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Learning Strategies describes a program of research in learning strategies initiated by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1976. The goal of the program is to improve learning, decrease training time, and reduce training costs by developing and evaluating instructional materials designed to teach basic intellectual and affective skills. This book records the program's progress and suggests further avenues for research.
Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of the teaching and learning approaches to the improvement of education, followed by a discussion on DARPA's preliminary work on an empirically based learning-strategy training program as well as its efforts to expand and modify the program. In order to provide an intellectual foundation for this program, several fields are surveyed for potential learning strategies, namely, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, behavioral modification, and motor learning. An instructional systems development approach for learning strategies is also proposed. The final chapter deals with models of evaluation extant in education and training and discusses the specific application of transactional evaluation to the DARPA Learning Strategies Research Program.
This monograph should be of interest to students, teachers, and educational psychologists.
List of Contributors
1 The Development of a Learning Strategies Curriculum
Learning Strategies: A Brief Review and Synthesis
Manipulation of Specific Strategy Components
Previously Developed Programs for Enhancing Learning Strategies
Preliminary Work on an Empirically Based Learning-Strategy Training Program
Efforts to Expand and Improve the Learning-Strategy Training Program
2 Elaboration Skills as a Learning Strategy
Verbal Learning Tradition
Empirical Mnemonic Research
Elaboration Skills Training
The Cognitive Learning Strategies Project
3 Behavior Modification and Learning Strategies
Behavior Modification: Background and Perspective
Anxiety Management Skills
A Semi-Automated Test Anxiety Reduction Program
A Training Model
4 Motor Skills and Learning Strategies
Cognitions and the Process of Skill Acquisition
Practice Considerations for Learner Strategies
5 Artificial Intelligence and Learning Strategies
Understanding a Story
Understanding Elementary Mathematics
Constructing and Revising Hypotheses About Deep-Structure Traces
Understanding Electronic Circuits
Summary of Theoretical Concepts in Common Over the Three Domains
Formulations and Delivery of Some New Learning Strategies
6 An Instructional Systems Development Approach for Learning Strategies
Instructional Systems Development Phases
Instructional Systems Development Considerations
The Authoring Process
7 Learning Strategies: A Theoretical Perspective
External Facilitation and Internal Mediation in Instructional Systems
Learning and Memory Processes
The Structure of Cognitive Strategies
Some Thoughts on Implementation
8 Program Evaluation
Evaluation Concepts and Models
Transactional Evaluation as a Technique for Assessing Research Programs
Human Resources Research Organization Program Evaluations
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 1978
- 28th August 1978
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
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