Learning and Memory - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124749900, 9780323149174

Learning and Memory

1st Edition

A Biological View

Editors: Joe L. Jr. Martinez
eBook ISBN: 9780323149174
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1986
Page Count: 470
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Description

Learning and Memory: A Biological View is a comprehensive textbook about the neurobiology of learning and memory. Topics covered include developmental approaches to the memory process; anatomical correlates of neuronal plasticity; drugs that modulate learning and memory; and biochemical correlates of learning and memory. The link between aging and memory is also discussed, along with electrophysiological approaches to the study of memory.

Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with a review of historical traditions that influenced research on the biological basis of learning and memory. Experimental findings suggesting that the engram for a simple classically conditioned skeletal response may be in the cerebellum are also presented. The next chapter emphasizes the importance of anatomical mechanisms that could mediate learning, plasticity, and memory storage in young and adult animals. Subsequent chapters explore the influence of peripheral hormones and particularly opioid peptides on complex behavior such as learning and memory; the contribution of individual neurotransmitter systems to learning; the psychopathology of aging; and long-term potentiation as a model of the way the central nervous system stores information. Learning in complex vertebrate systems and direct stimulation of various brain nuclei are also examined. The final chapter presents a neurobehavioral analysis of the structure of memory formation that utilizes lesions and explores human memory pathology.

This monograph is intended for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and research workers in the field of memory.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

I Historical Introduction

1 The Search for the Engram

Introduction

A Brief History

Modern Approaches to the Problem of Localization

Some Definitions and Issues

Early Experience, Brain Development, and Learning

Memory Consolidation

The Chemistry of Memory

Cognitive Science and Neuropsychology

The Model Biological System Approach

Case History of a Model Biological System

References

II Anatomical Approaches

2 Developmental Approaches to the Memory Process

Introduction

Some Historical Aspects of Memory Ontogeny Research

Experience-Expectant and Experience-Dependent Neural Plasticity

Quantitative Methods in Developmental Neurobiology

Neurobiological Correlates of Memory Ontogeny

Implications for the Neurobiological Study of Memory

References

3 Anatomical Correlates of Neuronal Plasticity

Introduction

Focus on the Synapse

Anatomical Plasticity During Development

Anatomical Correlates of Learning in Maturity

Anatomical Rearrangements Following Injury

Functional Significance of Anatomical Plasticity

Summary and Conclusions

References

III Pharmacology and Biochemistry

4 Memory: Drugs and Hormones

Introduction

Time Dependency Revisited

U-Shaped Curves

Modulation of Learning and Memory

Central Versus Peripheral Actions of Drugs

Which Neurotransmitter Systems Are Important for Learning and Memory?

Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

Hormones and Learning and Memory

Learning Modulatory Hormones

Drugs to Understand or to Alter Learning and Memory?

Conclusions

References

5 Biochemical Correlates of Learning and Memory

Introduction

Which Neurochemical Systems?

Where in the Brain?

When?

Behavioral Specificity

Specific Molecules

Conclusions

References

6 Applied Aspects of Memory Research: Aging

Prologue

Introduction

Behavioral Studies: Memory Deficits with Normal Aging

Neurobiological Studies

Summary and Conclusions

References

IV Model Systems

7 Memory: Electrophysiological Analogs

Introduction

Electrophysiological Approaches

The Hippocampus

Hippocampal Electrophysiology

Hippocampal Response Plasticity

LTP as a Substrate for Memory

LTP as a Candidate Memory Mechanism

The Hippocampal Memory Indexing Theory

References

8 Memory: Invertebrate Model Systems

Introduction

The Need for Unifying Principles

Aplysia

Hermissenda

Limax

Pleurobranchaea

Correlation Versus Causality in Cellular Studies of Learning

General Principles of Learning in Invertebrate Model Systems

Conclusions

References

9 Memory: Vertebrate Model Systems

Introduction

Characteristics of an Ideal Vertebrate Behavioral Model System

Analysis of the Neural Circuitry Mediating the Acquisition of Nonspecific Model Response Systems

Analysis of the Neural Circuitry Mediating the Acquisition of Specific Model Response Systems

Concluding Remarks

Summary

References

10 Studies of Memory Processes Using Electrical Brain Stimulation

Introduction

Memory Impairment Produced by Electrical Brain Stimulation

Memory Facilitation by Electrical Brain Stimulation

Electrical Brain Stimulation in Humans

Summary

References

V Lesions

11 Interventional Approaches to Memory: Lesions

Introduction

Structures, Functions, and Lesions

Misuse of Lesion Analyses

Dissociations

Systematic Lesion Analyses

Quantitative Manipulations of Structures and Functions

Sensitivity and Selectivity

Units of Analysis

Temporal Variables

Validity

Memory

Conclusions

References

12 Neurobiological Views of Memory

Introduction

Lashley

Thompson

Squire and Cohen

Mishkin

O'Keefe and Nadel

Olton

Kesner

Integration

Summary

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
470
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1986
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323149174

About the Editor

Joe L. Jr. Martinez