Leafhopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents

Leafhopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents

1st Edition - January 28, 1979

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  • Editor: Karl Maramorosch
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143684

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Leafhopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents is the second in a multivolume series on vectors, vector-borne disease agents, and plant disease spread. This text aims to collect findings in leafhopper vector research, to suggest promising frontiers for further research, and to call attention to possible practical applications of understanding of leafhopper-pathogen-plant interactions. This book is organized into five parts. Opening chapters on the taxonomy, bionomics, and worldwide importance of leafhopper and planthopper vectors are appropriately relegated to Parts I and II. Part III focuses on vector-virus interactions of leafhopper-, planthopper-, and aphid-borne viruses and virus-induced, cytopathological changes in vectors. This part also explains the interactions of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) and viruses in dually infected leafhoppers, planthoppers, and plants, as well as the transitory vector-virus interactions. The artificial and aseptic rearing of vectors, microinjection technique, vector tissue culture, and spiroplasmas and its vectors are all covered in Part IV. Part V contains chapters on specific leafhopper-borne viruses and MLOs, leafhopper and planthopper vector control, leafhopper-borne pathogens of corn-stunting diseases, Western X disease, and leafhopper-borne xylem-restricted pathogens. This text will be valuable for students, teachers, and researchers of vector-pathogen-plant relationships. Its in-depth coverage of leafhoppers and planthoppers as vectors makes this book ideally suited as a supplemental text in graduate entomology and plant pathology courses on insect transmission of plant disease agents.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Part I Taxonomy and Bionomics of Leafhoppers

    Chapter 1. Taxonomic Relationships of Leafhopper Vectors of Plant Pathogens

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Systematics of Vector Subfamilies, Genera, and Species

    1.3 Phylogenetic Relationships

    1.4 Relationship of Vector Taxa and Zoogeography

    1.5 References

    Chapter 2. Effects of Photoperiod and Temperature on Leafhopper Vectors

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Effects on Phenology

    2.3 Forms of Dormancy

    2.4 Effects on Growth and Development: Ecomorphs

    2.5 References to Similar Phenomena Not Effected by Photoperiod and Temperature

    2.6 Acknowledgment

    2.7 References

    Part II Worldwide Importance of Leafhoppers and Planthoppers as Vectors

    Chapter 3. Leafhopper and Planthopper Vectors of Plant Disease Agents in Central and Southern Europe

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret

    3.3 Dicranotropis hamata Boheman

    3.4 Javesella discolor (Boheman)

    3.5 Javesella pellucida (Fabricius)

    3.6 Javesella dubia (Kirschbaum)

    3.7 Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén)

    3.8 Philaenus spumarius (Linné)

    3.9 Macropsis scotti Edwards

    3.10 Macropsis fuscula (Zetterstedt)

    3.11 Aphrodes albifrons (Linné)

    3.12 Aphrodes bicincta (Schrank)

    3.13 Macrosteles viridigriseus (Edwards)

    3.14 Macrosteles cristata (Ribaut)

    3.15 Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Kirschbaum)

    3.16 Macrosteles laevis (Ribaut)

    3.17 Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallén)

    3.18 Euscelis plebeja (Fallén)

    3.19 Euscelis lineolata Brullé

    3.20 Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum)

    3.21 Idiodonus cruentatus (Panzer)

    3.22 Loepotettix dilutior (Kirschbaum)

    3.23 Scaphoideus littoralis Ball

    3.24 Speudotettix subfusculus (Fallén)

    3.25 Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom)

    3.26 Some Open Problems

    3.27 References

    Chapter 4. Planthopper Vectors and Plant Disease Agents in Fennoscandia

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Diseases Caused

    4.3 Vectors Involved

    4.4 Disease Agents

    4.5 Disease Agents–Vector Relations

    4.6 Disease Agents–Host Plants

    4.7 Vectors–Host Plants

    4.8 Distribution of Vectors and Diseases

    4.9 Epidemiology

    4.10 Control

    4.11 Summary

    4.12 Acknowledgments

    4.13 References

    Chapter 5. Leafhopper Vectors and the Plant Disease Agents They Transmit in Australia

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Leafhopper Vectors and Their Association with Plant Disease Agents

    5.3 Biology of Leafhoppers

    5.4 Mechanisms of Transmission

    5.5 Specific Diseases

    5.6 Association of Mycoplasmas, Rickettsiae, or Bacterium-like Organisms with Plant Diseases and Leafhopper Vectors

    5.7 References

    Part III Vector–Disease Agent-–Plant Interactions

    Chapter 6. Leafhoppers and Aphids as Biological Vectors: Vector–Virus Relationships

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Circulative Viruses: Propagative and Nonpropagative

    6.3 Vectors of Plant Viruses and Phytopathogenic Organisms

    6.4 Aphid, Leafhopper, and Delphacid Planthopper Vectors

    6.5 Noncirculative Transmission

    6.6 Circulative Leafhopper-Borne Viruses

    6.7 Circulative Planthopper-Borne Viruses

    6.8 Circulative Aphid-Borne Viruses

    6.9 Acknowledgments

    6.10 References

    Chapter 7. Cytopathological Changes in Leafhopper Vectors of Plant Viruses

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Plant Reoviruses

    7.3 Plant Rhabdoviruses

    7.4 References

    Chapter 8. Interactions of Mycoplasma-like Organisms and Viruses in Dually Infected Leafhoppers, Planthoppers, and Plants

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Interactions in Leafhoppers and Planthoppers

    8.3 Interactions in Plants

    8.4 Associations of Virus-like Particles (VLPs) and MLOs in Leafhoppers, Planthoppers, and Plants

    8.5 Insect and Plant Tissue Cultures

    8.6 M LO-Virus Interactions in Other Biological Systems

    8.7 Discussion

    8.8 References

    Chapter 9. Transmission of Rice Tungro Virus at Various Temperatures: A Transitory Virus-Vector Interaction

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Materials and Methods

    9.3 Results

    9.4 Discussion

    9.5 Summary

    9.6 Acknowledgment

    9.7 References

    Part IV Experimental Approaches to Virus-Vector and MLO-Vector Research

    Chapter 10. Artificial Rearing and Aseptic Rearing of Leafhopper Vectors: Applications in Virus and MLO Research

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Materials for Artificial Rearing of Leafhoppers

    10.3 Rearing Techniques

    10.4 Growth and Development of Leafhoppers on Artificial Diets

    10.5 Continuous Rearing of Leafhoppers on Artificial Diets

    10.6 Aseptic Rearing of Leafhoppers

    10.7 Nutritional Requirements of Leafhoppers

    10.8 Application of the Artificial Rearing and Aseptic Rearing Methods to Virus and MLO Research

    10.9 Conclusion

    10.10 References

    Chapter 11. Experimental Vectors of Spiroplasmas

    11.1 Microinjection Technique

    11.2 Experimental Application of Microinjection

    11.3 Comparison of Procaryotes in Plants and Leafhoppers

    11.4 References

    Chapter 12. Spiroplasma citri and Its Transmission to Citrus and Other Plants by Leafhoppers

    Chapter 13. Spiroplasmas: Newly Recognized Arthropod-Borne Pathogens

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Morphology and Ultrastructure

    13.3 Transmission and Host Range

    13.4 Cultivation in Vitro

    13.5 Motility

    13.6 Spiroplasma Taxonomy

    13.7 Spiroplasma Viruses

    13.8 Spiroplasmas as Pathogens

    13.9 Concluding Remarks

    13.10 References

    Chapter 14. Leafhopper Tissue Culture

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Organ, Tissue, and Cell Culture

    14.3 Description of Tissue Culture Techniques

    14.4 Contamination

    14.5 Preservation, Storage, Recovery, and Shipment

    14.6 Morphology, Identification, and Inoculation of Cells

    14.7 Study of Viruses in Cells in Vitro

    14.8 Conclusions

    14.9 References

    Part V Leafhopper Transmission of Specific Viruses and Prokaryotes

    Chapter 15. Rice Viruses and MLOs, and Leafhopper Vectors

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Families and Genera of Vectors

    15.3 Distribution of Viruses

    15.4 Nonpersistent Virus Transmission

    15.5 Propagative Viruses and Their Vectors

    15.6 Transovarial Transmission

    15.7 Effects of Viruses on Vectors

    15.8 Localization of Viruses in Vectors

    15.9 Culturing of Embryonic Tissues and Organs from Vectors

    15.10 Conclusion

    15.11 References

    Chapter 16. Control of Leafhopper and Planthopper Vectors of Rice Viruses

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Chemical Control

    16.3 Varietal Resistance to Insects

    16.4 Biological Control

    16.5 Cultural Control

    16.6 Conclusion

    16.7 References

    Chapter 17. Corn Stunt: Involvement of a Complex of Leafhopper-Borne Pathogens

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Corn Stunt Spiroplasma and Maize Bushy Stunt Mycoplasma

    17.3 Maize Rayado Fino Virus

    17.4 Maize Chlorotic Dwarf Virus

    17.5 Epilogue

    17.6 Acknowledgments

    17.7 References

    Chapter 18. Leafhopper Vectors and Western X Disease

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Transmission Characteristics

    18.3 Pathological Effects of WXD-Agent Infection on Leafhopper Vectors

    18.4 Bioassay Techniques

    18.5 Characterization of the Etiological Agent

    18.6 Conclusions and Summary

    18.7 Definition of Terms

    18.8 Bibliography and Selected References

    Chapter 19. Leafhopper Vectors of Xylem-Borne Plant Pathogens

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Alfalfa Dwarf and Pierce's Disease of Grapevines

    19.3 Phony Peach Disease

    19.4 Other Diseases Presumably Caused by Bacterial Pathogens

    19.5 Control

    19.6 Summary

    19.7 Acknowledgment

    19.8 References


Product details

  • No. of pages: 670
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1979
  • Published: January 28, 1979
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143684

About the Editor

Karl Maramorosch

Professor Karl Maramorosch works at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA

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