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Lead-Acid Batteries for Future Automobiles - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444637000, 9780444637031

Lead-Acid Batteries for Future Automobiles

1st Edition

Editors: Jurgen Garche Eckhard Karden Patrick T. Moseley David A. J. Rand
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444637000
eBook ISBN: 9780444637031
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 7th March 2017
Page Count: 706
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Lead-Acid Batteries for Future Automobiles provides an overview on the innovations that were recently introduced in automotive lead-acid batteries and other aspects of current research. Innovative concepts are presented, some of which aim to make lead-acid technology a candidate for higher levels of powertrain hybridization, namely 48-volt mild or high-volt full hybrids.

Lead-acid batteries continue to dominate the market as storage devices for automotive starting and power supply systems, but are facing competition from alternative storage technologies and being challenged by new application requirements, particularly related to new electric vehicle functions and powertrain electrification.

Key Features

  • Presents an overview of development trends for future automobiles and the demands that they place on the battery
  • Describes how to adapt LABs for use in micro and mild hybrid EVs via collector construction and materials, via carbon additives, via new cell construction (bipolar), and via LAB hybrids with Li-ion and supercap systems
  • System integration of LABs into vehicle power-supply and hybridization concepts
  • Short description of competitive battery technologies


The main audience is the R&D community ie, chemists, chemical engineers who must develop a LAB with high power, lifetime and low cost. The book mainly has a scientific character but it also gives practical guidelines for applications of LABs in hybrid cars, downsizing concepts and standards/tests

Table of Contents

Part 1. Overview

1. Development trends for future automobiles and their demand on the battery

  • 1.1. Lead–acid batteries in automobiles: still good enough?
  • 1.2. Requirements in the automotive industry
  • 1.3. Vehicle level requirements
  • 1.4. Low-volt system topology options for advanced power supply and mild powertrain hybridization
  • 1.5. Upcoming storage system requirements
  • 1.6. Discussion
  • List of abbreviations

2. Overview of batteries for future automobiles

  • 2.1. General requirements for batteries in electric vehicles
  • 2.2. Energy storage in lead–acid batteries
  • 2.3. Alkaline batteries
  • 2.4. High-temperature sodium batteries
  • 2.5. Lithium-ion batteries
  • 2.6. Power sources after Lithium-ion
  • 2.7. Supercapacitors
  • 2.8. Fuel cells

3. Lead–acid battery fundamentals

  • 3.1. Principles of operation
  • 3.2. Open-circuit voltage
  • 3.3. Voltage during discharge and charge
  • 3.4. Designs and manufacture
  • 3.5. Charging
  • 3.6. Heat management in lead–acid batteries
  • 3.7. Failure modes and remedies
  • 3.8. Capacity
  • 3.9. Self-discharge
  • 3.10. Dynamic charge-acceptance
  • 3.11. Summing up
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

4. Current research topics for lead–acid batteries

  • 4.1. Design and materials
  • 4.2. Operating strategy
  • 4.3. Battery monitoring
  • 4.4. Dual battery systems
  • 4.5. Discussion

Part 2. Battery Technology

5. Flooded starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) and enhanced flooded batteries (EFBs): State-of-the-art

  • 5.1. History of lead–acid batteries in combustion engine cars
  • 5.2. Board net architecture and car requirements on batteries
  • 5.3. Flooded automotive battery design and production technologies: status and latest improvements
  • 5.4. Market trends
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

6. Automotive absorptive glass-mat lead–acid batteries: State of the art

  • 6.1. Lead–acid batteries in vehicle electrical systems
  • 6.2. Global standardization of automotive AGM batteries
  • 6.3. Vehicle systems: voltages and battery technologies
  • 6.4. Launch of automotive AGM batteries
  • 6.5. Start–stop: factor of success for AGM batteries
  • 6.6. Advantages of AGM over flooded automotive batteries
  • 6.7. Cycling endurance of AGM batteries
  • 6.8. Capability for dynamic charge-acceptance
  • 6.9. Packaging in vehicles: heat-resilience of AGM batteries
  • 6.10. Future applications for AGM batteries
  • 6.11. Replacement of spent AGM batteries
  • 6.12. Summary: automotive AGM batteries
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

7. Performance-enhancing materials for lead–acid battery negative plates

  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Expanders
  • 7.3. Structural influences
  • 7.4. Challenge of high-rate partial state-of-charge duty
  • 7.5. Addition of carbon
  • 7.6. Types of battery configuration
  • 7.7. Understanding the carbon effect
  • 7.8. Best choice of carbon
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

8. Positive active-materials for lead–acid battery plates

  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Operating principles
  • 8.3. Positive plate construction
  • 8.4. Manufacturing process
  • 8.5. Failure modes and remedies
  • 8.6. Future developments
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

9. Current-collectors for lead–acid batteries

  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Reactions at the surface of the positive grid
  • 9.3. Antimony-free grids
  • 9.4. Lead–calcium alloys
  • 9.5. Tin additions to pure lead
  • 9.6. Tin additions to lead–calcium alloys
  • 9.7. Bookmould-cast lead–calcium–tin grids
  • 9.8. Rolled lead–calcium–tin grids
  • 9.9. Corrosion of lead–calcium–tin alloy grids
  • 9.10. Grids for elevated temperatures
  • 9.11. Spiral-wound grids
  • 9.12. Novel grids designs
  • 9.13. Composite grids
  • 9.14. Thin grids
  • 9.15. Straps and posts
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

10. Alternative current-collectors

  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Function, design and characteristic parameters of lead–acid battery current-collectors
  • 10.3. Metallized injection moulded plastic grids
  • 10.4. Copper and aluminium grids
  • 10.5. Titanium current-collectors
  • 10.6. Alternative current-collectors based on fibrous materials
  • 10.7. Foam grids
  • 10.8. Carbon honeycomb grids
  • 10.9. Conclusion
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

11. Cell design for high-rate operation

  • 11.1. The reason why we need high-rate operation and why it is so critical and challenging
  • 11.2. Fundamental theoretical considerations about high-rate operation
  • 11.3. Key parameters for high-rate plate design
  • 11.4. Alternative plate and cell designs for high-rate operation
  • 11.5. Additional plate and cell design parameters and their impact
  • 11.6. Outlook for the lead–acid design for further advanced high-rate applications
  • List of abbreviations

12. Towards sustainable road transport with the UltraBattery™

  • 12.1. Most promising and affordable designs of hybrid electric vehicle
  • 12.2. Failure mechanism of lead–acid batteries under high-rate partial state-of-charge duty
  • 12.3. Improving the cycleability of lead–acid batteries under high-rate partial state-of-charge duty
  • 12.4. The UltraBattery™
  • 12.5. The UltraBattery™ tomorrow: challenges and prospects
  • 12.6. Concluding remarks
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

Part 3. Application Technology

13. Lead–acid battery operation in micro-hybrid and electrified vehicles

  • 13.1. Introduction
  • 13.2. Storage system requirements and operating strategies
  • 13.3. Charging strategies
  • 13.4. Lead–acid batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles

14. Monitoring techniques for 12-V lead–acid batteries in automobiles

  • 14.1. Historic overview towards battery sensors
  • 14.2. Requirements of battery sensors
  • 14.3. Lead–acid battery monitoring functions
  • 14.4. Algorithms for battery state detection of lead–acid batteries
  • 14.5. Validation of battery state detection output signals
  • 14.6. Field experience
  • 14.7. Outlook on future development

15. Dual battery systems for 12-V automotive power supply

  • 15.1. Outline
  • 15.2. Drivers for dual storage
  • 15.3. Requirements for a dual storage power-supply system
  • 15.4. Potential topologies
  • 15.5. Integration of the auxiliary battery into the vehicle and its electrical system
  • 15.6. Market trends

16. Basics of lead–acid battery modelling and simulation

  • 16.1. Introduction
  • 16.2. Levels of battery modelling
  • 16.3. Specific challenges for modelling lead–acid batteries
  • 16.4. Models for electrical performance
  • 16.5. Models for battery ageing
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

17. Batteries for heavy trucks

  • 17.1. Introduction
  • 17.2. Dimensions
  • 17.3. Key requirements
  • 17.4. Electrical network voltage for heavy trucks
  • 17.5. Truck battery design considerations
  • 17.6. Advanced truck battery technologies
  • 17.7. Advanced system integration of truck batteries
  • 17.8. Summary
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

18. Lead–acid batteries for E-bicycles and E-scooters

  • 18.1. Introduction
  • 18.2. Description of electric two wheelers
  • 18.3. Market
  • 18.4. Characteristics of electric two wheelers
  • 18.5. Battery
  • 18.6. Summary
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

Part 4. Product Life Cycle

19. Standards and tests for lead–acid batteries in automotive applications

  • 19.1. Standardization organizations and different levels of standardization
  • 19.2. Obligations of standards and different kind of standards
  • 19.3. Standardization in different regions and list of applicable standards for lead–acid batteries in automotive applications
  • 19.4. Procedure to publish a new standard
  • 19.5. Battery sizes in comparison and trends
  • 19.6. Comparison of typical lead–acid battery requirements and test procedures
  • 19.7. External standards in comparison to original equipment specifications

20. Recycling concepts for lead–acid batteries

  • 20.1. Introduction
  • 20.2. The process
  • 20.3. Removal of sulfur
  • 20.4. Battery breaking
  • 20.5. Lead smelting
  • 20.6. Lead refining
  • 20.7. Electrochemical practice
  • 20.8. Recent developments
  • 20.9. Conclusion
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms

Part 5. Outlook

21. Lead–acid batteries for future automobiles: Status and prospects

  • 21.1. Tomorrow's automobile batteries: drivers for change
  • 21.2. Electrified vehicles and the demands placed on their batteries
  • 21.3. Restrictions on the use of lead
  • 21.4. Can lead–acid battery technology keep pace with increasing electrification of vehicles?
  • 21.5. Closing remarks
  • Abbreviations, acronyms and initialisms


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2017
7th March 2017
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Jurgen Garche

Jurgen Garche

Prof. Dr. Jürgen Garche has more than 40 years of experience in battery and fuel cell research & development. In his academic career the focus was on material research. Thereafter, he worked on and directed cell and system development of conventional (LAB, NiCd, NiMH) and advanced (Li-Ion, NaNiCl2, Redox-Flow) batteries. His experience includes also fuel cells (mainly low temperature FCs) and supercaps. He established the battery & FC division of the ZSW in Ulm (Germany), an industry related R&D institute with about 100 scientists and technicians. His interest in battery safety goes back to the work with the very large battery safety testing center of the ZSW. In 2004 he founded the FC&Battery consulting office FCBAT; furthermore he is a senior professor at Ulm University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Fuel Cell and Battery Consulting, Ulm, Germany

Eckhard Karden

Eckhard Karden

Eckhard received his diploma in Physics 1995 and his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering 2001 from RWTH Aachen University of Technology with projects on CAE modeling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of lead-acid batteries. Having spent two and a half year as senior engineer at ISEA Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives of the same university, he joined Ford Motor Company in the newly established Research and Innovation Centre (RIC) Aachen. He has been focusing on batteries for low-voltage power supply, micro, and mild hybrid applications. As a Technical Specialist, he is working closely with Ford’s global engineering centres and has been involved in the conceptual work, specifications, and component verification plans for the enhanced flooded batteries, battery sensors, and charging strategies that went into Ford’s first generations of micro-hybrid vehicles. He is an active member of German, European, and international standardization working groups for stop/start and micro-hybrid batteries.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ford Motor Company, Research and Innovation Centre (RIC), Aachen, Germany

Patrick T. Moseley

Patrick T. Moseley

Pat was awarded a Ph. D. for crystal structure analysis in 1968 by the University of Durham, U.K., and a D. Sc. for research publications in materials science, by the same university, in 1994. He worked for 23 years at the Harwell Laboratory of the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority where he brought a background of crystal structure and materials chemistry to the study of lead-acid and other varieties of battery, thus supplementing the traditional electrochemical emphasis of the subject.

From1995 he was Manager of Electrochemistry at the International Lead Zinc Research Organization in North Carolina and Program Manager of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium. In 2005 he also became President of the Consortium.

Dr. Moseley was one of the editors of the Journal of Power Sources for 25 years from 1989 to 2014. In 2008 he was awarded the Gaston Planté medal by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc., Durham, North Carolina, USA

David A. J. Rand

David A. J. Rand

Dr David Rand AM PhD ScD FTSE was educated at the University of Cambridge where he conducted research on fuel cells. In 1969, he joined the Australian Government’s CSIRO laboratories in Melbourne. After further exploration of fuel cell mechanisms and then electrochemical studies of mineral beneficiation, David formed the CSIRO Novel Battery Technologies Group in the late 1970s and remained its leader until 2003. He was one of the six scientists who established the Advanced Lead–Acid Battery Consortium in 1992 and served as its Manager in 1994. As a Chief Research Scientist, David fulfilled the role of CSIRO’s scientific advisor on hydrogen and renewable energy until his retirement in 2008. He remains active within the organisation as an Honorary Research Fellow, and has served as the Chief Energy Scientist of the World Solar Challenge since its inception in 1987. David was awarded the Faraday Medal by the Royal Society of Chemistry (UK) in 1991 and the UNESCO Gaston Planté Medal by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 1996. He was elected a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering in 1998, and became a Member of the Order of Australia in 2013 for service to science and technological development in the field of energy storage.

Affiliations and Expertise

CSIRO Energy Flagship, Clayton, Australia

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