Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology

Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology

A Handbook of Lead-Acid Battery Technology and Its Influence on the Product

2nd Edition - March 13, 2017

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  • Author: D. Pavlov
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595607
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595522

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Lead-Acid Batteries: Science and Technology: A Handbook of Lead-Acid Battery Technology and Its Influence on the Product, Second Edition presents a comprehensive overview of the technological processes of lead-acid battery manufacture and their influence on performance parameters. The book summarizes current knowledge on lead-acid battery production, presenting it in the form of an integral theory that is supported by ample illustrative material and experimental data that allows technologists and engineers to control technological processes in battery plants. In addition, the book provides university lecturers with a tool for a clear and in-depth presentation of lead-acid battery production in courses. This updated edition includes new supplementary material (text and illustrations) in chapters 2, 4, 6 and 16, as well as a brand new chapter on the action of carbon as an additive to the negative active material and the utilization of the lead-carbon supercapacitor electrodes. Substantial revisions of other chapters have been made, making the book beneficial for battery researchers, engineers and technologists.

Key Features

  • Written by a world authority on lead-acid batteries in a comprehensive and unified manner
  • Includes new chapters on lead-acid batteries operating in the HRPSoC duty for hybrid electric vehicle applications and on lead-carbon electrodes
  • Presents a comprehensive overview of the theory of the technological processes of lead-acid battery manufacture and their influence on battery performance parameters
  • Proposes optimum conditions for individual technological processes that would yield superior structures of the lead and lead dioxide active masses
  • Discusses the processes involved in the closed oxygen cycle in VRLAB and the thermal phenomena leading to thermal runaway (TRA)


Technologists and engineers in the battery industry, university lecturers and students as well as research scientists with interests in the field of electrochemistry and electrochemical power sources

Table of Contents

  • Part 1. Fundamentals of Lead–Acid Batteries

    Chapter 1. Invention and Development of the Lead–Acid Battery

    • 1.1. A Prelude
    • 1.2. Gaston Planté—The Inventor of the Lead–Acid Battery
    • 1.3. What Pains Had the Lead–Acid Battery to Go Through
    • 1.4. The Lead–Acid Battery in the 20th Century—Second Stage in Its Development
    • 1.5. Applications of Lead–Acid Batteries
    • 1.6. Challenges Calling for a New Stage in the Development of the Lead–Acid Battery

    Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Lead–Acid Batteries

    • 2.1. Thermodynamics of the Lead–Acid Battery
    • 2.2. Electrode Systems Formed During Anodic Polarization of Pb in H2SO4 Solution
    • 2.3. The Pb/PbSO4/H2SO4 Electrode
    • 2.4. H2/H+ Electrode on Pb Surface
    • 2.5. The Pb/PbO/PbSO4 Electrode System
    • 2.6. The Pb/PbO2/PbSO4 Electrode System
    • 2.7. Electrochemical Preparation of the Me/PbO2 Electrode
    • 2.8. Electrochemical Behavior of the Pb/PbO2/H2SO4 Electrode
    • 2.9. Hydration and Amorphization of Active-Mass PbO2 Particles and Impact on the Discharge Processes
    • 2.10. The H2O/O2 Electrode System
    • 2.11. Elementary Processes During Charge and Discharge of the Positive and Negative Electrodes in a Lead–Acid Cell
    • 2.12. Anodic Corrosion of Lead and Lead Alloys in the Lead Dioxide Potential Region
    • 2.13. Introduction to the Lead–Acid Cell

    Part 2. Materials Used for Lead–Acid Battery Manufacture

    Chapter 3. H2SO4 Electrolyte—An Active Material in the Lead–Acid Cell

    • 3.1. H2SO4 Solutions Used as Electrolytes in the Battery Industry
    • 3.2. Purity of H2SO4 Used in Lead–Acid Batteries
    • 3.3. Dissociation of H2SO4
    • 3.4. Electrical Conductivity of H2SO4 Solutions
    • 3.5. Influence of Temperature on the Performance of Lead–Acid Batteries
    • 3.5.1. Influence of Temperature on Water Loss in Lead–Acid Batteries
    • 3.6. Dependence of the Electromotive Force of a Lead–Acid Cell on Electrolyte Concentration and Its Influence on Charge Voltage
    • 3.7. Distribution of the Sulfuric Acid Solution in the Active Block of the Cell
    • 3.8. Utilization of the Active Materials in the Lead–Acid Battery and Battery Performance
    • 3.9. Correlation Between the Electrochemical Activity of PbO2/PbSO4 Electrode and H2SO4 Electrolyte Concentration
    • 3.10. Correlation Between Solubility of PbSO4 Crystals and Electrolyte Concentration
    • 3.11. Influence of H2SO4 Electrolyte Concentration on Battery Performance
    • 3.12. Additives to Electrolyte
    • 3.13. Contaminants (Impurities) in Electrolyte Solution
    • 3.14. Processes Causing Electrolyte Stratification and Influence of Electrolyte Stratification on Battery Performance

    Chapter 4. Lead Alloys and Grids. Grid Design Principles

    • 4.1. Battery Industry Requirements to Lead Alloys
    • 4.2. Purity Specifications for Lead Used in the Battery Industry
    • 4.3. Lead–Antimony Alloys
    • 4.4. Lead–Calcium Alloys
    • 4.5. Lead–Calcium–Tin Alloys
    • 4.6. Lead–Tin Alloys
    • 4.7. Grid Design Principles
    • 4.8. Grid/Spine Casting
    • 4.9. Continuous Plate Production Process
    • 4.10. Tubular Positive Plates
    • 4.11. Copper-Stretch-Metal Negative Grids

    Chapter 5. Leady Oxide

    • 5.1. Physical Properties of Lead Oxide and Red Lead
    • 5.2. Mechanism of Thermal Oxidation of Lead
    • 5.3. Production of Leady Oxide
    • 5.4. Characteristics of Leady Oxide
    • 5.5. Influence of Leady Oxide Properties on Battery Performance Characteristics

    Part 3. Processes During Paste Preparation and Curing of the Plates

    Chapter 6. Pastes and Grid Pasting

    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Fundamentals
    • 6.3. Technology of Paste Preparation

    Chapter 7. Additives to the Pastes for Positive and Negative Battery Plates

    • 7.1. Additives to the Pastes for Negative Plate Manufacture
    • 7.2. Additives to the Positive Paste

    Chapter 8. Curing of Battery Plates

    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Fundamentals
    • 8.3. Technology of Plate Curing

    Part 4. Plate Formation

    Chapter 9. Soaking of Cured Plates Before Formation

    • 9.1. Technological Procedures Involved in the Formation of Lead–Acid Battery Plates
    • 9.2. H2SO4 Electrolyte During Soaking and Formation
    • 9.3. Processes During Soaking of 3BS-Cured Plates
    • 9.4. Soaking of 4BS-Cured Pastes
    • 9.5. Influence of the Soaking Process on Battery Performance

    Chapter 10. Formation of Positive Lead–Acid Battery Plates

    • 10.1. Equilibrium Potentials of the Electrode Systems Formed During the Formation Process
    • 10.2. Formation of Positive Active Mass (PAM) From 3BS-Cured Pastes
    • 10.3. Formation of Plates Prepared With 4BS-Cured Pastes
    • 10.4. Mechanisms of the Crystallization Processes During Formation of Positive Plates With 4BS Paste
    • 10.5. Structure of the Formed Interface Grid/Corrosion Layer/Active Mass
    • 10.6. Influence of the H2SO4/LO Ratio on the Proportion Between β- and α-PbO2 in PAM and on Plate Capacity
    • 10.7. Structure of the Positive Active Mass
    • 10.8. Influence of Grid-Alloying Additives on the Electrochemical Activity of PbO2 Binders

    Chapter 11. Processes During Formation of Negative Battery Plates

    • 11.1. Equilibrium Potentials of the Electrochemical Reactions of Formation
    • 11.2. Reactions During Formation of Negative Plate
    • 11.3. Zonal Processes
    • 11.4. Structure of Negative Active Mass
    • 11.5. Effect of Expander on the Processes of Formation of NAM Structure and Factors Responsible for Expander Disintegration

    Chapter 12. Technology of Formation

    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Influence of Active Mass Structure on Plate Capacity
    • 12.3. Initial Stages of Formation of Lead–Acid Batteries
    • 12.4. Formation of Positive- and Negative Active Materials From Cured Pastes
    • 12.5. Influence of PbO2 Crystal Modifications on the Capacity of Positive Plates. Formation Parameters That Affect the α/β-PbO2 Proportion
    • 12.6. Criteria Indicating End of Formation
    • 12.7. Influence of Current-Collector Surface on Formation of PbSO4 Crystals at Grid/PAM Interface
    • 12.8. Method for Shortening the Duration of the Formation Process
    • 12.9. Identification of Defective Batteries After Formation

    Part 5. Battery Storage and VRLA Batteries

    Chapter 13. Processes After Formation of the Plates and During Battery Storage

    • 13.1. State of Battery Plates After Formation
    • 13.2. Dry-Charged Batteries
    • 13.3. Wet-Charged Batteries

    Chapter 14. Valve-Regulated Lead–Acid (VRLA) Batteries

    • 14.1. Recombination of Hydrogen and Oxygen Into Water
    • 14.2. Valve-Regulated Lead–Acid Batteries (VRLAB)
    • 14.3. Summary

    Chapter 15. Lead–Carbon Electrodes

    • 15.1. Introduction
    • 15.2. Carbon Used as Additive to the Negative Active Material
    • 15.3. Enhancing the Performance of the Negative Plates of Lead–Acid Batteries by Combining With a Supercapacitor
    • 15.4. Hydrogen Evolution on the Lead–Carbon Electrode
    • 15.5. Sulfation of the Lead–Carbon Electrodes of Lead–Acid Batteries on High-Rate Partial-State-of-Charge Cycling

    Part 6. Calculation of the Active Materials in a Lead–Acid Cell

    Chapter 16. Calculation of the Active Materials for Lead–Acid Cells

      • 16.1. Theoretical Calculation of the Active Materials in Lead–Acid Batteries
      • 16.2. Examples for Calculating the Active Materials and the Energy Needed for the Different Technological Processes of Lead–Acid Battery Manufacture
      • 16.3. Measuring of Electrode Potentials

Product details

  • No. of pages: 720
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: March 13, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595607
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595522

About the Author

D. Pavlov

D. Pavlov
Detchko Pavlov is Professor of Electrochemistry and, since 1997, Full Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. He is one of the founders of the Central Laboratory of Electrochemical Power Sources (CLEPS) (now IEES) at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and has been Head of the Lead Acid Batteries Department at this Institute for over 45 years since its establishment in 1967. His major scientific achievements are in the field of electrochemistry of lead; disclosing the structure of the lead and lead dioxide active masses; elucidating the mechanism of the processes involved in the technology of lead-acid battery manufacture and operation, as well as of the oxygen cycle reactions in VRLAB. His recent research efforts have been focused on evaluation of the effects of carbon additives to the negative plates and identification of the mechanism(s) of their action.

Affiliations and Expertise

Lead-Acid Batteries Department, Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems (IEES), Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria

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  • Moniruzzaman Sat Sep 07 2019

    Thanks Greetings

    I read it in your first edition. But the Second Edition has not yet read it. The knowledge I had with my batteries is not just practical but the theoretical knowledge is all yours. Thanks to you for your publications.