

    26.7 Social Factors

    26.8 Impact of Safety Culture

    26.9 Safety Training

    26.10 Major Hazards Research

    Chapter 27. Information Feedback

    27.1 The Learning Process

    27.2 Incident Reporting

    27.3 Operation Monitoring

    27.4 Accident Models

    27.5 Accident Investigation

    27.6 Fire Investigation

    27.7 Explosion Investigation

    27.8 Accident Investigation: CCPS Guidelines

    27.9 Public Accident Inquiries

    27.10 Organizational Memory

    27.11 Case Histories

    27.12 Information Exchange

    27.13 Accident Databases

    27.14 Safety Performance Measurement

    27.15 Safety Performance Monitoring

    27.16 Near Miss Reporting

    27.17 Education

    27.18 Teaching Aids

    27.19 Notation

    Chapter 28. Safety Management Systems

    28.1 Safety Culture

    28.2 Safety Organization

    28.3 Safety Policy Statement

    28.4 Safety Representatives

    28.5 Safety Committees

    28.6 Safety Adviser

    28.7 Safety Training

    28.8 Safety Communication

    28.9 Safety Auditing

    28.10 Safety Rating

    28.11 Management Procedure to Implement Required Changes to Establish Proper Safety

    28.12 Use of Tools for Better Safety Management Systems

    Chapter 29. Computer Aids

    29.1 Expert Systems in Process Engineering

    29.2 Combination of Process Safety with Design and Optimization

    29.3 Computer Aided Process Engineering

    29.4 Pipework and Fluid Flow

    29.5 Unit Operation and Equipment

    29.6 Databases, Bibliographies, and Indexes

    29.7 Compliance Management

    29.8 Computational Fluid Dynamics

    29.9 Hazard Identification

    29.10 Pressure Relief Devices Sizing

    29.11 Hazard Assessment Systems

    29.12 Virtual Training

    29.13 Transport

    Chapter 30. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems

    30.1 Knowledge Representation

    30.2 Databases

    30.3 Prepositional Logic

    30.4 Predicate Logic

    30.5 Non-Deductive Inference

    30.6 Production Rules

    30.7 Non-classical Logics

    30.8 Uncertainty and Inconsistency

    30.9 Probabilistic Reasoning

    30.10 Fuzzy Logic

    30.11 Programming Languages

    30.12 Structured Knowledge

    30.13 Search

    30.14 Matching and Pattern Recognition

    30.15 Problem-Solving and Games

    30.16 Vision

    30.17 Natural Language

    30.18 Planning

    30.19 Learning

    30.20 Inductive Learning

    30.21 Neural Networks

    30.22 Graphs, Trees, and Networks

    30.23 Directed Graphs

    30.24 Expert Systems

    30.25 Expert Systems: Some Systems and Tools

    30.26 Qualitative Modeling

    30.27 Engineering Design

    30.28 Process Applications

    30.29 Project Aids

    30.30 Process Modeling

    30.31 DESIGN-KIT

    30.32 Process Synthesis

    30.33 Plant Design: Synthesis

    30.34 Plant Design: Analysis

    30.35 Expert Systems: Some Process Systems

    30.36 Fault Propagation

    30.37 Hazard Identification

    30.38 Hazard Identification: HAZID

    30.39 Hazard Identification: Enhancements

    30.40 Fault Tree Analysis

    30.41 Fault Tree Synthesis

    30.42 Fault Tree Synthesis: FAULTFINDER

    30.43 Operating Procedure Synthesis

    30.44 Process Monitoring

    30.45 Fault Administration

    30.46 Malfunction Detection

    30.47 Notation

    Chapter 31. Incident Investigation

    31.1 Preface

    31.2 General Investigation Concepts

    31.3 Evidence Issues

    31.4 The Investigation Team

    31.5 Identifying Root Causes

    31.6 Recommendations, Reports, and Lessons Learned

    31.7 Management System for Investigations

    Chapter 32. Inherently Safer Design

    32.1 Introduction

    32.2 Definitions

    32.3 History of Inherently Safer Design

    32.4 Strategies for Process Risk Management

    32.5 Inherently Safer Design Strategies

    32.6 Inherently Safer Design Conflicts

    32.7 Measuring Inherent Safety Characteristics of a Process

    32.8 Inherently Safer Design and the Process Life Cycle

    32.9 Implementing Inherently Safer Design

    32.10 Inherent Safety and Chemical Plant Security

    32.11 Inherently Safer Design References

    Chapter 33. Reactive Chemicals

    33.1 Background

    33.2 Technical

    33.3 Program Management

    Chapter 34. Safety Instrumented Systems

    34.1 Introduction

    34.2 Examples of SIS

    34.3 SIS Standards

    34.4 Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA)

    34.5 Level of Automation

    34.6 Design

    34.7 Verify

    34.8 Operate

    34.9 Maintain

    34.10 Test

    34.11 Special Applications

    Chapter 35. Chemical Security

    35.1 Introduction

    35.2 Security Management System

    35.3 Security Strategies

    35.4 Countermeasures and Security Risk Management Concepts

    35.5 SVA Methodologies

    35.6 Defining the Risk to be Managed

    35.7 Overview of an SVA Methodology

    35.8 Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS)

    35.9 Chemical Security Assessment Tool (CSAT)

    35.10 Inherently Safer Technology (IST)

    Chapter 36. Safety Culture

    36.1 Introduction

    36.2 Definition of Safety Culture

    36.3 Developments in Safety Culture

    36.4 Evaluating Safety Culture

    36.5 Implementing Safety Culture

    36.6 Conclusion

    Chapter 37. Metrics and Performance Measurements

    37.1 Introduction

    37.2 Different Types of Metrics

    37.3 Choosing Useful Metrics

    37.4 Implementing the Selected Metrics

    37.5 Application of Metrics with Examples

    37.6 Future Efforts for Generating Industry-Wide Metrics

    37.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 38. Benchmarking in the Process Industry

    38.1 Introduction

    38.2 Benchmarking Outline

    38.3 Possible Barriers and Resolutions for Benchmarking

    38.4 Examples of Benchmarking Activities

    Chapter 39. Liquefied Natural Gas

    39.1 LNG Properties

    39.2 LNG Industry

    39.3 LNG Hazards

    39.4 LNG Spills Experiments and Modeling

    39.5 Safety Measures in LNG Facilities

    39.6 Regulatory Authorities and Regulations

    Chapter 40. Sustainable Development

    40.1 Sustainable Development Concepts

    40.2 Sustainable Development Principles for Engineering

    40.3 Sustainability Measurement

    40.4 Analytical Tools: LCA

    Appendix 1: Case Histories

    A1.1 Incident Sources

    A1.2 Incident Databases

    A1.3 Reporting of Incidents

    A1.4 Reporting of Injuries in Incidents

    A1.5 Reporting of Injuries at National Level

    A1.6 Incident Diagrams, Plans, and Maps

    A1.7 Incidents Involving Fire Fighting

    A1.8 Incidents Involving Condensed Phase Explosives

    A1.9 Incidents Involving Spontaneously Combustible Substances

    A1.10 Case Histories: Some Principal Incidents

    A1.11 Case Histories: A Series

    A1.12 Case Histories: B Series

    A1.13 Some Other Incidents and Problems

    A1.14 Notation

    Appendix 2: Flixborough

    A2.1 The Company and the Management

    A2.2 The Site and the Works

    A2.3 The Process and the Plant

    A2.4 Events Prior to the Explosion

    A2.5 The Explosion −1

    A2.6 The Investigation

    A2.7 The Explosion − 2

    A2.8 Some Lessons of Flixborough

    A2.9 Critiques

    A2.10 Recent CFD Reports About Flixborough

    Appendix 3: Seveso

    A3.1 The Company and the Management

    A3.2 The Site and the Works

    A3.3 The Process and the Plant

    A3.4 TCDD and its Properties

    A3.5 Previous Incidents Involving TCP and TCDD

    A3.6 Events Prior to the Release

    A3.7 The Release – 1

    A3.8 The Emergency and the Immediate Aftermath

    A3.9 The Investigation

    A3.10 The Release – 2

    A3.11 The Later Aftermath, Contamination, and Decontamination

    A3.12 Some Lessons from Seveso

    Appendix 4: Mexico City

    A4.1 The Site and the Plant

    A4.2 The Fire and Explosion – 1

    A4.3 The Emergency

    A4.4 The Fire and Explosion − 2

    A4.5 Some Lessons of Mexico City

    Appendix 5: Bhopal

    A5.1 The Company and the Management

    A5.2 The Site and the Works

    A5.3 The Process and the Plant

    A5.4 MIC and its Properties

    A5.5 Events Prior to the Release

    A5.6 The Release

    A5.7 The Emergency and the Immediate Aftermath

    A5.8 The Investigations

    A5.9 The Late Aftermath

    A5.10 Some Lessons of Bhopal

    Appendix 6: Pasadena

    A6.1 The Site and the Plant

    A6.2 Events Prior to the Explosion

    A6.3 The Explosion

    A6.4 The Emergency and the Aftermath

    A6.5 Some Lessons of Pasadena

    Appendix 7: Canvey Reports

    A7.1 First Canvey Report

    A7.2 First Canvey Report: Installations and Activities

    A7.3 First Canvey Report: Identified Hazards

    A7.4 First Canvey Report: Failure and Event Data

    A7.5 First Canvey Report: Hazard Models and Risk Estimates

    A7.6 First Canvey Report: Assessed Risks and Actions

    A7.7 First Canvey Report: Responses to Report

    A7.8 Second Canvey Report

    A7.9 Second Canvey Report: Reassessed Risks and Actions

    A7.10 Second Canvey Report: Technical Aspects

    A7.11 Notation

    Appendix 8: Rijnmond Report

    A8.1 The Investigation

    A8.2 Installations and Activities

    A8.3 Event Data

    A8.4 Hazard Models

    A8.5 Injury Relations

    A8.6 Population Characteristics

    A8.7 Mitigation of Exposure

    A8.8 Individual Assessments

    A8.9 Assessed Risks

    A8.10 Remedial Measures

    A8.11 Critiques

    A8.12 Notation

    Appendix 9: Laboratories

    A9.1 Legal Requirements

    A9.2 Laboratory Management Systems

    A9.3 Laboratory Personnel

    A9.4 Laboratory Codes

    A9.5 Laboratory Hazards

    A9.6 Laboratory Design

    A9.7 Laboratory Equipment

    A9.8 Laboratory Services

    A9.9 Laboratory Storage and Waste Disposal

    A9.10 Laboratory Operation

    A9.11 Laboratory Fire and Explosion Protection

    A9.12 Emergency Planning

    Appendix 10: Pilot Plants

    A10.1 Pilot Plant Uses, Types, and Strategies

    A10.2 Pilot Plant Features and Hazards

    A10.3 Pilot Plant Scale-up

    A10.4 Pilot Plant Design

    A10.5 Pilot Plant Operation

    A10.6 Pilot Plant Safety

    A10.7 Pilot Plant Programs

    A10.8 Cost Estimating for Pilot Plants

    Appendix 11: Safety, Health, and the Environment

    Safety, Health, and the Environment

    Pollution of the Environment

    Appendix 12: Noise

    A12.1 Regulatory Controls

    A12.2 Process Plant Noise

    A12.3 Noise Control Terminology

    A12.4 Noise Monitoring

    A12.5 Noise Control

    A12.6 PPE

    A12.7 Training

    A12.8 Notation

    Appendix 13: Safety Factors for Simple Relief Systems

    A13.1 Comments on Safety Factors to be Applied When Sizing a Simple Relief System

    Appendix 14: Failure and Event Data

    A14.1 Types of Data

    A14.2 Definition and Regimes of Failure

    A14.3 Influence Factors

    A14.4 Collection of Data

    A14.5 Sources of Data

    A14.6 Status of Data

    A14.7 Processing of Data

    A14.8 Uncertainty of Data

    A14.9 Databases

    A14.10 Inventory

    A14.11 Inventory of Equipment in Plants

    A14.12 Vessel and Tanks

    A14.13 Pipework

    A14.14 Heat Exchangers

    A14.15 Rotating Machinery

    A14.16 Valves

    A14.17 Instruments

    A14.18 Process Computers

    A14.19 Relief Systems

    A14.20 Fire and Gas Detection Systems

    A14.21 Fire Protection Systems

    A14.22 Emergency Shut-Down Systems

    A14.23 Utility Systems

    A14.24 LNG Plants

    A14.25 Leaks

    A14.26 Ignition

    A14.27 Explosion Following Ignition

    A14.28 Fires

    A14.29 Explosions

    A14.30 Transport

    A14.31 External Events

    A14.32 Notation

    Appendix 15: Earthquakes

    A15.1 Earthquake Geophysics

    A15.2 Earthquake Characterization

    A15.3 Earthquake Effects

    A15.4 Earthquake Incidents

    A15.5 Earthquake Damage

    A15.6 Ground Motion Characterization

    A15.7 Ground, Soils, and Foundations

    A15.8 Earthquake-resistant Design

    A15.9 Earthquake Design Codes

    A15.10 Dynamic Analysis of Structures

    A15.11 Seismicity Assessment and Earthquake Prediction

    A15.12 Design Basis Earthquake

    A15.13 Nuclear Installations

    A15.14 Process Installations

    A15.15 Notation

    Appendix 16: San Carlos De La Rapita Disaster

    A16.1 The Camp Site

    A16.2 The Road Tanker

    A16.3 The Fire and Explosions – 1

    A16.4 The Emergency and the Aftermath

    A16.5 The Fire and Explosions – 2

    A16.6 Judgment of the Court

    A16.7 Lessons of San Carlos De La Rapita Disaster

    Appendix 17: ACDS Transport Hazards Report

    A17.1 The Investigation

    A17.2 Substances and Activities

    A17.3 Event Data

    A17.4 Hazard Models

    A17.5 Injury Relations

    A17.6 Population Characteristics

    A17.7 Rail Transport

    A17.8 Road Transport

    A17.9 Marine Transport: Ports

    A17.10 Transport of Explosives

    A17.11 Risk Criteria

    A17.12 Assessed Risks

    A17.13 Risk Evaluation and Remedial Measures

    A17.14 Notation

    Appendix 18: Offshore Process Safety

    A18.1 North Sea Offshore Regulatory Administration

    A18.2 Gulf of Mexico Offshore Regulatory Administration

    A18.3 Offshore Process Safety Management

    A18.4 Offshore Incidents

    A18.5 Inherently Safer Design

    A18.6 Offshore Emergency Planning

    A18.7 Offshore Event Data

    Appendix 19: Piper Alpha

    A19.1 The Company, the Management, and the Personnel

    A19.2 The Field and the Platform

    A19.3 The Process and the Plant

    A19.4 Events Prior to the Explosion

    A19.5 The Explosion, the Escalation, and the Rescue

    A19.6 The Investigation

    A19.7 Some Lessons of Piper Alpha

    A19.8 Recommendations on the Offshore Safety Regime

    Appendix 20: Nuclear Energy

    A20.1 Radioactivity

    A20.2 Nuclear Industry

    A20.3 Nuclear Reactors

    A20.4 Nuclear Waste Treatment

    A20.5 Nuclear System Reliability

    A20.6 Nuclear Hazard Assessment

    A20.7 Nuclear Pressure Systems

    A20.8 Nuclear Reactor Operation

    A20.9 Nuclear Emergency Planning

    A20.10 Nuclear Incident Reporting

    A20.11 Nuclear Incidents

    A20.12 Notation

    Appendix 21: Three Mile Island

    A21.1 The Company and the Management

    A21.2 The Site and the Works

    A21.3 The Process and the Plant

    A21.4 Events Prior to the Excursion

    A21.5 The Excursion – 1

    A21.6 The Emergency and the Aftermath

    A21.7 The Excursion – 2

    A21.8 The Investigations

    A21.9 Some Lessons of Three Mile Island

    Appendix 22: Chernobyl

    A22.1 The Operating Organization and the Management

    A22.2 The Site and the Works

    A22.3 The Process and the Plant

    A22.4 Events Prior to the Release

    A22.5 The Release – 1

    A22.6 The Emergency and the Immediate Aftermath

    A22.7 The Investigations

    A22.8 The Release – 2

    A22.9 The Later Aftermath

    A22.10 Some Lessons of Chernobyl

    Appendix 23: Rasmussen Report

    A23.1 Earlier Studies

    A23.2 Risk Assessment Methodology

    A23.3 Event Data

    A23.4 Fault Trees

    A23.5 Event Trees

    A23.6 Common Mode Failure

    A23.7 Human Error

    A23.8 Rare Events

    A23.9 External Threats

    A23.10 Release Scenarios

    A23.11 Population Characteristics

    A23.12 Mitigation of Exposure

    A23.13 Injury Relations

    A23.14 Uncertainty in Results

    A23.15 Presentation of Results

    A23.16 Evaluation of Results

    A23.17 Browns Ferry Incident

    A23.18 Critical Assumptions

    A23.19 Critiques

    A23.20 Notation

    Appendix 24: ACMH Model License Conditions

    A24.1 Model Conditions for a Possible Licensing Scheme for Selected High Hazard Notifiable Installations

    Appendix 25: HSE and HSL Guidelines

    A25.1 The Siting of Developments in the Vicinities of Major Hazards: HSE’s Draft Guidelines to Planning Authorities (by the Health and Safety Executive – Major Hazards Assessment Unit)

    A25.2 HSE Guidelines on LNG Facility

    A25.3 HSE Guidelines on Chemical Industries

    A25.4 HSL Guidelines on Explosion Modeling and Deficiencies

    Appendix 26: Public Planning Inquiries

    A26.1 Mossmorran

    A26.2 Pheasant Wood

    A26.3 Canvey

    A26.4 Sizewell

    A26.5 Expert Evidence

    Appendix 27: Standards and Codes

    A27.1 Globalization of Standards

    A27.2 Where to Find Information on Standards

    Appendix 28: Institutional Publications

    Appendix 29: Information Sources

    A29.1 Selected Organizations Relevant to Safety and Loss Prevention

    Appendix 30: Units and Unit Conversions

    A30.1 Absolute and Gauge Pressures

    A30.2 Other Units and Conversions

    Appendix 31: Process Safety Management (PSM) Regulation in the United States

    A31.1 The Process Safety Management Program

    A31.2 Summary Comparison of OSHA Elements with CCPS Elements

    A31.3 National Emphasis Program

    Appendix 32: Risk Management Program Regulation in the United States

    A32.1 The Risk Management Program

    Appendix 33: Incident Databases

    A33.1 Incident Databases

    A33.2 Injury and Fatality Databases (Not Tied to Specific Incidents)

    A33.3 Incident Investigation Reports

    Appendix 34: Web Links

    A34.1 General Information

    A34.2 Technical Information

    A34.3 University Academic Programs

    A34.4 Government Organizations

    A34.5 Societies, Councils, Institutes

    A34.6 Security and Vulnerability Assessment

    Appendix 35: Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    A35.1 Introduction

    A35.2 Hurricane Katrina

    A35.3 Hurricane Rita

    A35.4 Effect on the Industry

    A35.5 Lessons Learned

    A35.6 Recommendations

    Appendix 36: BP America Refinery Explosion, Texas City, Texas, USA

    A36.1 Introduction

    A36.2 Overview of BP Management Framework and Organizational Structure

    A36.3 Incident Description

    A36.4 Root and Contributing Causes

    A36.5 Recommendations

    Appendix 37: Buncefield Incident

    A37.1 Description of the Incident

    A37.2 Causes of the Incident

    A37.3 Lessons Learned from the Incident

    A37.4 Regulations and Standards in the Industry after the Incident

    Appendix 38: Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster

    A38.1 Development of the Space Shuttle Program

    A38.2 Columbia’s Final Flight

    A38.3 Accident Analysis

    A38.4 Other Factors Considered

    A38.5 From Challenger to Columbia

    A38.6 Decision Making at NASA

    A38.7 The Accident’s Organizational Causes

    A38.8 History as Cause: Columbia and Challenger

    A38.9 Implications for the Future of Human Space Flight

    A38.10 Other Significant Observations

    A38.11 Recommendations

    Appendix 39: Tank Farm Incidents

    A39.1 Tank Farms

    A39.2 Hazards in Tank Farms

    A39.3 Prevention of Tank Farm Incidents

    A39.4 Related Regulations about Tanks and Tank Farms

    A39.5 Tank Farm Incidents

    A39.6 Incident Statistics

    A39.7 Case Study Material and Examples

    A39.8 Tank Farm Spacing Study: Optimization Model

    A39.9 Optimization Model Formulations

    A39.10 Modeling Case Study

    A39.11 Conclusions

    Appendix 40: Deepwater Horizon

    A40.1 Lessons from the Deepwater Horizon Incident

    A40.2 The Companies and the Management

    A40.3 The Site and the Works

    A40.4 Deepwater Horizon and Drilling Operations

    A40.5 Events Prior to the Explosions

    A40.6 The Emergency and Evacuation

    A40.7 Containment

    A40.8 The Investigations

    A40.9 Impact

    Appendix 41: Safety Characteristics Database CHEMSAFE®

    A41.1 Introduction

    A41.2 The Database CHEMSAFE®

    A41.3 Content of CHEMSAFE®

    A41.4 Classifying Hazardous Substances and Dangerous Goods Using CHEMSAFE®

    A41.5 Access to CHEMSAFE®

    A41.6 Summary


    Loss Prevention Bulletin (Institution of Chemical Engineers)



    Computer Codes Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 3776
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2012
  • Published: August 3, 2012
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123977823
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123971890

About the Author

Frank Lees

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Loughborough, UK

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