Leafhopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124702806, 9780323143684

Leafhopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents

1st Edition

Editors: Karl Maramorosch
eBook ISBN: 9780323143684
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1979
Page Count: 670
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Leafhopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents is the second in a multivolume series on vectors, vector-borne disease agents, and plant disease spread. This text aims to collect findings in leafhopper vector research, to suggest promising frontiers for further research, and to call attention to possible practical applications of understanding of leafhopper-pathogen-plant interactions. This book is organized into five parts. Opening chapters on the taxonomy, bionomics, and worldwide importance of leafhopper and planthopper vectors are appropriately relegated to Parts I and II. Part III focuses on vector-virus interactions of leafhopper-, planthopper-, and aphid-borne viruses and virus-induced, cytopathological changes in vectors. This part also explains the interactions of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and viruses in dually infected leafhoppers, planthoppers, and plants, as well as the transitory vector-virus interactions. The artificial and aseptic rearing of vectors, microinjection technique, vector tissue culture, and spiroplasmas and its vectors are all covered in Part IV. Part V contains chapters on specific leafhopper-borne viruses and MLOs, leafhopper and planthopper vector control, leafhopper-borne pathogens of corn-stunting diseases, Western X disease, and leafhopper-borne xylem-restricted pathogens. This text will be valuable for students, teachers, and researchers of vector-pathogen-plant relationships. Its in-depth coverage of leafhoppers and planthoppers as vectors makes this book ideally suited as a supplemental text in graduate entomology and plant pathology courses on insect transmission of plant disease agents.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Part I Taxonomy and Bionomics of Leafhoppers

Chapter 1. Taxonomic Relationships of Leafhopper Vectors of Plant Pathogens

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Systematics of Vector Subfamilies, Genera, and Species

1.3 Phylogenetic Relationships

1.4 Relationship of Vector Taxa and Zoogeography

1.5 References

Chapter 2. Effects of Photoperiod and Temperature on Leafhopper Vectors

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Effects on Phenology

2.3 Forms of Dormancy

2.4 Effects on Growth and Development: Ecomorphs

2.5 References to Similar Phenomena Not Effected by Photoperiod and Temperature

2.6 Acknowledgment

2.7 References

Part II Worldwide Importance of Leafhoppers and Planthoppers as Vectors

Chapter 3. Leafhopper and Planthopper Vectors of Plant Disease Agents in Central and Southern Europe

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret

3.3 Dicranotropis hamata Boheman

3.4 Javesella discolor (Boheman)

3.5 Javesella pellucida (Fabricius)

3.6 Javesella dubia (Kirschbaum)

3.7 Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén)

3.8 Philaenus spumarius (Linné)

3.9 Macropsis scotti Edwards

3.10 Macropsis fuscula (Zetterstedt)

3.11 Aphrodes albifrons (Linné)

3.12 Aphrodes bicincta (Schrank)

3.13 Macrosteles viridigriseus (Edwards)

3.14 Macrosteles cristata (Ribaut)

3.15 Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Kirschbaum)

3.16 Macrosteles laevis (Ribaut)

3.17 Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallén)

3.18 Euscelis plebeja (Fallén)

3.19 Euscelis lineolata Brullé

3.20 Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum)

3.21 Idiodonus cruentatus (Panzer)

3.22 Loepotettix dilutior (Kirschbaum)

3.23 Scaphoideus littoralis Ball

3.24 Speudotettix subfusculus (Fallén)

3.25 Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom)

3.26 Some Open Problems

3.27 References

Chapter 4. Planthopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents in Fennoscandia

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Diseases Caused

4.3 Vectors Involved

4.4 Disease Agents

4.5 Disease Agents–Vector Relations

4.6 Disease Agents–Host Plants

4.7 Vectors–Host Plants

4.8 Distribution of Vectors and Diseases

4.9 Epidemiology

4.10 Control

4.11 Summary

4.12 Acknowledgments

4.13 References

Chapter 5. Leafhopper Vectors and the Plant Disease Agents They Transmit in Australia

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Leafhopper Vectors and Their Association with Plant Disease Agents

5.3 Biology of Leafhoppers

5.4 Mechanisms of Transmission

5.5 Specific Diseases

5.6 Association of Mycoplasmas, Rickettsiae, or Bacterium-like Organisms with Plant Diseases and Leafhopper Vectors

5.7 References

Part III Vector–Disease Agent-–Plant Interactions

Chapter 6. Leafhoppers and Aphids as Biological Vectors: Vector–Virus Relationships

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Circulative Viruses: Propagative and Nonpropagative

6.3 Vectors of Plant Viruses and Phytopathogenic Organisms

6.4 Aphid, Leafhopper, and Delphacid Planthopper Vectors

6.5 Noncirculative Transmission

6.6 Circulative Leafhopper-Borne Viruses

6.7 Circulative Planthopper-Borne Viruses

6.8 Circulative Aphid-Borne Viruses

6.9 Acknowledgments

6.10 References

Chapter 7. Cytopathological Changes in Leafhopper Vectors of Plant Viruses

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Plant Reoviruses

7.3 Plant Rhabdoviruses

7.4 References

Chapter 8. Interactions of Mycoplasma-like Organisms and Viruses in Dually Infected Leafhoppers, Planthoppers, and Plants

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Interactions in Leafhoppers and Planthoppers

8.3 Interactions in Plants

8.4 Associations of Virus-like Particles (VLPs) and MLOs in Leafhoppers, Planthoppers, and Plants

8.5 Insect and Plant Tissue Cultures

8.6 M LO-Virus Interactions in Other Biological Systems

8.7 Discussion

8.8 References

Chapter 9. Transmission of Rice Tungro Virus at Various Temperatures: A Transitory Virus-Vector Interaction

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Materials and Methods

9.3 Results

9.4 Discussion

9.5 Summary

9.6 Acknowledgment

9.7 References

Part IV Experimental Approaches to Virus-Vector and MLO-Vector Research

Chapter 10. Artificial Rearing and Aseptic Rearing of Leafhopper Vectors: Applications in Virus and MLO Research

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Materials for Artificial Rearing of Leafhoppers

10.3 Rearing Techniques

10.4 Growth and Development of Leafhoppers on Artificial Diets

10.5 Continuous Rearing of Leafhoppers on Artificial Diets

10.6 Aseptic Rearing of Leafhoppers

10.7 Nutritional Requirements of Leafhoppers

10.8 Application of the Artificial Rearing and Aseptic Rearing Methods to Virus and MLO Research

10.9 Conclusion

10.10 References

Chapter 11. Experimental Vectors of Spiroplasmas

11.1 Microinjection Technique

11.2 Experimental Application of Microinjection

11.3 Comparison of Procaryotes in Plants and Leafhoppers

11.4 References

Chapter 12. Spiroplasma citri and Its Transmission to Citrus and Other Plants by Leafhoppers

Chapter 13. Spiroplasmas: Newly Recognized Arthropod-Borne Pathogens

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Morphology and Ultrastructure

13.3 Transmission and Host Range

13.4 Cultivation in Vitro

13.5 Motility

13.6 Spiroplasma Taxonomy

13.7 Spiroplasma Viruses

13.8 Spiroplasmas as Pathogens

13.9 Concluding Remarks

13.10 References

Chapter 14. Leafhopper Tissue Culture

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Organ, Tissue, and Cell Culture

14.3 Description of Tissue Culture Techniques

14.4 Contamination

14.5 Preservation, Storage, Recovery, and Shipment

14.6 Morphology, Identification, and Inoculation of Cells

14.7 Study of Viruses in Cells in Vitro

14.8 Conclusions

14.9 References

Part V Leafhopper Transmission of Specific Viruses and Prokaryotes

Chapter 15. Rice Viruses and MLOs, and Leafhopper Vectors

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Families and Genera of Vectors

15.3 Distribution of Viruses

15.4 Nonpersistent Virus Transmission

15.5 Propagative Viruses and Their Vectors

15.6 Transovarial Transmission

15.7 Effects of Viruses on Vectors

15.8 Localization of Viruses in Vectors

15.9 Culturing of Embryonic Tissues and Organs from Vectors

15.10 Conclusion

15.11 References

Chapter 16. Control of Leafhopper and Planthopper Vectors of Rice Viruses

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Chemical Control

16.3 Varietal Resistance to Insects

16.4 Biological Control

16.5 Cultural Control

16.6 Conclusion

16.7 References

Chapter 17. Corn Stunt: Involvement of a Complex of Leafhopper-Borne Pathogens

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Corn Stunt Spiroplasma and Maize Bushy Stunt Mycoplasma

17.3 Maize Rayado Fino Virus

17.4 Maize Chlorotic Dwarf Virus

17.5 Epilogue

17.6 Acknowledgments

17.7 References

Chapter 18. Leafhopper Vectors and Western X Disease

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Transmission Characteristics

18.3 Pathological Effects of WXD-Agent Infection on Leafhopper Vectors

18.4 Bioassay Techniques

18.5 Characterization of the Etiological Agent

18.6 Conclusions and Summary

18.7 Definition of Terms

18.8 Bibliography and Selected References

Chapter 19. Leafhopper Vectors of Xylem-Borne Plant Pathogens

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Alfalfa Dwarf and Pierce's Disease of Grapevines

19.3 Phony Peach Disease

19.4 Other Diseases Presumably Caused by Bacterial Pathogens

19.5 Control

19.6 Summary

19.7 Acknowledgment

19.8 References



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© Academic Press 1979
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Karl Maramorosch

Professor Karl Maramorosch works at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

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Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

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