Laterite Soil Engineering

Laterite Soil Engineering

Pedogenesis and Engineering Principles

1st Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Editor: M Gidigasu
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601230

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Laterite Soil Engineering is one of a few books about solving engineering problems with the help of engineering pedology. This book presents the latest information on the laterite soils’ geotechnical characteristics and engineering behavior. It shows that laterite soils are different from natural soils and that most laterite soils can be evaluated for engineering purposes using accepted theories and well-known test procedures for temperate-zone soils. This book also shows that modern concepts based on pedological considerations are very useful and take a logical approach to the identification and evaluation of laterite soils for engineering purposes. The first four chapters focus on reviewing information about the processes of tropical weathering and laterization. Chapter five summarizes information about the location, morphology and composition of laterite soils. Chapter six highlights the geotechnical implications of the pedogenic processes of tropical weathering, and it emphasizes the contribution of the results of these pedogenic processes to the deviations of engineering behavior of the problem of laterite soils. In addition, chapter seven discusses the influence of laterite soil genesis on the physic-chemical characteristics based on comparing the properties of three genetic soil groups formed under three different weathering conditions. Chapters eight through nineteen discuss the geotechnical characteristics and evaluation of laterite soils, and the effects of pedogenesis and soil-forming factors on the geotechnical and stabilization characteristics of laterite soils. The last chapter discusses the little information that exists on the application of laterite soils in engineering problems.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword



    Chapter 1. Introduction

    1.1 Review of definitions of "laterites"

    1.1.1 Definition based on hardening property

    1.1.2 Chemical definition s

    1.1.3 Morphological definitions

    1.2 Some limitations of the conventional geotechnical approach to the study of laterite soils

    1.3 The significance of pedogenesis in laterite-soil engineering


    Chapter 2. The characteristics of soil-forming minerals and rocks

    2.1 Basic characteristics of rock-forming minerals

    2.2 Crystal structure and stability

    2.2.1 Olivine group

    2.2.2 Pyroxene group

    2.2.3 Amphibole group

    2.2.4 Mica group

    2.2.5 Feldspar group

    2.2.6 Quartz

    2.2.7 Calcite and dolomite

    2.2.8 The iron oxides

    2.2.9 Clay minerals

    2.3 The characteristics of soil-forming rocks

    2.3.1 Igneous rocks

    2.3.2 Sedimentary rocks

    2.3.3 Metamorphic rocks

    2.4 Hardness in the stability of rocks to weathering

    2.5 Primary mineral composition in the stability of rocks to weathering


    Chapter 3. Pedogenic processes of tropical weathering and laterization

    3.1 Physical and chemical weathering of rocks and primary minerals

    3.2 Physical weathering of rocks

    3.3 Chemical weathering of primary minerals

    3.3.1 Environments of chemical weathering

    3.3.2 Mechanism of chemical breakdown of silicate minerals

    3.3.3 Stability of common silicate minerals to weathering

    3.3.4 Solubilities and mobilities of common cations

    3.3.5 Environments and hydrogen ion concentration

    3.4 Leaching as laterite soil-forming process

    3.4.1 Rainfall and leaching

    3.4.2 Significance of the degree of leaching

    3.5 Accumulation of sesquioxides in laterite soils

    3.5.1 Relative accumulation of sesquioxides

    3.5.2 Absolute accumulation of sesquioxides

    3.5.3 Solubility and mobility of sesquioxides

    3.5.4 Vertical movements of dissolved sesquioxides

    3.5.5 Lateral migration of dissolved sesquioxides

    3.5.6 Immobilization of sesquioxides in profiles

    3.6 Dehydration of hydrated sesquioxides

    3.7 Hydration of dehydrated sesquioxides


    Chapter 4. Environments of genesis and evolution of laterite soils

    4.1 Parent materials and rocks

    4.2 Climatic conditions

    4.2.1 Temperate conditions

    4.2.2 Rainfall conditions

    4.3 Vegetational conditions

    4.4 Weathering condition and clay content of residual soils

    4.5 Topography and drainage conditions

    4.6 Environments of secondary minerals in laterite soils

    4.6.1 Clay minerals in laterite soils

    4.6.2 The residual oxides and hydroxides

    4.7 Laterite-soil formation in geological time


    Chapter 5. Location, morphology and composition of laterite soils

    5.1 Significance of geological and pedological data

    5.2 Use of aerial photographs

    5.3 Use of geophysical exploration techniques

    5.3.1 Electrical methods

    5.3.2 Seismic methods

    5.4 Use of sounding methods

    5.5 Significance of topography and colour variations in laterite soils

    5.6 Significance of topography and variations in laterite-soil profiles

    5.7 Significant characteristics of laterite-soil profiles

    5.7.1 Soil layer overlying laterite horizon

    5.7.2 Laterite horizon

    5.7.3 Soil layers below the laterite horizon

    5.8 Field identification of laterite soils

    5.9 Morphological characteristics of laterite soils

    5.9.1 Genetic-textural characteristics

    5.9.2 Colour

    5.9.3 Macro-structure

    5.9.4 Origin and state at excavation

    5.9.5 Relationship to parent materials

    5.10 Chemical characteristics of laterite soils

    5.11 Secondary minerals in laterite soils

    5.11.1 The kaolin group

    5.11.2 The illite group

    5.11.3 The montmorillonite group

    5.11.4 The chlorite group

    5.11.5 The vermiculite group

    5.11.6 Attapulgite group

    5.12 Identification of secondary minerals

    5.12.1 Dehydration curves

    5.12.2 Differential thermal analysis

    5.12.3 X-ray diffraction studies

    5.12.4 Dye-adsorption studies


    Chapter 6. Significant geotechnical implications of the genesis of laterite soils

    6.1 Chemical implications

    6.2 Mineralogical implications

    6.3 Morphological implications

    6.4 The significance of morphological characteristics of laterite-soil profiles

    6.5 Geotechnical significance of leaching

    6.6 Significance of the concentration of sesquioxides in laterite soils

    6.6.1 Sesquioxide coatings of clayey constituents

    6.6.2 Sesquioxides in the formation of the concretionary structure

    6.6.3 Sesquioxides in the induration of laterite soils

    6.7 Significance of dehydration of dehydrated sesquioxides and secondary minerals


    Chapter 7. Physico-chemical characteristics of laterite soils

    7.1 Physico-chemical analysis of soils

    7.2 Physico-chemical characteristics of laterite soils

    7.2.1 pH value

    7.2.2 Organic-matter content

    7.2.3 Calcium-carbonate content

    7.2.4 The cation exchange capacity

    7.2.5 The hygroscopic moisture content

    7.2.6 Absorption and loss on ignition


    Chapter 8. Particle-size distribution of laterite soils

    8.1 Particle-size analysis of natural soils

    8.1.1 Disaggregation and removal of cementitious material in soils

    8.1.2 Standard procedures for particle-size analysis of soils

    8.2 Particle-size analysis of laterite soils

    8.3 Particle-size characteristics of fine-grained laterite soils

    8.4 Particle-size characteristics of laterite gravels and gravelly soils

    8.5 Conclusions


    Chapter 9. Specific gravity of solids in laterite soils

    9.1 Determination of the specific gravity of natural soils

    9.2 Limitations of standard laboratory determinations

    9.3 Specific gravity and the density of laterite rocks and pisoliths

    9.4 Specific gravity in the identification of laterite soils


    Chapter 10. Plasticity characteristics of laterite soils

    10.1 Plasticity characteristics of natural soils

    10.2 Reproducibility of results by standard test procedures for laterite soils

    10.3 Clay content and plasticity characteristics of laterite soils

    10.4 "Colloidal activity" of laterite soils

    10.4.1 "Colloidal activity*'in the identification of laterite soils

    10.5 Linear shrinkage of laterite soils


    Chapter 11. Structure of natural and laterite soils

    11.1 Structure of temperate-zone sediments

    11.1.1 Single-grain structure

    11.1.2 Structure of mixed soils

    11.1.3 Structure of clay soils

    11.2 Structure of residual soils

    11.3 Structure of laterite soils


    Chapter 12. Standard soil classification systems in laterite-soil engineering

    12.1 Particle-size scales

    12.2 Textural soil-classification systems

    12.3 Textural and plasticity soil-classification systems

    12.4 Unified Soil Classification system in the evaluation of natural soils

    12.5 Textural classification of normal laterite soils

    12.6 Plasticity classification of normal laterite soils

    12.6.1 Position of fines in laterite soils on the Casagrande chart

    12.7 Clay-size content in the identification and classification of normal laterite soils

    12.8 Conclusion


    Chapter 13. Identification and evaluation of "problem" laterite soils

    13.1 Significant genetic characteristics of "problem" laterite soils

    13.2 Limitations of standard soil-classification tests

    13.3 Pedology in the identification and classification of natural soils

    13.4 Identification of laterite soils based upon pedological data

    13.4.1 Identification of laterite soils based upon morphological characteristics

    13.5 Geotechnical behaviour of problem laterite soils

    13.5.1 Sensitivity of drying

    13.5.2 Degree of desiccation and potential self-stabilization

    13.5.3 Concretionary structure and sensitivity to remoulding

    13.6 Geotechnical identification of problem laterite soils


    Chapter 14. Identification of decomposed rocks for engineering purposes

    14.1 Degree of decomposition of rocks

    14.2 Identification and evaluation of decomposed rocks

    14.2.1 Identification based upon morphological characteristics

    14.2.2 Identification based upon secondary minerals content

    14.2.3 Identification based upon particle-size characteristics

    14.2.4 Identification based upon "saturation moisture" content

    14.3 Limitations of standard aggregate tests

    14.4 Proposed criteria for evaluating decomposed rock aggregates

    14.5 Conclusion


    Chapter 15. Strength and bearing characteristics of unconsolidated laterite soils

    15.1 Evaluation of the shear strength of natural soils

    15.2 The shear-strength characteristics of natural soils

    15.3 Shear-strength characteristics of laterite soils

    15.4 Bearing and penetration characteristics of laterite soils

    15.4.1 The California bearing ratio

    15.4.2 California bearing ratio of laterite soils

    15.4.3 Penetration characteristics of natural and laterite soils

    15.4.4 The plate-bearing characteristics of natural and laterite soils


    Chapter 16. Strength, durability and weathering characteristics of concretionary laterite rocks and pisoliths

    16.1 Compressive-strength characteristics

    16.2 Chemical composition and mechanical strength

    16.3 Physical properties and mechanical strength

    16.4 Weathering characteristics


    Chapter 17. Compressibility and permeability characteristics of natural and laterite soils

    17.1 Consolidation and compressibility of natural soils

    17.2 Consolidation characteristics of laterite soils

    17.3 Permeability of natural soils

    17.4 Permeability characteristics of laterite soils


    Chapter 18. Compaction characteristics of laterite soils

    18.1 Compaction characteristics of natural soils

    18.2 Compaction characteristics of laterite soils

    18.2.1 The significance of genesis and compositional factors

    18.2.2 Significance of pretest sample preparations and test procedures

    18.3 Effect of compaction on geotechnical characteristics of laterite soils


    Chapter 19. Stabilization of laterite soils

    19.1 Stabilization of natural soils

    19.1.1 Mechanical stabilization .

    19.1.2 Chemical stabilization

    19.2 Stabilization of laterite soils

    19.3 Engineering pedology in laterite-soil stabilization

    19.4 Significance of soil type and compositional factors in laterite-soil stabilization

    19.5 Significance of sample preparation and testing procedures in laterite-soil stabilization

    19.6 Effect of stabilization on geotechnical characteristics of laterite soils

    19.7 Weathering properties of stabilized laterite soils


    Chapter 20. Field performance of laterite soils

    20.1 Highways and airfield pavements

    20.2 Embankments and earthdams

    20.3 Stability of slopes

    20.4 Foundations of structures



    Explanation of symbols

    Conversion of units to International System of Units (S.I.)

    Subject index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 554
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444601230

About the Editor

M Gidigasu

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